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;-■• ' 



THE NILE IN 1904 



BT 



Sir WILLIAM WILLGOGKS. K.G.M.6., F.R.G.S. 



LONDON 

E. & F. N. SPON Limited, 57 Hatmabket. 



NEW YORK 

SPON at CHAMBERLAIN, 123 Liberty Street. 



PHoB 9s/' nsim 



Printed at the National Printing Department of Egypt, Cairo 

1904. 



^ ^^ 




A^ <J-<M.'',, 



'/-i''.^'.'fXu-t\^ Y^'vtv-L^ 



; 



Dedicated to my old Chief and Master in Irrigation, 
Sir Colin Scott- Moncrieff, K.C.S.I., K.C.M.G.^ under whom I had 
the privilege of working for 20 years in India and Egypt. 



PREFACE 



The publication o£ Sir William Garstin's monumental work on the 
"Basin of the Upper Nile" is an event of such importance in the 
history of the Nile that the occasion should not be lost of bringing 
Lombardini's work on the Nile to date. The information utilised by 
me in this book as fa.r as the Upper Nile is concerned is obtained from 
Sir William's Report ; for the Blue Nile and Atbara I am indebted to 
M. Dupuis' interesting appendix at the end of Sir William's Report ; 
and for the river north of Khartum to my own studies and surveys. 
As Sir William employed Capt. H.G. Lyons, R. E. to collaborate with 
him, the references to the works of previous writers and geographical 
details may be accepted without any misgivings. To M. Ch^lu Bey, 
Director of the Government Press, I am indebted for his ever ready aid ; 
to Mr. Hansard of the Survey Department for the plates accompanying 
this work ; and to Mr H.G.F. Beadnell, F.G.S, F.R.G.S, for having 
kindly written the description of the Egyptian oases and the geology 
of Egypt which form the fifth chapter of this book. 

W. WiLLCOCKS. 
Cairo, 12-10, 1904. 



TUBS 3STTT .TT. IIT ±904*. 



SUBJECT MATTER. 



Chaptbr I. The Nile— (Page 11). 

1. Introduction. 

2. Nomenclature. 

3. Description of the course of the Nile. 

4. Slopes and velocities of the Nile in its different reaches. 

5. Catchment basins of the Nile and its tributaries. 

6. The climate of the Nile valley, 
-7. The geology of the Nile valley. 

8. The discharges of the Nile and its tributaries 



Chapthb II. The tributaries of the Nile^Pvige 26). 

9. Lake Victoria Nyanza. 

10. The Victoria Nile. 

11. The Semliki river. 

12. Lake Albert Nyanza. 

13. The Albert Nile. 

14. The Gazelle river. 

15. The Zeraf river. 

16. The Sobat river. 

17. The Sudd region. 

18. The White Nile. 

19. The Blue Nile. 

20. TheAtbara. 

21. The Nile from Khartoum to Assu&n. 

22. The Nile from Assuan to the Barrage. 

23. The Rosetta and Damietta Branches. 



— 8 — 

' Chapter III. The tdiluation of the iVtZ^Page 56). 

24. The NUe in flood. 

25. The Nile in low supply. 

26. Nile water. 

27. The soil of the Nile Valley. 

28. Basin irrigation. 

29. Perennial irrigation. 

30. Flood protection. 



Chaptbr IV. Prqjecte—iP^ge 73). 

31. Projects. 

32. The raising of the Assn&n dam. 

33. The Wady Rayan reservoir and escape. 

34. The Albert Lake and Nile project. 

35. Flood protection for Egypt. 

36. Complete project for water storage and flood control. 

37. Sir William Garstin's projects. 

38. The conversion of basin to perennial irrigation. 

39. Development of the Sudan. 



Chapter V. The oases and the geology of Egypt by H.J.L. Beadnell, 




F.G.S^ F. R. (?.5.— (Page 107). 


40. 


The oases. 


41. 


Dakhla oasis. 


42. 


Kharga oasis. 


43. 


Baharia oasis. 


44. 


Farafra oasis. 


45. 


The geology of Egypt. 


46. 


Igneous rocks. 


47. 


Sedimentary rocks. 


48. 


Upper cretaceous. 


49. 


Eocene. 


50. 


Oligocene and Miocene. 


51. 


- Pliocene, Pleistocene and Recent. 


52. 


Economic products. 



Table of Appendloes (Page 117). 
Index (Page SSI). 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Paob. 

vl. Plan of the Nile Valley 12 

•^ II. Longitudinal Section of the Nile Valley 14 

vIII. Outlet of Lake Victoria 26 

^ IV. Cross sections of the Nile and its tributaries (1) 28 

V. Gauge diagrams of Lakes Victoria and Albert 30 

^VL The Sudd region 34 

^'VIL Outlet of Tsana Lake 44 

''VIII. Grange diagrams of the White and Blue Niles at Khartoum . . 46 

^IX. Cross sections of the Nile and its tributaries (2) 42 

"^ X. liongitudiual section of the Nile : Wady Haifa to Assuan ... 48 

•^XI. Cross sections of the Nile and its tributaries (3) 52 

""XII. Longitudinal section of the Nile: Assuan to Cairo 50 

^ XIII. Typical cross sections of the Nile Valley 50 

•^XIV. Plan of typical basin irrigation in Egypt 66 

^XV. Plan of the Fayoum and the Wady Rayan 76 

*^XVI. Longitudinal section of the Fayoum and the Wady Rayan . . 80 

^XVII. „ „ „ Rosetta Branch 54 

•^XVIII. „ „ „ Damietta Branch 54 

^XIX. Plan of typical perennial irrigation in Egypt 68 

^ XX. Possible tunnel at Lake Tsana 103 

^XXL The Egyptian oases 108 



THE NILE IN 1904. 



CHAPTER L 
The Nile. 

1. Introduction. — In the introduction to his brilliant essay on the 
Hydrology of the Nile (^), an essay, which, though written in 1865, 
foreshadowed much of what we know to day, Lombardini remarked, with 
much truth that, no river in the world lends itself to hydrological studies 
on so majestic a scale as the Nile. The most interesting river of the 
ancient world, it is still the most interesting river of our time ; and, in 
spite of all that ancient and modern discoveries have imfolded, its 
discharges are to-day more diflGicult to unravel and weave together than 
those of any other stream in either hemisphere. These discharges are 
still a mystery, and it will need years and years of patient observation 
and study, at the hands of the Sudan Irrigation Department, to enablS^ 
us to state with exactitude why its floods rise and fall with such regular 
and stately precision, why they are never sudden and abrupt, and why 
its summer supplies can never be completely cut off even in their 
traverse of over 3000 kilometres through the burning and parched 
Sahara. Though the mystery of the Nile is far from being solved to-day 
still an enormous step in advance has been made by the publication of 
Sir WiUiam Grarstin's Report on the Basin of the Upper Nile (*). This 
Report not only contains the results of three years' observations of the 
Egyptian Survey Department in the Sudan, of Sir William Garstin's 
own observations and studies, but also a mass of information of the 
Nile and its tributaries collected by Capt. H. G. Lyons. R. E., through 
four years of uninterrupted study. Those who know the intelligence 
and method with which Capt. Lyons works, will rate this information 
at its proper value. 

Lombardini gathered together all the information available at the 
time that Sir Samuel Baker announced the existence of the Albert 
Nyanza shortly after Speke and Grant had proclaimed to the world 
that the Victoria Nyanza was the true source of the Nile. From the 

(>) Saggio idrolico iui NUo, by Elia Lombardini^ Milan 1865. 

Q) Report on the Baein of the Upper NiU by Sib William Gabstin. Blue Book Egypt (2) 1904. 




informatioii then available he deduced the laws and operations o£ the 
great river. About twenty years later, just before the rebellion in the 
Sudan closed the Nile to the civilized world, a German savant, Joseph 
Chavanne (^), in his book on the rivers of Africa, collected and tabul- 
ated on clear and methodical lines much of the information available 
in 1883. Though many of his facts are erroneous, his method is clear and 
his ideas just. Sir William Garstin, in his Report, has developed the 
information at his disposal on such practical lines as are needed to 
study the question of insuring an abundant supply of water to the Nile 
in Egypt during the times of low supply. 

Having myself studied the Nile for fifteen years in order to solve the 
problems of water storage and flood control on the Nile, and having 
devoted the whole of my life to this very science of Hydraulics, I have 
been encouraged to attempt the continuation of Lombardini's work; 
and, to the utmost of my ability, to bring it to the level of the know- 
ledge of our day. 

2. Nomenclature. — The nomenclature of the tributaries of the Nile 
is difficult to follow. In this book 1 shall call the river the Victoria Nile 
from Lake Victoria to Lake Albert; the Albert Nile from Lake Albert to 
the Sobat mouth (this reach is known generally as the Bahr el Gebel); 
the White Nile from the Sobat mouth to Khartoum; and the Nile from 
Khartoum to the sea. Jhe Blue Nile stretches from Lake Tsana in 
Abyssinia to Khartoum. 

3. Description of the course of the Nile. — Chapters II and III 
contain detailed descriptions of the Nilean d its main tributaries, and this 
paragraph is a short epitome of what is written there about the course of 
the Nile. The Nile drains nearly the whole of north-eastern Africa, an 
area comprising 3 million square kilometres. Its main tributary, the White 
Nile, has its furthest sources in south latitude 4**, near Lake Tanganyika. 
Known as the Kagera, it is one of the feeders of Lake Victoria, and has 
a course of 600 kilometres before it reaches the lake. Lake Victoria, 
covering 60,000 square kilometres, is the first reservoir of the Nile. The 
Victoria Nile leaves Lake Victoria by the Ripon Falls and after a course 
of 400 kilometres enters Lake Albert at its northern corner. At its 
southern end Lake Albert is fed by the Semliki river which has its sources 
in Lake Edward. Its own area is 4,500 square kilometres. The Albert Nile 
leaves Lake Albert at its northern end and has a course of 1280 kilometres 

(») " Afriliu's Strome and FlUtne " by Joseph Chavanne. Wien 1883. 



PLATE U 




i 









'N 



■s> 



.\, 



X 



\ 



i. 

■0 






I 







> 

> 
a 
4 



** 



— 13 — 

to the mouth of the Sobat river. Of this length, the first 200 kilometres 
up to Dufile have scarcely any slope, the next 150 kilometres are down 
a series of severe cataracts. From the foot of these cataracts to its tail 
the Albert Nile has a gentle slope and traverses the Sudd region where 
the bed of the stream is often barred by blocks of living vegetation. 
In this latter region the stream divides into two, of which the right 
hand one is known as the Bahr Zeraf , After a course of 270 kilometres 
the Bahr Zeraf joins the Albert Nile again. In the interval the Albert 
Nile receives as a left-hand feeder the Bahr Gazelle. The Sobat river 
has its sources in Gallaland and joins the Albert Nile at the termi- 
nation of the Sudd region. From the junction of the Albert Nile and 
the Sobat, the river is known as the White Nile, which, after a course 
of 840 kilometres, with an exceedingly gentle slope, joins the Blue Nile 
at Khartoum. 

The Blue Nile is the true parent of the land of Egypt. The 
deposits of its muddy waters have made Egj'^pt. The Atbara has added I 
its quota, but the Blue Nile is incomparably the chief contributor ; fed i 
by the timely and plentiful rains of southern and south-eastern Abyssinia, | 
it contributes 65 per cent of the waters which pass Assuftn. The --J 
furthest sources are those of the Abai, which, after a course of 110 kilo- 
metres falls into Lake Tsana. This lake has an area of 3,000 square 
kilometres and lies about 1,760 metres above sea level. The Blue Nile 
leaves it at its south-eastern corner and hurries down to the Sudan, fed 
by numerous Abyssinian rivers. At Rosaires, after a course of 750 kilo- 
metres, it has fallen 1,260 metres; and below the Rosaires cataract enters 
the plain country south of Khartoum. For its remaining 615 kilometres 
on to Khartoum, where it meets the White Nile, it is navigable for the 
greater part of the year. North of Sennaar it is fed by the Binder and 
Rahad rivers. 

Between Khartoum and El Darner, on a length of 320 kilometres, 
the Nile has its even passage broken by the 6th cataract at Shabluka. 
At El Damer the Nile receives the Atbara as a right hand tributary. 

The Atbara is a very muddy torrent fed by the rains of north-eastern 
Abyssinia. It runs for 4 months per annum and is dry for 8 months. 
Rising within a few kilometres of Lake Tsana, it falls 1500 metres 
in its first 300 kilometres, and is then joined by the Salaama, and, 
100 kilometres lower down, by the Settit river. After the junction 
with the Settit, the Atbara flows for 480 kilometres and joins the Nile 
at El Damer, contributing a fair quantity of water and a very con- 
siderable quantity of Nile mud to the river. 



— 14 — 

From the Atbara junction to the sea, the Nile has a course of 
2,700 kilometres. In its first length of 1480 kilometres to Assuftn it 
traverses the 5th and 4th cataracts between Berber and Dongola, the 
3rd and 2nd cataracts between Dongola and Wady Haifa, and the 
1st cataract at Assufln. All these cataracts are navigable in flood, but 
not so in summer. From Assuftn to the Barrage at the head of the 

Delta north of Cairo, the Nile has a length of 970 kilometres and 

^/averses Egypt without a cataract or interruption of any kind. At 

, the Barrage, the Nile divides into the Rosetta and Damietta branches, 

jmd after a further course of about 240 kilometres in either branch, 

flows into the Mediterranean sea. Its greatest length from the sources 

of the Kagera river to the sea is 6350 kilometres, constituting it one 

of the longest rivers in the world. 

4. The Slopes and velocities of the Nile in its different 
reaches. — Table 2 of Appendix B and Plate II comprise all the 
information available under this head which I have been able to collect. 
For the slopes I have adopted the following data : 

/ R. L. of Lake Victoria 1129 metres above mean sea 

„ Fowera 1060 „ „ 

Lake Albert 680 

„ ELhartoum (flood) 389 „ „ 

From Khartoum to Wady Haifa I have adopted the generally accepted 
levels of the original Soudan railway survey. From Wady Haifa to 
the sea 1 have levelled myself. Upstream and downstream from the 
adopted levels I have carried the levels by the aid of slopes calculated 
from velocity and hydraulic mean depth data. It seems to me absurd to 
adopt a level for Lake Choga 50 metres above that for Fowera, and 
then to add, that in the 140 kilometres between the two places the 
Victoria Nile has a gentle slope, wide bed and gentle velocity. By a 
strange fatality, this very error has crept into the figures under Lake 
Choga on Plate 11. The error is noted in the corrigenda attached to the 
Plate. The Section is drawn correctly but these wrong figures have 
been interpolated by an oversight. 

The Victoria Nile Falls 450 metres in 400 kilometres, but has four 
reaches ; the first Tjoo? *^^ second 20000 ? ^^® third yyj- past the 
Murchison Falls, and the fourth YooT^- 

The Albert Nile falls 277 metres in 1290 kilometres. The first 
reach past Wadeki has a slope of 2Tooo'5 ^^^ second over the Fola fl,nd 
following cataracts has a slope of 7^, the third 720^0 » the fourth io^oo> 
the fifth ggooo ? ^d the last b^low kke No of y^ooo "^ flood. 



ERRATUM. 

Emse tht* two fijrurc'8 uiuier Lake 
Choj?a in the **Heiprht*' column. 

PLATE II. 




sgpo 



••!**. . 



jvy. *<". 



— 15 — 

The White Nile falls 14 metres in 840 kilometres and has two slopes 
in flood ; ^oooo ^^ ^^ upper reach, and then To^qSo* 

The Blue Nile falls 1370 metres in 1370 kilometres, which may 
roughly be divided into three reaches. The first from Liake Tsana to 
Rosaires on a length of 750 kilometres j^, the second Rosaires to 
Sennaar 45V0 j ^^^ '^^^ third 7oro7« These are very approximate indeed. 

The Atbara falls 1640 metres in 880 kilometres. In the first 300 
kilometres the slope is 55^; in the next 300 kilometres the slope is 5^5^ 
and in the last reach of 280 kilometres it is e-jToo • These are approximate. 

The Main Nile from Khartoum to Assuan falls 295 metres in 1810 
kilometres; the so-called six cataracts occupy 565 kilometres with a 
slope of 3^00 J *^^ *^^ ordinary channel occupies 1245 kilometres and 
has a slope of t?57o- From Assuftn to the Barrage, on a length of 970 
kilometres, the Nile falls 76 metres with a mean slope of laooo - The 
Rosettaand Damietta branches are each about 240 kilometres long and have 
a slope in flood of yjooo? ^nd of ^gaoo ^^ extraordinarily high floods. 

From the sources of the Eagera river to the sea, on a length of 6350 
kilometres, the Nile falls 2000 metres, or has a slope of y^oo* From 
Lake Victoria to the sea the length is 5535 kilometres and the fall 
1129 metres, or the slope is 5i?oo- 

Table III of Appendix C. gives the velocities of the river in flood 
and low supply, in metres per second and kilometres per day, and also 
the time occupied in traversing the different reaches. There are two 
breaks. The first is at Lake Choga and the second is at Lake Albert. 
As the Victoria Nile traverses the eastern arm of the many -armed and 
peculiar Lake Choga with a perceptible current, and as, moreover, the 
lake is very shallow, we may give some figure to the velocity and make 
it half that of the Bahr Gazelle which is *20 metres per second and is 
considered perceptible. With a velocity of 10 metres per second or 8 
kilometres per day, the 80 kilometres of the lake would be traversed 
in 10 days. The time of traverse from Lake Victoria to Lake Albert 
would be 15 days. With Lake Albert it is very different. A reference 
to Plate V will show that it takes the Victoria Nile 5 months to fill up 
Lake Albert before the Albert Nile can carry off the waters of the 
Victoria Nile, gauge for gauge. Under these conditions it will be wise 
to stop at Lake Albert and begin a new calculation from this lake. 

The Albert Nile takes 22 days in flood and 25 days in low supply to 
traverse the distance from Lake Albert to the Sobat mouth. The White 
Nile takes 21 days in flood and 28 days in low supply to reach Khartoum, 



— 16 — 

Consequently from Lake Albert to Khartoum we have 43 days m flood 
and 53 days in low supply. 

From Khartoum to Assuan the NUe takes 11 days in flood and 22 
days in low supply, and consequently from Lake Albert to Assu&n we 
have 54 days in flood and 75 days in low supply. 

From Assuftn to Cairo we have 6 days in flood and 12 days in low 
supply. 

Table III is very interesting and well worth study. Through the Sudd 
region we have a velocity of '6 metres per second, but only of '35 metres 
per second in the White Nile. In Egypt the Nile in flood has a velocity 
of 1*75 metres per second, and in low supply of '85 metres per second. 

5. Catchment basins of the Nile and its tributaries. — 
Table I, of Appendix A gives the areas of the catchment basins of the 
Nile. The total area according to the table is 3,007,000 square kilometres. 
The limits of the basin are depicted on Plate I, and, with rare exceptions, 
they are now fairly well known everywhere. North of the 20th 
parallel of latitude the watershed on the west of the Nile is not far 
removed from the edge of the plateau skirting the Nile valley. The 
plateau falls away to the west, and occasional ravines find their way to 
the Nile down the reverse slope. On the east of the Nile the crest of 
the hills skirting the Red sea is the watershed. South of the 20th 
parallel of latitude the eastern watershed follows the crest of the 
hills on the west of the Red sea as far as Suakin. South of Suakin 
the watershed leaves the Red sea, to allow the Khor Barraka to flow 
into this sea. From the south east of Eassala, round by Addis Ababa, the 
watershed follows the crest of the high hills forming the eastern back- 
bone of Abyssinia, and dividing the waters of the Nile from those flowing 
into the Indian Ocean. South west of Abyssinia the watershed travels 
in a south-westerly direction to the east of Gondokoro, and divides the 
Sobat from the rivers draining into Lake Rudolf. The watershed 
then moves due south to the western escarpment east of Lake Victoria. 
Moimts Kenia and Kilmanjaro are not within the basin of the Nile. 
Sweeping in a rough curve round Lake Victoria and nearly touching 
Lake Tangangyika in 4° south latitude, the watershed keeps close to the 
western shores of Lakes Edward and Albert to nearly opposite Wadelai. 
All the slopes of the Ruenzori mountains drain into the Nile. 

From near Wadelai the watershed moves in a north-westerly direction 
along the hills dividing the waters of the tributaries of the Grazelle 
river from the Welle. Due west of the Sudd region the watershed has 



— 17 — 

reached its most westerly position and from there turns northwards 
along the Marrah hills in Darf ur, dividing the scanty waters of the 
Bahr-el-Arab and its tributaries from the rivers draining into Lake 
Chad. From the Marrah hills the watershed travels in a north-easterly 
direction to a point close to the Nile on the 20th parallel of latitude near 
Hannek. 

Of the lands enclosed within this watershed, all that are drained 
directly into the Main Nile are desert. There are occasional showers, 
and some of the valleys and ravines carry water for a few hours every 
year, others every second, third or fourth year, but they contribute 
practically nothing to the volume of the Nile. The rains generally 
come in the winter when the Nile is falling every day, and the steady 
fall of the Nile is never arrested by the waters of any or aU of these 
watercourses. The country west of the White Nile past Kordofan and 
Darfur to the Marrah hills is steppe land producing scanty grasses and 
forests of low accacias in the south, and rising to a general height 
of about 600 metres at the Marrah hills. The lands drained by the 
GazeUe river and the Albert Nile north of Gondokoro are flat plains or 
swamps in the north and east, and wooded and broken ground in the 
west and south-west, where the tributaries of the Gtizelle river rise in 
the Blue mountains at a general height of 1500 metres. The upper 
waters of the Sobat and its tributaries drain the well wooded and culti- 
vated mountain masses of Gallaland and then traverse the marshes and 
flat lands which lie east of the Sudd region. The Blue Nile and its upper 
tributaries drain the choicest portions of the high Abyssinian mountain 
plateau lying over 2000 metres above sea level, and rising in places 
to 2500 metres and upwards. The lower courses of the Blue Nile, 
the Rahad and the Binder are through the black cotton soil plains of 
the eastern Sudan, which are either wooded or covered with dense grass 
in the south. The Atbara and its tributaries in their upper courses 
drain the northern slopes of the Abyssinian plateau, and traverse the 
level plains of the eastern Sudan in a direction parallel to the Blue 
Nile. 

The Albert Nile and its tributaries between Gondokoro and Lake 
Albert traverse the broken and hilly country which is cut through by 
the Albert Nile at the Fola and succeeding rapids. The catchment 
basins of Lakes Victoria and Albert are the undulating hills, the flat 
marshy valleys, the great lakes and, in parts, high hills which constitute 



— 18 — 

the highlands of Central Africa. The general level of the area may 
be taken as 1400 metres above sea level. 

The area draining into Lake Victoria is 240,000 square kilometres. 
At the outlet of Lake Albert this has increased to 380,000, and at 
Gondokoro to 470,000. The Gazelle river drains 470,000 square 
kilometres, and the Sobat 160,000. The White Nile drains altogether 
1,690,000 square kilometres, or more than half the total area of the 
catchment basin of the Nile. The Blue Nile drains 300,000 square 
kilometres and the Atbara 240,000. The Nile below the Atbara 
junction is draining 2,290,000 square kilometres. Between the Atbara 
mouth and the sea, the Nile drains whatever falls on a desert area of 
720,000 square kilometres. 

> If we take 3,000 cubic metres per second as the average annual flow 
past Assu&n we may say that the White Nile supplies 24 ""/^ off more 
than half the area of the whole basin, the Blue Nile 65 ^/^ off ^^ the 
area, and the Atbara 11 ^/^ off ^c^ the area. The GazeUe river drains 
about ^ the total area and adds pratically nothing to the discharge. 
Table 24 should be very carefully studied by any man who wants to 
understand the Nile. It does not pretend to exactitude, but embodies 
the best information I have been able to obtain. 

6. — ^The climate of the Nile valley. — This paragraph would 
have been much more complete if Capt. Lyons' monograph on the 
Meteorology of the Nile valley had been published. In considering the 
climate I shall follow the subdivisions of the catchment basin of the 
Nile contained in Table 1. 

In the catchment basins of Lakes Victoria and Albert, the mean 
annual rainfall may be taken as 1.25 metres, with great fluctuations 
between good and bad years. Neglecting here and through this para* 
graph, the light occasional falls of rain which are trying to travellers 
but which have no effect on the rivers, it may be said that in these 
basms there are two rainy seasons, the greater in March, April and 
May, and the lesser in October, November and December. The former 
are followed by dry southern winds, while north winds blow in the 
winter. 

Along the whole of the Albert Nile, the mean annual rainfall may 
be taken as 1 metre, with severe famines in occasional years and 
heavy rainfall in others* The principal rains are between May and 
November, with the maximum between August 15 and September 15* 
In years of deficient rainfall, the June, July and August rains seem 



-19 — 

to fail. The catchment basin of the Gazelle river may be credited with 
a mean annual rainfall of 75 centimetres between May and October, 
while the mean annual rainfall on the Arab river cannot be more 
than 30 centimetres between June and September. The Sobat river 
in its upper reaches enjoys an annual rainfall of about 1.25 metres 
and of ' 75 metres in its lower reaches. The time of rain is between 
March and September. The lands draining into the White Nile north 
of Tewfikieh have an annual rainfall of about 20 centimetres between 
June and September. 

The Abyssinian part of the catchment basin of the Blue Nile enjoys 
a good rainfall throughout nine months o£ the year from February 
to October, with generally heavy rain between May and September, 
and very occasionally in October. The rainfall here may be taken as 
1.25 metres per annum. In the plains of the eastern Sudan traversed 
by the lower reaches of the Blue Nile and the Atbara the rainfall is 
very much lighter and may be considered as 30 centimetres between 
July and September ; fairly constant and heavier in the south, and very 
inconstant and lighter in the north. The Atbara and its tributaries 
in their upper reaches on the northern slopes of Abyssinia, have rain 
from May to the end of August and occasionally into September. 
There are great fluctuations in the rainfall. The mean annual rainfall 
may be taken as 75 centimetres. 

The desert area between Khartoum and Cairo has occasional winter 
rains especially in the parts near the Red sea, but as these rains are 
nearly all soaked up by the desert, and very little, here and there, 
reaches the Nile, we may neglect them altogether. Railways have to 
be provided with culverts and bridges where they cross the terminal 
reaches of the khors and wadis which run considerable bodies of 
water for a few hours after rain; but the effect on the Nile is practi- 
cally nothing. Along the sea-board of the Mediterranean there are 
a few inches of rain every winter, sufficient as a rule to raise poor 
crops of barley. 

In the catchment basins of Lakes Victoria and Albert the direction 
of the winds may be taken as north-east in winter and south-east 
in summer. The maximum monthly temperature may be taken as 
35° and the minimum as 12°, with a mean for the year of 21°. 

Along the Albert Nile the north wind blows through the winter, 
and southerly winds prevail from about the 15th of April to October. 
The temperature may \ye taken as ranging from a monthly maximum 
of 38° to a monthly minimum of 16°^ with a mean of 27°. 



— 20 — 



Tables 75 to 81 give the principal meteorological data for many 
places in the Nile valley and compare the Bombay rainfall with the 
Assu&n gauges. The latter show how closely the Assuftn gauge in 
flood follows the rainfall at Bombav. 

At Addis Ababa in the highlands of Abyssinia, the mean monthly 
temperature ranges between 19° and 15°, with a mean of 17°. The 
winds are south-east and east through the year. In 1902 the rainfall 
was 980 millimetres, and in 1903 it was 1340 millimetres. (Table 75). 

At Wad Medani in the Gezireh south of Khartoum, the mean monthly 
temperature ranges between 35° and 24°, with a mean of 30°. The 
winds from October to April are from the north and from May to 
September from the south. In 1902 there were 350 millimetres of 
rain and in 1903 there were 310. (Table 76). 

At Khartoum the mean monthly temperature ranges between 34° and 
19°, with a mean of 28°. The winds from October to April are from the 
north and from May to September from the south. In 1902 there 
were 120 millimetres of rain and in 1903 there were 70. (Table 77). 

For Alexandria, Cairo and Assuftn, representing the Nile valley in 
Egypt, I have prepared the foUowng table : — 







ALEXANDRIA 


CAIRO 


ASSUAN 




THBBUOMETEB 




TRERMOMETBB 


, 


THKBUOMBTBR 


, 


Month 


Centiitrade. 


2 

1 

MIU. 


Centigrade. 


1 
1 

nab. 


Centigrade. 


e 




Max. 


Min. 


Mean 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean 


I 




KILL. 


January . . . . 


25-0 


5-4 


24-1 


54 


2C,'6 


-0-7 


12-4 


r> 


32-5 


4-0 


14-8 




February . 




29-7 


C'2 


14-8 


22 


35-3 


1-2 


14-2 


3 


37-0 


5-0 


22-0 




March . . . 




37-0 


5-5 


1«-1 


17 


41-2 


3-2 


If) -9 


5 


42-0 


8-0 


24-3 




April .. . 
May . . . 




38-9 


11-0 


IS'i) 


2 


42M) 


5-7 


20-9 


2 


4«'6 


11-0 


27-3 






;38-9 


13-3 


21-3 


13 


44-2 


9-0 


24-4 


2 


46-0 


17-0 


29-6 




June . . . 




39-4 


13-8 


24-0 


, , 


45-2 


13-7 


27-3 


« • 


47-0 


20-0 


34-2 




July .. . 




37-0 


2()-r> 


20- 1 


, , 


44-3 


17-4 


28-5 


. a 


46-() 


23-0 


33-6 




August 




35-0 


20-3 


2(5 •« 


, , 


41 -G 


16-5 


27-7 


• • 


4<)-0 


21-0 


35-1 




September . 




40-0 


18-7 


25 -f) 


, , 


4()'() 


14-() 


25-3 


• . 


47-0 


17-0 


31-0 




October 




37-8 


15-() 


23-7 


9 


42-1 


12-1 


23-2 


1 


42-0 


18'() 


28-7 




November . 




32-2 


10-8 


20-0 


38 


33'(; 


3-5 


18-1 





4()M) 


11-0 


23-1 




December . 




28-9 


(;-8 


IC.-O 


80 


29-4 


1-3 


14-4 


(*> 


34-0 


(J-O 


19-0 




Year.. .. 


40-0 


r>'-> 


2()m; 


235 


45-2 


-0-7 


21-1 


31 


47-() 


4-0 


2(;-9 






From the above ttible we may conclude that at Alexandria, Cairo 
and Assu&n the absolute maximum thermometers may be taken 



— 21 — 

as 40°, 45 and 47° Centigrade; or 104°, 113°, 116°, Farenheit. The 
minimum thermometers as 5*5°, — 0*7°, 4'0° Centigrade; or 42°, 31°, 
39° Farenheit. The rainfall at Alexandria, Cairo and Assuftn respectively 
may be taken as 235, 31, and millimetres; or 9, 1 J, and inches. 
The heavest rainfall in any individual year at Alexandria and Cairo 
respectively has been 308 and 55 millimetres; or 12 and 2 inches. The 
lightest rainfall at Alexandria and Cairo respectively in any individual 
year has been 108 and 7 millimetres; or 4 J and J inches. Assuftn is 
practically rainless. It does rain sometimes at Assu&n, but there has 
been no rain during the last three years while meterological observations 
have been taken. | 

7 . The Geology of the Nile Valley. — South of Gondokoro along , 1 
the Victoria and Albert Niles, and at the lakes, the rocks are generally ^ J 

granites, crystalline schists and quartzites. The hills of Uganda are 
covered with red clay and marl on the higher lands, while the valleys 
consist of a rich black loam. All the cataracts are granites and 
granitic rocks or diorites. The Ruenzori range consists of lofty 
volcanoes. The surface of the ground is covered with a fine Kankar 

(nodulated limestone) in many places. North of Gondokoro the plaiits 

are formed of sandy deposits mixed with coarse peat in places. The 
hills of the Bahr-el-Gazelle and Arab river are all crystalline. Abys- 
sinia is a volcanic plateau. It is the detritus of this rich volcanic soil 
swept down by the Blue Nile and Atbara which constitutes the richness 
of the soil of Egypt and pf the water of the Nile. Those jmrts of the 
eastern Sudan south of Khartoum and El-Damer and at Kassala, which 
are the deltas of the Blue Nile, the Dinder, the Rabad, the Atbara, 
and the Gaash, are possessed of a soil in every sense similar to that of 
Egypt itself. At Khartoum and in the bed of the Blue Nile at Kamlin 
are extensive deposits of nodular limestone corresponding to the Kan- 
kars of India. 

The main Nile from Khartoum to Assuftn flows between low hillsN 
and tables of Nubian sandstone overlying crystalline rocks of gneiss, \ 
mica schists, hornblendic granite and red granite. Where the crystalline 
rocks come to the surface we have cataracts ; where the Nubian sandstone 
is at the surface we have reaches of unbroken water. 

Fron^ Assuan (^) to near Edfu the Nile flows between hills of Nubian 
sandstone, the best known of which is Gebel Silsila. From Edfu to 

(') Condensed from n description of the geology of the Nile Valley in Egypt written by 
Gapt. Lyons for the second edition of "Egyptian Irrigation". 



\ 



— 22 — 

near Luxor, the Nubian sandstone which overlies the crystalline rooks 
I dips under the Nile and its place along the Nile Valley is taken by 
i green and grey clays containing nitrate and phosphate deposits. The 
' former are inexhaustible and have constituted the manure of this part 
of the valley for thousands of years. With these deposits are thick 
\ banks of soft white limestone. 

I From Luxor northwards the clays dip under the Nile and the Nile 
Valley is bounded by the superposed white eocene limestone up to 
' Cairo. 

I The Nubian sandstone is always soft and porous. The limestone is 
I generally soft, though hard siliceous beds are sometimes met with. 
' North of Cairo there is no building stone of any value except the 
i siliceous sandstone of Gebel Ahmar near Cairo and the basalt of Abu 
Zabel, a recent outcrop furnishing a black rock of great durability. The 
area covered by this rock is small. 

Thick deposits of sand and gravel underlie the Nile mud deposits of 
the Nile Valley. All along the Nile, but especially south of Luxor, 
river deposits of dark sandy mud exist on either side of the Nile 
Valley considerably above the level of the deposit of to-day. The best 
known of these is the plain of Kom Ombos. The thickness of the 
layer of Nile mud in the valley is as much as 18 metres in places, but 
V^be average depth is, I should say, 10 metres. 

8. The discharges of the Nile and its tributaries. — Refer- 
ence should be made to tables 24 and 25 which embody the results of an 
exhaustive examination of the observed discharges, the cross sections, 
the gauges of the Nile Valley, and the calculated discharge tables 
made for these gauges. Many of these tables are founded on only two 
or three discharges and some on only o!ie, but they have been prepared 
with the greatest care and referred to all the existing gauge obser- 
vations, and are good working tables, which can be modified and 
improved as time places more information at our disposal. Until 
then they may be used as about the best approximations available to-da3^ 
In 1902 the Albert Nile discharged 600 cubic metres per second as 
against 520 discharged by the Victoria Nile. In 1903 the Victoria 
Nile discharged 730 cubic metres per second and the Albert Nile 800. 
Leaving a poor year like 1902 which was much below the average, and 
taking 1903 which was all round a good average year and only 
slightly below the mean, we have the following results : — 

The Victoria Nile was at its highest in July with 840 cubic metres 



^ 



— 23 — 

per second, while the Albert Nile at its head was at its highest in 
December with 1,060 cubic metres per second. Lake Albert took 5 
months to fill up. At Gondokoro the Albert Nile was at its lowest in 
April when it discharged 700 cubic metres per second as against 550 
cubic metres in the previous year. Swollen by timely and good rains 
south of Gondokoro the discharge at Gondokoro rose to 2,100 cubic 
metres per second in September after the river had scoured out its bed 
over a metre in depth. The mean discharge for the year at Gondokoro 
was 1,200 cubic metres per second. 

The Gazelle river gave no discharge in the first half of the year and 
about 30 cubic metres per second in the latter half. Its mean discharge 
was 10 cubic metres per second for the year. 

The Albert Nile at its tail above the Sobat junction gave as a 
minimum 350 cubic metres per second in March, which discharge rose 
to 430 cubic metres per second in September, but could not rise higher 
as the Saubat river was then in flood and the White Nile could not 
carry oflE much more than the discharge of the Sobat without putting 
the northern part of the Sudd region under 2 metres of water. This 
held back water helped later to maintain the discharge of the White 
Nile in January and February. 

The Sobat river gave as a minimum a discharge of 40 cubic metres 
per second in April, and then rose to a maximum in November of 1,080 
cubic metres per second. 

At its tail, the Albert Nile gave a mean discharge for the year of 
390 cubic metres per second and the Sobat of 550. 

The White Nile at its head was at its lowest in April with 400 cubic 
metres per second and at its highest in December with 1,460 cubic 
metres per second, with a mean discharge of 940 cubic metres per 
second. At its tail near Khartoum the White Nile was at its lowest 
in May with 420 cubic metres per second and at its highest in October 
with about 1,70P cubic metres per second. As this latter figure was 
about 400 cubic metres per second more than it was receiving at its 
head, the additional water represented Blue Nile water which had run 
up the valley of the White Nile, been stored there while the Blue Nile 
was high and then been discharged into the Main Nile when the Blue 
Nile had fallen. The mean discharge at the tail of the White Nile was 
830 cubic metres per second. This figure was much below that at the 
head and was due to the fact that in July, August and September the 
Blue Nile water was flowing up the White Nile. 



\: 



— 24 — 

The Blue Nile was at its lowest in April when it was discharging 
120 cubic metres per second. During its maximum in August and 
September it was discharging 8,200 cubic metres per second. Of the 
discharge of the Blue Nile in July, August and September, a consider- 
able part flowed up the White Nile which here has a slope of t^^oFo ^^^ 
a bed from 3,000 to 1,500 metres wide. It is for these reasons that 
the Blue Nile water does not hurry on to Assu&n in its full strength. 
The mean discharge of the Blue Nile for the year was 2,350 cubic 
metres per second. Gauges and discharge tables at Kamlin on the 
Blue Nile, and north of Omdurman on the Main Nile, would be very 
much better than the Khartoum or Duem gauges of to-day which are 
both in back waters. 

The Atbara river was dry from January to May, in June the 
discharge was 200 cubic metres per second, rising to 2,300 cubic metres 
per second in August. In October, November and December it was 
dry. The mean discharge for the year was 380 cubic metres per 
second. When the Atbara river rises in flood it cannot flow down th€ 
Nile to Egypt in its strength until it has filled up the trough of the 
Nile as far as the 6th Cataract. Gauges up and down stream of the 
6th Cataract and at Shendy would be interesting when compared 
with Berber. 

The minimum combined discharges of the White Nile, Blue Nile 
and Atbara river were 540 cubic metres per second in April. The 
maximum combined discharges of 10,900 cubic metres per second were 
in August. The mean combined discharges for the year were 3,560 
cubic metres per second. 

The minimum discharge of the main Nile above Assuftn was 440 
cubic metres per second in May and the maximum of 8,600 cubic 
metres per second was in September. The mean discharge for the year 
was 2,650 cubic metres per second. 

Table 25 gives the actual daily minimum and maximum discharges 
during 1902 and 1903 for each stream, with their dates. For the Blue 
Nile in 1903 they were 100 and 9,600 cubic metres per second; for 
the White Nile 380 and 1,470 ; for the Atbara and 3,100 ; and for 
the Nile above Assuan 420 and 9,000 cubic metres per second. 

Table 26 compares the discharges for a maximum year like 1878, a 
minimum year like 1877, and a mean year, at Khartoum, Assu&n and 
Cairo. The maximum discharges in 1877 were 5,300, 5,900 and 4,400 
cubic metres per second, at Khartoum, Assu&n and Cairo. In 1878 



— 25 — 

they were 12,500, 12,100 and 10,300 cubic metres per second respect- 
ively, while for a mean year they are 8,500, 9,200 and 7,200 cubic 
metres per second. 

The modulus of the river at Assu&n is 3,040 cubic metres per second, 
and at Cairo 2,640. After the very high flood of 1878, the lowest 
discharge in May 1879 at Assu&n was 1,500 cubic metres per second. 

The behaviour of the Nile after passing Assu&n and entering Egypt 
may be described as follows: — of the mean discharge of 3,040 cubic 
metres per second which passes Assuftn 400 cubic metres per second are 
utilised in Upper Egypt in the irrigation of 2,320,000 acres and 2,640 
cubic metres per second pass Cairo. Of these again 540 cubic metres 
per second are utilised in the irrigation of 3,430,000 acres in Lower 
Egypt, and only 2,100 cubic metres per second reach the Mediter- 
ranean sea. 



.Ill 3TAjq 



3J JAl MOq IF! 

()0<).<'l ; I •*\i;->r'. 




O' - 


/' 


' 


/ 


^. 




•C-' ^^ ' 


1 


'"\:';^-- ' 


■ ^ 







^ .^•A^^^^ mf^vvvJ V'.», <^n./. ^ 



, Q^h ■ 



..^u\\ 



t bfl 

' : 3 



— 21 — 

typically that which is known as equatorial ; two rainy seasons and two 
dry seasons make up the year, the rains coinciding more or less with 
the equinoxes and the dry seasons with the solstices, except that the 
second minor lains are delayed about 1 to 2 months after the autumn 
equinox. As Capt. Lyons hopes soon to publish a monograph on the 
meteorology of the Nile valley, I shall say little about the details of 
rainfall of the different catchment basins, contenting myself with broad 
principles and main features. March, April and May form the greater 
rainy season, and October, November and December the lesser. The 
rainfall of the former season may be considered twice as heavy as that 
of the latter, but it is the latter which practically decides the height 
of the lake in the following year. This, according to Capt. Lyons, is 
due to the fact that in the summer months, when the rainbelt lies to the 
north of the lake, the dry south winds must blow across the lake basin 
even though the diurnal reversal of winds on the lake is not mastered 
by them. These dry winds greatly increase the evaporation, and there 
is a marked diminution of the water between July and November, 
which must be primarily due to the increased evaporation. 

The rainfall in the catchment basin may be taken as 1250 millimetres 
per annum on the average. As the evaporation off the lake is probably 
the same, the area of the lake may be left out of the catchment alto- 
gether. The balance of the catchment basin amounts to 184,000 square 
kilometres, on which there is a mean annual rainfall of 230 cubic kilo- 
metres. The mean discharge of the Victoria Nile over the Ripon Falls 
appears to the approximately 580 cubic metres per second or 18 cubic 
kilometres per annum. This represents about j^th the mean rainfall. 
The greatest discharge of the lake seems to be about 850 cubic metres per 
second and the lowest 450. As the lake has risen in a single year 80 
centimetres, which represents an increase of water of 48 cubic kilometres, 
and has fallen 60 centimetres which represents a decrease of water of 
36 cubic kilometres, it will be seen that the discharges from the lake 
are factors of less importance in determining the level of the lake than 
the heavier rainfall and diminished evaporation in a year of good rain, 
and the lighter rainfall and increased evaporation in a year of poor rain. 
The great function of Lake Victoria in the economy of the Nile supply 
is the insuring of a nearly constant discharge of water into the Victoria 
Nile, and providing much of the evaporation which comes down in the 
catchment basin itself in the shape of rain. 



The principal feeders of Lake Victoria are the following streams ; — 
on the north (1) Lukos or Yala, 

(2) the Nzoia 250 kilometres long, 

(3) the Sio. 

on the east (1) the Nyando, 

(2) the Inyayo, 

(3) the Gori, 

(4) the Mara Dabash, 

(5) the Rawana. 
on the south (1) the Symiya, 

(2) the Moame. 
on the west (1) the Lohungati, 

(2) the Kagera, with its branches the Nyavarongo, the 
Akanyaru and the Ruvuvu, with a maximum length 
of 600 kilometres and a discharge varying between 
140 and some 600 cubic metres per second. 

(3) the Ruizi with a length of 280 kilometres traversing 
much marshy ground in its course. 

and (4) the Eatonga 250 kilometres long. 

The northern and western feeders are generally perennial streams, 
while many of the southern and eastern are torrents. 

10. The Victoria Nile.— From the Ripon Falls to Lake Albert, the 
Victoria Nile has a length of 400 kilometres. The first 64 kilometres 
are down a steep slope, in a stream varying from 300 to 500 metres in 
width. Any project for a regulator at the Ripon Falls should contemplate 
development of electricity for working a railway along these 64 kilo- 
metres. The next 237 kilometres are through a flat marshy land, partly 
lake, partly swamps, but with the water never more than 4 to 6 metres 
deep. In this reach the Nile is navigable. This many -armed swamp 
is known as Lake Choga, whose western end is traversed for some 80 
kilometres by the Nile with a perceptible current. These large sheets 
of papyrus and water, which cover an area of over 2000 square kilo- 
metres, must cause as much loss by evaporation as they receive by 
direct rainfall. The Victoria Nile leaves the lake in a broad stream some 
900 metres wide, past Mruli station, on to Fowera. In the longitudinal 
section on Plate II, I have considered Fowera as 1060 metres above 
sea level, and the slope upstream of it as ^oooo - From Fowera to the 
foot of the Murchison Falls, the Nile falls 377 metres on a length of 
68 kilometres, and then in the next 30 kilometres reaches Lake Albert. 



A ITS T 

^al 8eah 1 : 



.VI 3TAJq 



! No. 2. 

I 










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V = 



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oo.sst 



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't-: r- "". ■ '\ .'^'^,«7ri'V''^:t-v-^.--.v- ^.r> ^'-'^;' 



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Considerable quantities of floating pistea weeds pass down the Victoria 
Nile from Lake Choga. They are well churned up between Fowera 
and the Murchison Falls, but finally enter Lake Albert. It would be 
easy to develop electricity to work a railway along these 68 kilometres. 

The principal tributaries of the Victoria Nile are the following r— 

On the right bank, the Gogonia, the marshy Ewania and Lenga, and 
theDuki. And on the left bank; the lake-like Sensiwa; the Eafu with 
its numerous feeders, large catchment basin but generally insignificant 
discharge ; and the Titi. The Uganda rivers are more like sponges 
than rivers, and in all probability the tail of the Victoria Nile has a 
discharge only slightly in excess of that at the head. 

IL The Semliki River. — The Semliki river has its sources in Lake 
Edward just south of the Equator and flows into the southern end of Lake 
Albert, just as the Victoria Nile flows into the northern end. Lake 
Edward with the addition of Lake Dueru has an area of some 2500 
square kilometres and lies about 965 metres above sea level. Its waters 
as described by Sir William Garstin, are green in colour and brackish. 
The Semliki river discharges the surplus waters of the lake, and may 
be considered as having a discharge of 100 cubic metres per second as 
a minimum and 400 cubic metres per second as a maximum. In 
some 120 kilometres of its length this river traverses the eastern end 
of the Congo forest, and the day may not be far distant when this 
timber will be floated down the Semliki, towed across Lake Albert and 
sent down the Albert Nile to Gondokoro and Khartoum. The fall of 
the Semliki, according to accepted levels is 285 metres in 260 kilo- 
metres. The feeders of Lake Edward are the following: — 

On the west, none. 

On the south, the Rutshuru and Ruendu. 

On the east, the Msalala, the Wampuna, the Chambura, and the 
Mpanga which has its sources on the slopes of Ruenzori. 

On the north, numerous glacier-fed torrents from the slopes of 
Ruenzori, the Nyamgasha and the Dibirra. The dry season 
discharges of all these rivers are small. The largest is under 10 
cubic metres per second. The flood discharges are considerable. 

12. Lake Albert Nyanza. — Lake Albert has an area of 4500 
square kilometres and lies about 680 metres above sea level. We have 
left the high lands of Uganda and are in the stifling heat of tropical 
Africa. There are considerable deposits of salt along the east shore of 
Lake Albert, as there are also around Lake Edward. According to 



— 30 — 

Sir William Garstin, the waters of Lake Albert are brackish near the 
shores, but perfectly sweet and clear in the middle of the lake. It is 
due to the waters of Lake Victoria that those of Lake Albert are sweet. 
The catchment basin of the Albert Nile at its head where it leaves Lake 
Albert is about 379,000 square kilometres of which 244,000 square 
kilometres discharge into Lake Victoria. The rainfall over the addi- 
tional 135,000 square kilometres may be considered as 1250 millimetres 
per annum, with seasons similar to thpse on Lake Victoria. The 
evaporation from Lake Albert must be greater than that from Lake 
Victoria, but if we exclude the joint areas of Lakes Victoria, Albert, 
Edward and Choga, and taking them as 70,000 square kilometres, 
consider that their rainfall is equalized by their evaporation, there 
remains from the 379,000 square kilometres of catchment basin about 
309,000 square kilometres. An annual rainfall of 1250 millimetres 
means for 309,000 square kilometres a total rainfall of 380 cubic 
kilometres. The discharges of Lake Albert may be taken as varying 
from 500 cubic metres per second to 1100, with a mean of 800 cubic 
metres per second. This latter figure represents in one year 26 cubic 
kilometres or y^^th the annual rainfall. We may compare with this 
the mean discharge of Lake Victoria of about 580 cubic metres per 
second and ^^th of the annual rainfall of its catchment basin excluding 
the lake area. 

A reference to Plate V will show how great is the regulating effect 
of Lake Albert on the Nile. Owing to the fact that an increase in the 
discharge of the Victoria Nile cannot pass down the Albert Nile before 
the whole area of Lake Albert has risen, the floods of the Victoria 
Nile are delayed nearly 5 months in their passage down the Albert Nile ; 
a rise of 1 metre on Lake Albert meaning an increased cube of 
4,500,000,000 cubic metres. If this takes place in one year, it represents 
an increased discharge of 150 cubic metres per second irrespective of 
what passes down the channel of Lake Albert. 

If it were considered necessary to insure 1200 cubic metres per 
second as the discharge of the Albert Nile from the 15tli January to 
the 15th May, it would mean adding 400 cubic metres per second to 
the mean discharge for 4 months, and deducting 200 cubic metres per 
second from the mean discharge for the remaining 8 months. By 
storing the surplus waters of good years by means of a weir capable 
of holding up 3 or 4 metres of water at the outlet of the lake, it 
would be possible to insure this discharge every year during the four 



PLATE V. 



L B E R T 




Jinja gaut 
WadeJaigi 
Victoria Ni 
Albert N a 



Lith. Sur. Dep. Crip. 



.0 A I a 3 fi A H 8 I a J. ? U A 



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UJ O 



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-31- 

months which decide the summer contingent of the White Nile to the 
Nile in Egypt during the months of April, May, June and July. 

The shores of Lake Albert are generally steep and barren, though 
in places they are shelving and covered with papyrus, notably at the 
inlets of the Semliki river and the Victoria Nile. The Lake is fairly 
deep and admirably suited for a reservoir. At the outlet of the lake 
enormous quantities of pistea weeds, especially in high floods, enter 
the Albert Nile. The passage of these weeds through the future 
regulator of Lake Albert will be an exceedingly interesting engineering 
problem. 

The principal feeders of the lake are : — 
On the north, the Victoria Nile. 

On the east, the Waiga, the Wakki, the Hoima, the Wahamba, the 
Horo, the Ngusi and Msisi, discharging between them under 
20 cubic metres per second in the dry season, though good 
streams in flood. 
On the south, the Semliki ; and no streams worth mentioning on 
the west 

13.— The Albert Nile.— The Albert Nile, or the Bahr-el-Gebel, has 
a length of 1280 kilometres from Lake Albert to the mouth of the 
Sobat river. For 218 kilometres, past Wadelai to Dufile, it has a 
broad stream with a sluggish current as a rule, and covered with islands 
and papyrus marshes. This reach of the Nile is navigable. The fall 
here must be very little, and it may be considered as 8 metres. In 
high floods enormous quantities of pistea weeds float down this reach 
of the Nile. Papyrus and ambatch are very common along the 
shores and on the islands. 

At Dufile begin the Fola rapids followed by numerous cataracts up to 
Fort Berkeley. In this reach of 1 55 kilometres the river falls 223 metres. 
Sir William Garstin states that some of the falls have a width of only 
12 metres. The depth must be extraordinary, while the velocity is 
terrific. The green water of the upper reaches is purified in its 
passage through these cataracts. The rock is granite. If the regulator 
for Lake Albert were constructed near Dufile, it should contemplate 
development of electricity for working a railway along these 165 kilo- 
metres. 

South of Dufile the principal tributaries of the Albert Nile are on 
the right bank viz : the Achua and Umi. In the dry season they are 
dry, but after rains they may add some 50 cubic metres per second to 



-32- 

the river. Between Dufile and Fort Berkeley many rivers flow into 
the Albert Nile. The Asua, the Atappi, the Umi, the Earpetu, the 
Kweh and many others from the right bank bring down water in flood 
well laden with sand. In the dry season all but the Asua are dry. 
The left bank tributaries are numerous but insignificant. The volume 
discharged by these streams in the rainy season is very considerable, 
as will be seen if the discharges at Gondokoro north of Fort Barkeley 
are compared with those at Wadelai. They are between them capable 
of increasing the discharge of the Albert Nile for short intervals of 
time by 1500 cubic metres per second. All these streams are torrential. 
They rise and fall quickly. 

From Fort Berkeley to Khartoum, the Albert and White Niles are 
navigable. 

From Fort Berkeley to Bor past Gondokoro on a length of 
206 kilometres the Albert Nile falls some 18 metres and has a good 
velocity and slope, and though the river is divided into two and more 
channels, it is within its banks and may be considered an ordinary 
river. The maximiun discharge is 'about 2600 cubic metres per second 
and the minimum 550. In high floods the river scours out its bed 
and sides very considerably. The real flat lands begin at Gondokoro a 
little to the north of Fort Berkeley. The soil is light and sandy and 
capable of offering little resistance to the stream. Between Gondokoro 
and Bor the Albert Nile can lose some 30 per cent of its discharge 
when the river is high and capable of overflowing most of the islands 
and a great part of the valley. The main channel has a width of about 
230 metres and depth of 3 or 4 metres when the discharge is below 
600 cubic metres per second and well within banks. The main 
tributaries of the Albert Nile in this reach are on the east bank, the 
Kit, second only to the Asua, and the Lokadero ; and on the west bank 
a number of unimportant torrents which however help to swell the 
river in flood. 

From Bor to Ghaba Shambe on a length of 196 kilometres, the main 
stream of the Albert Nile flows between banks lower than those further 
south and more heavily inundated in flood, with a width of some 60 
metres and depth of water of 5 metres. According to Sir William 
Garstin, the grass swamps end half way down this reach and the 
papyrus swamps begin. About 10 kilometres to the east of the main 
stream is another branch known as the Atem river fed by artificially 
maintained and natural spills from the main stream itself. These spills 



-33- 

are kept open by the Dinkas living along the Atem river. They were 
noted by Weme in 1842. The Atem river at its tail apparently 
divides into two branches, o£ which one feeds the Zeraf river and the 
other returns to the Nile at Ghaba Shambe. 

Capt. Lyons has pointed out to me that all this course o£ the river 
is extraordinarily like the course of the Mississippi south of Vicksburg, 
with its severe curves and oxrings which correspond to the mayahs 
of the Albert Nile. Such mayahs or lagoons can be seen in the last 
20 kilometres of the Rosetta branch of the Nile. Placed as they are 
between Bor and Ghaba Shambe, they mean that while south of 
Bor, the Albert Nile has more or less formed its delta ; north of Bor, 
the delta is in a more embryonic stage, with probably the Atem 
river the more ancient of the two streams. North of Ghaba Shambe, 
the Zeraf river leaves the Albert Nile, and fed by the Atem Nile, takes 
off its water eastwards through marsh and swamp to again tail into 
the Albert Nile below Lake No. About 30 kilometres further north is 
the cut made by Sir Samuel Baker to enable him to enter the Albert 
Nile from the Zeraf river. 

The real Sudd region lies between Ghaba Shambe and Lake No, 
on a length of 380 kilometres. Between Fort Berkeley and Gondokoro, 
the flood as well as the summer supplies are within banks. Between 
Gondokoro and Bor, the summer supply is well within banks, but the 
floods overflow the valley. Between Bor and Ghaba Shambe the 
summer supply is just within banks, but the floods overflow freely. 
Between Ghaba Shambe and Lake No the summer supply overflows 
the banks, and hence there result the periodical barrings or sudds of 
the Nile by the floating vegetation so common in this region. While 
the summer supply is within banks it can insure a clear waterway ; but 
when not only the floods but the summer supplies ordinarily overflow 
the banks, the stream must be aided artificially if it is to keep its 
waterway clear. 

The ordinary width of the river south of Hillet-el-Nuer is between 
50 and 60 metres, but in the reach of the old sudd blocks numbers 16 
to 19 it diminishes in places to 25 metres, and in the reach blocked 
by sudd block number 15 increases to 200. North of Hillet-el-Nuer, 
the width varies from 60 to 150 metres, but the mean width may be 
taken as from 75 to 80 metres. The velocity is about 75 centimetres per 
second, which is a good velocity for clear water ; and Sir William Garstin 
remarks at one place that since the sudds were cleared the channel of 

3 



— 34 — 

the Albert Nile seems to be deepening and widening itself, and he 
states in another place that the extent of overflow over the mayahs or 
side depressions is decreasing. 

With proper training works and dredging it should be possible to 
reduce the length of the main channel of the Albert Nile between 
Gondokoro and Bor from 175 kilometres to 160; between Bor and 
Ghaba Shambe from 206 kilometres to 145 ; and between Ghaba 
Shambe and Lake No from 380 kilometres to 305. Or the length of 
channel from Gondokoro to Lake No might he reduced from 761 
kilometres to 610. Some of the curves are nearly complete circles, 
needing but little work to cut off extensive lengths. 

Between Ghaba Shambe and Lake No there were 19 sudd blocks of 
which all but one were removed by Major Peake, R.A., and Lieut. 
Drury, R.N., in 1900 and 1901. Their positions are indicated on 
Plate VI. South of Hillet-el-Nuer is sudd block No. 15, the only one 
remaining to be removed. Owing to this block, the Albert Nile leaves 
its true channel, which is from 5 to 6 metres deep, and, on a length 
of 43 kilometres, follows a series of mayahs, pools and marshes with 
a depth of from 1^ to 2 metres. The original channel was closed by 
a boat laden with ivory sinking in the true channel during the Dervish 
domination. The boat has been found, the ivory recovered and the 
work of sudd clearing commenced, but the work has not yet been 
completed. 

The maximum discharge of the Albert Nile at Hillet-el-Nuer may be 
taken as 450 cubic metres per second, and into Lake No as 320 cubic 
metres per second. The water of the river is dark-coloured and contains 
no sediment. Very little ambatch is met with north of Ghaba Shambe. 

Between Ghaba Shambe and Lake No on the left bank, in the first 
120 kilometres, three channels carrying very appreciable quantities of 
water flow into the Albert Nile. These are considered to be the tails 
of the river Yei. At Hillet-el-Nuer, about 170 kilometres north of 
Ghaba Shambe, a branch takes off from the west side of the Albert 
Nile, known as Gage's channel, with 35 metres of clear waterway, 1 
metre depth and 0'60 metre per second velocity, discharging 20 cubic 
metres per second. This stream flows westwards and is lost in the 
swamps. On the right bank, downstream of Ghaba Shambe, are the 
two heads of the Bahr Zeraf, one natural and the other artificial 
made by Sir Samuel Baker. About 90 kilometres north of Ghaba 
Shambe a few spills take water towards the Zeraf river. 



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— 35 — 

From Lake No to the Sobat mouth, on a length of 134 kilometres 
is the tail reach of the Albert Nile. The Albert Nile flows into Lake 
No in its south-eastern corner and leaves it on its east side. On the 
west side the Grazelle river flows into the lake. Lake No has an area 
of some 20 square kilometres in times of low supply and 100 square 
kilometres in flood. In low supply the depth is between 1*50 and 
2-50 metres. In the reach between Lake No and the Sobat mouth, 
the river is very fairly straight; the summer channel is about 170 
metres wide and as a rule about 5 metres deep upstream of the 
mouth of the LoUe, though in one place about 8 kilometres from Lake 
No it becomes only 50 metres wide for a short distance. Between 
the tail of the Lolle river and the mouth of the Sobat river, the 
summer width widens out to about 400 metres with 3 metres depth of 
water. However extensive the marshes may be, the high land forming 
the limit of the inundation is everywhere in this reach visible from 
the main stream. The Grazelle river, which flows into Lake No, has a 
discharge varying from to 40 cubic metres per second. The Lolle 
river which flows in on the left bank upstream of the Sobat mouth 
is probably an arm of the Albert Nile or an overflow of the GrazeUe 
and has a discharge varying from to 40 cubic metres per second. 
On the right bank, the Zeraf river flows into the Albert Nile, with a 
discharge varying from 30 to 160 cubic metres per second. The 
Megahid river flows in 30 kilometres below the tail of the Zeraf river 
and adds an undetermined quota of water. 

At its junction with the Sobat river, the Albert Nile discharges from 
300 to 450 cubic metres in summer; it does not discharge much more 
in flood as the waters of the Sobat river in flood hold up the Albert 
River and make it overflow the low lands up to Lake No and beyond for 
a depth of 3 metres in high floods. This reach of the Nile is a flood 
reservoir, which empties itself ordinarily by the end of winter. 

14. The Gazelle River. — The Gazelle river, which flows into Lake 
No, has a catchment basin of 240,000 square kilometres, with an annual 
rainfall of 75 millimetres; and an additional catchment basin of 230 
square kilometres with an annual rainfall of 30 millimetres; and yet the 
river discharges nothing in summer and about 40 cubic metres per 
second in flood. It is the most extraordinary river in the world, often 
blocked by sudd and invisible. It has practicaly no banks in flood or in 
times of low supply, while the waterway varies in width from 6 metres 
to 90 and in depth from 2 metres to 6 metres. It makes its way between 



— 36 — 

interminable marshes of papyrus and water grasses. The Grazelle river 
is a deltaic river in a still more embryonic stage than the Albert 
Nile north of Ghaba Shambe. It, however, performs one good function. 
It keeps the swamps of the Sudd region full of water, year in and 
year out; and without it, the water of the Albert Nile would doubtless 
be lost by percolation in the Sudd region and the White Nile be left 
high and dry for 3 months every year. 

Schweinfurth was the first to ascend and describe this river and its 
tributaries. Beginning from the east, its principal tributaries are: — 
the Rohl, the Dyow, the Tondy, the Kit, the DyAr, the Dembo, the 
Humr and the Bahr el Arab. With courses of between 450 and 760 
kilometres in length, the tributaries fall from 500 to 700 metres 
in their upper courses of from 300 to 500 kilometres, and in their 
remaining courses they traverse swamps. Certain of the tributaries 
may be discharging 10 cubic metres per secorti in summer and 250 
cubic metres per second in flood, but the main stream of the (Jaaelle 
seems never to add more than 40 cubic metres per second to the Albert 
Nile. The whole of the water is evaporated from the weeds, papyrus, 
watergrasses and open sheets of water which cover a desolate area of 
70,000 square kilometres. Evaporation and rainfall balance each other. 
If the « Singhara» or Indian water nut could be induced to grow in this 
waste of waters, some profit might be got out of them. 

15. The Bahr Zeraf. — The Bahr Zeraf is the right hand branch 
of the Albert Nile which leaves the latter river north of Ghaba Shambe 
and joins it again midway between Lake No and the Sobat river. It 
is fed largely by the escape water of the Atem river brought down in 
a traceable channel and in flood by torrents from the hilly region east 
of Gondokoro. Beginning with a series of marshes and swamps, it gra- 
dually establishes its right to be called a river and finally after a tortuous 
and meandering course of about 270 kilometres tails into the Albert 
Nile. In its lower reaches it is about 50 metres wide and from 2 to 4 metres 
deep in summer and 6 to 8 metres deep in flood. Its discharges vary from 
30 cubic metres per second in summer to 160 cubic metres per second 
in flood. In its lower reaches the banks consist of solid earth, proving 
that at one time it carried water other than that brought down by the 
Albert Nile. 

15. The Sobat River. — This river drains 156,000 square kilo- 
metres lying between the catchment basins of Lake Rudolf and the Blue 
Nile. The rainfall in the mountainous region of Grallaland is plen- 



— 37 — 

tif ul and especially heavy in autumn, and were it not for the extensive 
lakes and marshes in its middle course, it would be a torrent in flood. 
Regulated and restrained by the lakes and marshes, this river has an 
extraordinarily even rise and fall, as a reference to Table 24 will certify. 
It is unfortunate that the Nasser gauge has been read so interruptedly. 
The Doleb Hilla gauge is in the back water of the Albert Nile and not 
very reliable. The discharges of the last four years have varied from 
40 cubic metres per second in low supply to 1000 cubic metres in flood, 
though there have been years when the discharges have fallen to zero 
in summer and when the flood must have exceeded 1500 cubic metres 
per second, April is the month of low supply and November of max- 
imum flood. 

In its last 50 kilometres, the river has a deep, well defined channel 
between high banks, which are never topped in the highest floods. The 
width of waterway is about 110 metres and the depth 7 metres in 
summer and about 10 to 11 metres in flood. 

The principal tributaries of the Sobat are the Baro from the north 
east and east, and the Akobo and Pibor from the south-east and south. 
All the tributaries meet and form extensive swamps from which the 
Sobat has its origin. The village of Nasser is situated on the Sobat 
near its origin. A gauge has been erected here. 

17- The Sudd re^on. — The Sudd region of the Albert Nile lies 
north of Ghaba Shambe and corresponds to that part of the river where 
not only do the floods overflow the banks, but the summer supplies 
can do so in many places. It is the delta of the river in a very embryo- 
nic stage. There are two main branches to the river, the Albert Nile 
proper and the Zeraf, which have both been already described. Both 
these rivers are liable to be blocked by sudd or blocks of living vegetation. 
These blocks are sometimes as much as 5 metres thick and capable of 
turning nearly the whole supply of the river out of its course. They 
are formed of papyrus, weeds and watergrasses, which grow on the 
half sandy half peaty banks of the lagoons and marshes traversed by the 
river, and which, under the double action of a rising flood and strong'. 
winds, are torn up and driven into the channels wherever they are con- 
fined in width, and there jammed into solid masses of floating weeds, 
filling the whole width of the river, very nearly the whole depth, and 
sometimes over a kilometre in length. In addition to the local weeds 
and grasses, there are always at hand in high floods dense masses of pistea 
weeds which have come from the upper waters of the Albert Nile south 



— 38 — 

of Dufile. While the sudd floats it is not so bad as when it sinks, as it 
has done at block No. 15 north of Gaba Shambe, where the Nile has 
left its course for 37 kilometres owing to sunken sudd. When the sudd 
sinks, its becomes putrid and especially loathsome. 

The Sudd region is unmistakably, as Lombardini pointed out years 
ago, an old lake which has silted up and become full of peat and sand 
deposits. At one time the lake must have had an extreme length of 400 
kilometres and width of 400 kilometres and been a larger sheet of water 
than lake Victoria. The Sobat river flowed into it, and the Blue 
Nile may have flowed backwards up the bed of the pi-esent White Nile 
for tens of thousands of years. The north-east corner has been better 
filled with deposit than any other part. 

The dense masses of papyrus and water-grasses which shut out the 
horizon in every direction intimidated the expedition sent up the Nile 
by Nero, and it returned northwards without having accomplished 
anything. From Nero's time to that of Mehemet Ali little was known of 
these regions. Mehemet Ali made a determined effort to discover 
what lay beyond these inhospitable regions, and sent up a well-equipped 
expedition under D'Amaud. 

One of the earliest descriptions of the Nile between the fifth and 
tenth parallels of latitude is by Weme, who accompanied D'Arnaud's 
expedition sent by Mehemet Ali in 1840-1841. The expedition found 
the channel of the White Nile and Albert Nile easily navigable between 
December and March. The Albert Nile between 7° and 9° N. lat. had 
apparently a mean width of 120 metres, depth of 5 metres, and velocity of 
about 60 centimetres per second, giving a discharge of some 400 cubic 
metres per second. In this first description of the river the fact that 
strikes one most forcibly is the omission of the Bahr Zeraf . Neither 
the inlet nor the outlet are mentioned, though the Sobat, the Gazelle, 
and numerous insignificant streams are minutely recorded. Practically 
the whole of the water was confined to one stream, and that a good 
one. The water level in winter was found to be some 50 centimetres 
- below the general level of the berm, and about 60 centimetres above 
this level in flood. The swamps contained offensive and fetid water, 
which mixed with the waters of the rising flood and helped to pollute 
the stream on the first rise of the river. Between the river and the 
swamps in its southern reaches were numerous cut« and openings, some 
natural and some artificial, made by the aborigines for fishing purposes. 
While traversing the swamps, the waters of the river in flood lost 



— 39 — 

their silt and became quite clear. On page 100 o£ Vol. II of Werne's 
work there is this significant sentence : "The report that the natives 
below (i.e. in latitude 5° to 7°) had blocked the river to cut off our 
retreat, turned out to be unfounded." From the above it wiU be 
noticed that the aborigines in 1840-1841 spoke of their ability to block 
the course of the river, while the training works in the side channels 
and spills for fishing purposes were described as solid works regulated 
by rows of strong stakes driven into the ground. 

Between 1841 and 1863 the expeditions up the Nile considerably in- 
creased, while the aborigines were being brutally treated by the slave tra- 
ders. What could be more natural than that, as a measure of protection, 
the aborigines should have widened and deepened the side channels and 
spills which took off from the river between latitudes 5 J° and 7^°,so that 
they might escape from the traders. Subsequently, when the main river 
was patrolled by Government boats, the slave-traders themselves used 
these side channels for prosecuting their traffic. All the channels and 
spills tailed into the Bahr Zeraf , which now began to form an appreci- 
able stream, and which was navigated over the lower part of its course 
by Petherick between 1853 and 1862. The Bahr Zeraf was however 
always described as sudded, whUe the Albert Nile was open to naviga- 
tion. This action of dissipating the waters of the river went on 
increasing till 1863, when there occurred a very high flood indeed ; 
the floating weeds brought down from the south were excessive, the 
waters escaped everywhere from the main stream, while the floating 
masses of creepers were confined by the grasses and papyrus to the main 
channel, and sudded it downstream of Lake No. 

On ascending the White Nile and Albert Nile in January 1863, 
Sir Samuel Baker found the passage clear to the south. On returning 
in April 1865, he found the sudd of the flood of 1863 still in the 
Albert Nile downstream of Lake No. The sudd was 1000 metres long 
and had a passage 3 metres wide cut through the middle of it, down 
which the river ran like a mill race. 

In February 1869, Dr. Schweinfurth and his party, on their way 
to the Gazelle, took six days to get through this sudd, though the main 
obstruction was now only 200 metres long. In July 1872, Dr. Schwein- 
furth on his way back found the sudd to the downstream of Lake No 
as before, and described the opening through it as "a narrow stream of 
water which rushed along as a wild brook. The depth of the fairway 
varied from 2 to 3 metres, and the boat nowhere touched the bottom." 



— 40 — 

In February 1870 Sir Samuel Baker found the sudd in the Albert 
Nile impossible for his expedition of heavily laden boats and steamers. 
He found the Zeraf sudded in its southern 100 kilometres, and tried to 
cut his way through but failed. And yet the slave traders had means 
of getting slave boats down the Bahr Zeraf ("Ismailia" pages 61, 62 
and 29). Baker returned in January 1871 to the Zeriba Kutchuk Ali 
on the Bahr Zeraf and had before him the 100 kilometres of sudded 
channel. With the aid of 1200 men he completed the work by March 
13. The final operation was a canal through stiff clay 600 metres 
long (known to-day as Baker's cut). The fall from the Albert Nile 
into the Bahr Zeraf was so great that, in order to get the boats and 
steamers across the final distance, Baker made a dam 120 metres long 
across the Zeraf by means of a double row of piles, sand bags and 
fascines of the tall grasses. He thus secured the necessary depth of 
water, and the flotilla sailed into the Albert Nile. On his way back in 
June 1873, he thus describes the appearance of the head of the Ziraf 
river where he had made the cut in March 1871 : — 

"On arrival at the Bahr Zeraf cut, we found that the canals which we 
had formerly cut were much improved by the force of the stream. 
Although these passages were narrow, they had become deep and we 
progressed with comparatively little trouble." The rest of the journey 
down the Bahr Zeraf was easily performed. 

In January 1874, when the river was low, the sudd in the Albert Nile 
was removed by Ismail Pacha Ayoub, Governor General of the Soudan. 

From 1874 to 1878, while Gordon was Governor General, the Albert 
Nile was clear of sudd, but the wide stream of 1840 had dwindled 
down to a clear waterway free of weeds on a width of 6 metres over 
long reaches. The escape of water down numerous spills had deprived 
the Albert Nile of the power of keeping its channel clear and when 
the heavy flood of 1878 came down, the river was sudded. 

In 1880 Gessi was blocked in the Bahr Gazelle. The sudd in this 
Bahr was cut by Mamo, who also cut the sudd in the Albert Nile in 
April 1880. 

Emin Pasha mentions the fact that the Albert Nile was free of sudd 
and navigated from 1880 to 1883. In 1884 he states that no steamers 
reached Lado, but he attributed that to the Mahdi's rebellion. 

During the early years of the Mahdi's and Khalifa's rule there was no 
sudd. In the Khalifa's time a boat laden ^ith ivory sank in the stream 
where sudd block No. 15 is, south of Hillet-el-Nuer, and caused the block 
to form. 



— 41 — 

In 1898 Lord Kitchener found the Albert Nile sudded south of Lake 
No, and in March 1899 Sparkesbey, of the Egyptian Army, steamed up 
the Bahr Zeraf to within 30 kilometres of its head. 

At the same time Sir William Garstin thought the Bahr Zeraf a 
stronger stream than the Albert Nile. 

Descending the Albert Nile from Uganda, Colonel Martyr found the 
Albert Nile sudded 30 kilometres north of Ghaba Shambe. 

In 1900 and 1901 Major Peake, C. M. G., R. A., and Lieut. Drury, 
R. N., removed sudd blocks Nos. 1 to 14, and 16 to 19, between Lake 
No and Ghaba Shambe. There now remains only block No. 15 south 
of Hillet-el-Nuer. 

The condition of the channel to-day has been described under the 
heading of the Albert Nile. It is a very fair channel except at the 
diversion round block No. 15, which Sir William Garstin is very eager 
to see removed. 

18. The White Nile.— The White Nile stretches from the Sobat 
mouth to Khartoum and has a length of 838 kilometres and very little 
fall. It everywhere bears traces of having been the channel of the 
Blue Nile when in ancient times the Gebel-Royan hill had not been 
cut through by the Nile, and the Blue Nile itself flowed south into 
the great lake which is to-day the sudd region of the Albert Nile. If 
the Blue Nile discharged, as it does to-day, about 2500 cubic metres per 
second throughout the year, the Sobat 600 cubic metres, the Albert 
Nile 1000, the Gazelle tributaries 700, and the rainfall on the lake 
itself was 1 metre per annum, while the evaporation was 2^ metres, 
(all reasonable figures), the water entering the lake was 300 cubic 
kilometres per annum and the evaporation was the same, provided the 
lake had an area of 120,000 square kilometres, which is, moreover, 
reasonable when we examine the plan. During the whole of this 
period, the valley of the Nile in Egypt received its water from the 
Atbara alone. 

The waters of the Sobat river in flood give its name to the White 
Nile. At Tewfikieh, near the head of the White Nile, is a gauge. For 
the first 500 kilometres the river is described by Sir William Garstin as 
having a waterway of from 300 to 500 metres in width with numerous 
islands. The depth of water in summer is 5 metres and 7 metres in 
flood. On either side of the waterway is a low ridge swamped in flood, 
and beyond that on either side is a deep depression, deep in the centre 
and rising to the ridge on one side and to the high land and forest on 



— 42 — 

the other. Each depression may be 3 kilometres in width where it is wide 
and a few hundred metres where it is narrow, so that the flooded valley 
may have a width of 6 kilometres in places. The ridges are about 3 metres 
wide, and broken by openings through which the water passes in and 
out of the side marshy depressions. The depressions are covered by 
a dense growth of reeds and papyrus. When the reeds are burnt one 
can traverse the marshes on foot. South of Kaka (200 kilometres 
north of the Sobat mouth) the depressions are lower than they are 
further north, which, to me, goes to prove that the channel of to-day is 
formed within the channel of old days when the Blue Nile was 
flowing south mto the Sudd region. At Gebelain (250 kilometres 
north of Kaka) the side depressions contract and the forests come 
nearer the river. At the Abu Zeid ford, 50 kilometres further to the 
north, is a serious obstacle to navigation when the river is low, in 
the shape of a very broad sheet of shingle studded thick with fresh- 
water oysters. This bar is 6 kilometres long, as hard as stone, and 
has in very low summer supplies a depth of water over it of only 
50 centimetres. It is a wonder that a channel has not been blasted 
through it. The swamping now visibly decreases and the width of 
the river varies from 700 to 900 metres. Some 25 kilometres north 
of Abu Zeid the papyrus and sudd grasses disappear, and though 
there is floodmg there are no swamps. We have now some well 
cultivated islands in the river for the negroes have come to an end and 
the Arabs inhabit the country. The summer channel may be now 
considered as 700 metres wide and the flood channel as 1300 metres. 
The summer depth of water is 4 metres. At Duem, 220 kilometres 
south of Khartoum, the width of the channel widens from 900 to 1000 
and further north to 1500 metres, and finally to 3000 metres. We 
are in a lake rather than in a river, and in flood when the waters of 
the Blue Nile travel 300 kilometres up the White Nile, and wait for a 
fall in the Blue Nile to discharge themselves into the Nile, we are indeed 
in a pulsating lake and not in a river. It must have been in September, 
when the discharge of the Blue Nile had fallen from some 11,000 to 
6,000 cubic metres per second, and the stored-up waters in the valley 
of the White Nile were forcing themselves down to take the place of 
those cut off from the Blue Nile, that Linant Pasha took his discharges 
of the Blue and White Niles and found them some 6000 and 5000 
cubic metres per second respectively. The same remark may be 
made about M. Chelu's discharge of the White Nile at Khartoum of 



PLATE IX. 



S 




lue Hlle at Wad Uedanl 



^ R. 



etuge 8.81 




* — ZgroafOMge 



\ie Nile at'Khartouw 




Lith. Sur. Dap. Cairo. 



OflO 






.J 



h^\uT ^iibA \t ^V\V\ a\i\:\ .3 f .OM 



* J 



?;>N 






B\\BiT ^ifiJ mo'\"\ .^i 06 a^bh^ ^^1 ^a ^V\\A ^vi\a ,3 T .OM 



boo\A 




^\ 



^ ! 



•\a\BWs fi'oA 



— 43 — 

4000 cubic metres per second in September 1876 and mentioned in his 
book "Z^ i\7/, le Soudan^ VEgypte^^'^ page 17. 

In 1903 the minimum discharge of the White Nile at its head was 
380 cubic metres per second in April and the maximum discharge 
was 1470 cubic metres per second in December, Table 24 gives the 
behaviour of the river. The minimum discharge of the White Nile 
at Khartoum may be taken as 300 cubic metres per second. The 
preceding paragraph will explain how difficult it will be to know its 
maximum discharge until a gauge and discharge table are established 
for the Blue Nile 100 kilometres above Khartoum well above back 
water, and a gauge and discharge table in the Main Nile north of 
Omdurman. The difference between these two discharges will be the 
true discharge of the White Nile which, with its slope of i^-^^ji^ in 
flood, is not a river but a flood reservoir. The discharges taken at 
Duem on the White Nile and at Khartoum on the Blue Nile in 
1902 and 1903 are interesting, but of little value for anything except the 
very date on which they were taken. They were all in backwaters. 

19. The Blue Nile. — Compared to any river we have yet described, 
the Blue Nile is a true mountain stream. Draining the southern and 
more rainy half of Abyssinia, it is the principal source of the Nile in 
flood. Whatever waters it receives, it carries to the Nile and it is the 
true parent of the land of Egypt, for the deposit from its muddy waters 
is that Nile mud which has made Egypt. The Atbara carries waters 
which are probably more muddy than those of the Blue Nile, but 
compared to the Blue Nile the Atbara is a small river, and its quota 
is insignificant by the side of that of the larger stream. The principal 
tributary of the Blue Nile, the Abai, rises at a height of about 2,700 
metres above sea level and after a course of 110 kilometres falls into Lake 
Tsana. Lake Tsana lies at a level of about 1,760 metres above sea level, 
and has an area of about 3,000 square kilometres and catchment basin 
of about 14,000 square kilometres irrespective of the lake area. On the 
31st of January 1903, after a very poor rainfall, Mr. C. Dupuis found the 
discharge 42 cubic metres per second. Calculating from his cross section, 
it seems that the maximum discharge may be 200 cubic metres per 
second. As at Lake Victoria, possibly not more than -j^th the rainfall 
finds its way into the lake ; and, once there, the greater part is evapor- 
ated. Little seems to leave the lake, which would consequently make a 
very poor reservoir. The land rises from the lake in gently imdulat- 
ing downs as a rule. Wherever observed by Mr. Dupuis, the lake was 



— 44 — 

shallow. There are many islands and some of them considejiable ones. 
The rivers feeding the lake are the following : — ^the Abai discharging 
9 cubic metres per second in January 1903, the Reb 2 cubic me- 
tres, the Gumara 2, the Magetch 0*3, the Arno Garno 0'3, the G^lda 
0*5, the Unfraz 1*2, and many smaller streams say 1'7, or 17 cubic 
metres per second in all. This of course was in the dry season. Mr. 
Dupuis considers the evaporation as 4 millimetres per day. 

Between Lake Tsana and Rosaires, on a length of about 750 kilo- 
metres the Blue Nile falls some 1260 metres ; between Rosaires and 
Sennar, on a length of 270 kilometres, it falls about 60 metres, and 
between Sennar and Khartoum on a length of 345 kilometres it falls 
about 50 metres. The cross sections of the river at Wad Medani, 
200 kilometres above Khartoum, and at Khartoum are given on 
Plate IX. 

In flood and early winter the river is navigable up to the Rosaires 
cataract. The width of channel may be considered as varying between 
350 and 700 metres with an average width of 500 metres. The river 
rises from 9 to 12 metres in flood and has a velocity in high floods of 
3 metres per second. Rivers with such velocities scour out their beds 
very severely in high floods and deposit silt in low floods, and for the 
discharges below 5 metres, cross sections should be annually established 
and discharge tables made depending on the sections. The summer 
discharge varies from 100 to 300 cubic metres per second and the 
flood from 7,500 to 12,500 cubic metres per second. The behaviour 
of the river is shown in Tables 24 and 25. The beginning of May is 
generally low water and the beginning of September high water. The 
winter discharge may be taken as 500 cubic metres per second. 

The tributaries south of Rosaires are the following :— on the right 
bank, the Folassa, the Durra, the Fatsam, the Bir and the Temsha, 
veritable torrents; and on the left bank, numerous streams from north 
and north-west of Addis Ababa, the Anjur, and the Didessa, the latter 
from 100 to 150 metres wide. North of the last is the Tumat. The 
Didessa is about 350 kilometres long and the Tumat 200. It is not at 
all improbable that in the valley of the Didessa far better reservoir 
sites could be found than at Lake Tsana. Capt. Lyons tells me that 
there are important reaches here with very little slope. North of 
Rosaires there are two important tributaries on the right bank, the 
Dinder, north of Sennar, and the Rahad, just north of Wad Medani. 
Both these streams run only in flood and are dry in winter and sum- 



PLATE VII 




Lith. Sur. D«p. Cairo. 



I IV 3TAJ'1 



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1 ' ♦ /.-' 


I ' ^' , ' 



— 45 — 

mer. The Dinderhas a bed width of about 120 metres, depth 4 metres 
in good flood and a velocity of 2 metres per second, which gives a 
discharge of about 1000 cubic metres per second in a high flood. The 
Rahad has a bed width of 60 metres, depth of 3 metres in a good flood 
and a velocity of 2 metres per second, which gives a discharge of 400 
cubic metres per second in a good flood. The deltas of the Blue Nile, 
the Dinder and the Rahad are formed of the richest Nile mud. Such 
soil is rich in lime, potash and phosphates, but is poor in nitrates. 

The velocity of the Blue Nile may be taken as 75 centimetres per 
second in low supply and 3 metres per second in high flood. 

20. The Atbfiurai. — The Atbara river flows into the Nile at El-Damer, 
south of Berber. It is essentially a torrent fed by the rains of north- 
eastern Abyssinia. The rains here begin early and end early, so that 
the Atbara is in high flood in August and falls quickly through Sep- 
tember. Its floods last from June to October and the river is dry for 
the remaining months of the year. By dr}^ it is meant that there is 
no running water, for the bed of the river contains numerous pools of 
water, which are nearly always deep and often very extensive. 

Mr. Dupuis has given a rough longitudinal section of the Atbara 
river. Rising within 16 kilometres of Lake Tsana, at a height of 
about 2000 metres above sea level, in its first 300 kilometres it falls 
1500 metres to 530 metres above sea level, where it is met by the Sa- 
laam river. In the next hundred kilometres it falls 40 metres and is 
joined by the Settit river, a larger and more permanent stream than 
the Atbara itself. Sixty kilometres lower down is the Khasm-el-Girba 
gauge, just upstream of Fasher and about 420 kilometres from the 
Nile. Two hundred kilometres below the Settit junction and about 
280 kilometres from the Nile is Gosrejeb, and 150 kilometres low^er 
down Adarma. Finally, after a total length of about 880 kilometres, 
the Atbara flows into the Nile. 

The Settit junction is about 490 metres above sea level, Fasher 470 
metres, Gosrejeb 410, Adarma 380, and El-Damer about 365 metres 
above sea level. In the last 280 kilometres there is therefore a fall 
of 45 metres or about ^^^ott- I^ ^^^^^ reach the river has a width of 
about 330 metres and depth in flood of 6 metres. 

Tables 24 and 25 give the behaviour of the river. In 1902 and 
1904, two very low years, the maximum discharge was about 2000 
cubic metres per second, and in 1903 about 3000 cubic metres. In high 
floods the Atbara can discharge 5000 cubic metres per second. 



— 46 — 

The principal tributaries of the Atbara are the Salaam and Setdt 
already mentioned. On its right bank between Gosrejeb and Adarma 
it is joined by the Gaash river, which flows past Kassala and loses itself 
in the deserts. In years of extraordinary rainfall the Gaash reaches the 
Atbara. The Gaash at Kassala has a width of 150 metres, depth of 
1 metre and approximate discharge of 300 cubic metres per second 
in an ordinary flood. It has a course of about 160 kilometres before 
it disappears in the desert. 

21. The Nile from Khartoum to Assuftn. — The Nile begins 
its course without any gauge to record its varying height. A gauge 
north of Omdurman, another upstream of the 6th cataract and a third 
downstream of the cataract are badly needed. Until these three gauges 
are erected and recorded, and another erected and recorded on the Blue 
Nile at Kamlin, about 100 kilometres above Khartoum, the behaviour 
of the Nile and its tributaries at their junction will never be exactly 
understood. Making use of the information which is obtainable, we 
may say that the Blue Nile is generally at its lowest between the 15th 
April and 15th May with a mean low- water discharge of about 200 
cubic metres per second, falling to nearly zero in certain years ; it is 
at its highest between the 15th August and 15th September with a 
mean maximum discharge of some 10,000 cubic metres per second, 
rising to 13,000 and falling to 6,500 in maximum and minimum 
years. If the larger figure is correct, the Blue Nile bank at Khartoum 
is over a metre too low, and the town is liable to be flooded out. 
If reference is made to Plate VIII it will be seen that the flood 
of the Blue Nile in July, August and September travels up the White 
Nile, holds back its waters and converts the valley of the White Nile 
into a flood reservoir. When the Bhie Nile falls rapidly in October 
and November, the discharge of the Nile is maintained by the stored- 
up waters in the White Nile and hy the White Nile flood which has 
slowly travelled down its almost level bed. Table 24 shows this more 
clearly than any description could. I do not think that the maximum 
discharge of the Main Nile on any given day is ever equal to the 
maximum discharge of the Blue Nile. 

The Nile between Khartoum and Berber has a channel wider and 
deeper than that between Wady Haifa and Assuftn and a gentler 
current. I have not taken, or seen any discharges which have been 
taken in this reach, but judging from what I saw I should say the 
channel was 800 metres wide on the average. At a distance of 86 kilo- 



.IIIV 3TAJq 



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— 47 — 



metres from Khartoum is the Shabluka or 6th cataract. Here the 
Nile descends 6 metres on a length of 18 kilometres. Two hundred 
and twenty kilometres below the cataract the Atbara flows into the 
Nile and repeats on a very small scale what the Blue Nile does at 
Khartoum. The Atbara is a flood torrent and is dry from October to 
May. In flood it discharges from a low maximum of 1,700 to a high 
maximum of 5,000 cubic metres per second, with a mean maximum 
of 3,500 cubic metres. 

In this reach the Nile has a maximum range of 8 J metres and an 
ordinary range of 7 metres. 

Twenty-four kilometres downstream of the Atbara junction is Berber, 
and 45 kilometres downstream of Berber is the beginning of the 5th 
cataract, which has a length of 160 kilometres and a drop of 55 metres 
with three principal rapids, the Solimania, Bagg&ra and Mograt. The 
village of Abu Hamed is situated at the foot of this Cataract. Between 
Abu Hamed and Dongola is the 4th Cataract, which begins at a point 
97 kilometres downstream of Abu Hamed, and has a length of 110 
kilometres with a drop of 49 metres. In this series of rapids are the 
Um Dftras and Guerendid. Between the 4th and 3rd Cataracts is a 
reach of 313 kilometres on a blope tWoT- On this reach is the town 
of Dongola. The 3rd Cataract has a length of 72 kilometres and a 
drop of 11 metres with the Hannek and Kaib&r rapids, surveyed and 
levelled by De Gottberg in 1857. Upstream of the Hannek rapid, on 
the left bank of the Nile, is the termination of the long depression in 
the deserts which goes by the name of the Wady-el-Kab and is consi- 
dered by many as lower than the Nile valley. Between the 3rd and 
2nd Cataracts is an ordinary reach of 118 kilometres. West of this part 
of the Nile are the Selima Wells and according to some travellers an 
old abandoned course of the Nile slightly above the present high level 
of the river. This waterless river is said to terminate in the Oasis of 
Berys which is separated from the Khargeh Oasis by a limestone ridge. 

The 2nd Cataract, known as the " Batn-el-Haggar" or "Belly 
Stone," has a length of 200 kilometres and a drop of 66 metres with 
the rapids of Am&ra, Dal, Semna and Abka. At Semna are the rocks 
where Lepsius discovered the Nile gauges cut by one of the Pharaohs 
some 4,000 years ago. The Nile flood recorded there is 8 metres 
higher than any flood of to-day. As the Nile at Semna could be very 
easily barred by a dam, it struck me when I was there in 1892 that 
probably King Amenemhat (of Lake Moeris fame) had tried to bar the 




— 48 — 

river with a dam in the hope of creating a reservoir. At Wady Haifa, 
near the foot of the 2nd Cataract, a masonry gauge divided into 
metres has been erected and read since 1877. Its accidental zero is 
R.L. 116.69 and the mean low-water level, or true zero, is R.L. 117.89. 
Between the 1st and 2nd Cataracts, the Nile has a length of 345 kilo- 
metres and a slope of jj^^oo- The mean width of the river is 500 
metres, and the mean depths in flood and summer are 9 and 2 metres. 
The velocity in summer falls to 50 centimetres per second and rises to 

'metres per second in flood. The river in this reach is generally 
within sandstone, and the greater part is provided with gigantic spurs 
on both banks. These spurs' perform the double work of collecting 
soil on the sides in flood and training the river in summer. They were 
probably put up by the great Rameses 3,000 years ago, as some of the 
most massive of them have evidently been constructed to turn the 
river on a curve out of its natural channel on to the opposite side in order 
to secure deep water in front of Rameses' temple of Jerf Husain (" Jerf " 
means steep, scoured bank). The spurs have been constructed with 
care, and as the courses of roughly-dressed stone can be examined at 
fairly low water (I have never seen them at absolutely low water) it 
is evident that there has been no great degradation of the bed during 
the last 2,000 or 3,000 years. The first, or Assuftn Cataract, has a 
drop of 5 metres on a length of 5 kilometres. 

From Khartoum to Assuftn, on a total length of 1809 kilometres, 
there are 565 kilometres of so-called cataracts with a total drop of 192 
metres, and 1,244 kilometres of ordinary channel with a total drop of 
103 metres. 

At the head of the 1st Cataract is the Assu&n dam, regulated on for 
the first time in October 1902. It has 140 openings of 2 metres x 7 
metres and 40 openings of 2 metres x 3 J metres. 

At the foot of the Ist Cataract, opposite the town of Assu&n, on the 
Island of Elephantine, has stood a Nile gauge from very ancient times. 
An oflScer belonging to the Roman garrison in the time of the Emperor 
Severus marked an extraordinarily high flood on the gauge. The 
maximum flood-mark at the time of the visit of Napoleon's French 
savants was however 2.11 metres higher than the above. As the 
middle of Severus' reign was A.D. 200, and the visit of French savants 
A. D. 1800, they concluded that the bed and banks of the Nile had 
risen 2.11 metres in 1600 years or 0.132 metres per 100 years. The 
new gauge divided into cubits and twenty -fourths was erected in 



PLATE X. 






N.W. 



f 


X: 


^ 


i 


"^ 


^ 


^ 




a 


ig 


ai 


V 



^^jm$tr$$flromtheMii$ 84 

CR088 8ECTION OF THE NILE VALLEY NEAR IBRIM 



8.E. 




inlMiime^OM 

Ufip$r OntMctauM 

FofiMM M^H with 

0§tr§M Of$rw§gl 




Datum M$an 89a 



s s 



I 






9 S ^. Height abofa mean sea 
S «h^ in matraa 



— KiionmtrmpomthaHila 40 



CR088 8ECTION OF THE NILE VALLEY NEAR A88UAN 



P8* 



Longitudinal Scale 1 : 1.500.000 
Vertical Scale 1:15.000 



m 



j^ 



Lithf Sup. 0«p. Cmpo. 



J i 



— 49 — 

1869 and has been recorded daily since then (a cubit =54 centimetres). 
The accidental zero of the gauge is R. L. 84.16. The mean low-water 
level or true zero is R. L. 85.00. 

22. The Nile from Assu&n to the Barrage. — From Assuftn 
to the Barrage, the length of the river is 973 kilometres in summer 
and 923 in flood. The slope in summer is ^^qqq and in flood TlfToo*' 
The mean fall of the valley is yir^Tyx^. The slopes vary in the different 
mean reaches, the least being ^^l^^ in the Kena Mudina and the 
"^feiatest xrirnr i^ BeSr Suef . In a high flood with a rise of 9 metres r 
at Assuftn, the rise in Kena will be 9.5 metres and only 8.2 in Beni I 
Suef. Table 42 gives the mean areas of cross sections of the Nile, / 
while table 44 gives the mean widths. Neglecting spill channels, we I 
may state that in a high flood the mean area of the section of the Nile \ j 

is 7,500 square metres and the mean width 900 metres. In the Kena,^ ^1 / 

Mudiria, the area is 7,000 square metres and the width 800 metres," 
while in Beni Suef the mean area is 8,000 square metres and the 
mean width 1,000 metres. Speaking generally it may be stated that 
where th e Ni le valley js nSIfow the slope of the'rTver is small, its 
depth great and width contracted:'; , w,liileT'wh£r^the--^vaHe3r-ig broad 
the slope i s great, the depthuBmall and the width enlarged. The mean 
^velocityin flood ranges betwen 2.0 metres and 1.0 metre per second, 
while the velocity in summey varies from 0.5 to 0.9 metre per second. 
We may say that the Nile in soil has a natural section _wllQaa width 
in flood is llO times " its depth, w hUe^ its mean velocity is 1.50 metres 
per second. 

The natural canals, which take oflf the river and which never silt, 
have a mean velocity of some 65 centimetres per second, while the 
proportion of width to depth is about 12. to 1. Artificial canals of 
this section do not silt if their velocities are 80 centimetres per second, 
while silting takes place as readily when the velocity is greater ^s 
when it is less than the above. In muddy streams, like the Nile in 
flood, certain velocities demand certain proportions of width to depth, 
and if these are not. given to it, they will make it for themselves by 
eating away the sides if they can, or, if they cannot eat away the sides, 
by silting up and raising the bed. •^ 

To the north of Assiout is situated the Assiout weir or barrage 
across the Nile with 111 openings of 5 metres and 10 metres depth 
of water in high flood. It was regulated on for the first time in 
August 1902. 



— 50 — 

On Roda island, opposite Cairo, has stood a gauge from the earliest 
times. It has been frequently reconstructed. The present gauge is 
reputed to have been erected in A.D. 861 with its zero at the same 
level as a more ancient one whose readings have been preserved since 
A.D. 641. When the gauge was constructed, a reading of 16 cubits 
meant the lowest level at which flood irrigation could be insured 
everywhere. The level to-day is 20J cubits on the gauge and the 
difference between them is 1.22 metres. As 1,026 years have elapsed 
since the construction of the gauge it means a rise of 12 centimetres 
per 100 years. This is slightly imder the rise calculated at Assu&n 
by the French savants. 

The following table gives the means of the maximum flood and 
low water levels per century :— 

7th century 17.5 R.L. flood 11.0 R.L. low water 6.9 Difference. 



8th 


n 


17.4 


11.1 


6.3 


9th 


n 


17.5 


11.2 


„ 6.3 


10th 


J> 


17.5 


11.3 


6.2 


11th 


» 


17.5 


11.4 


6.1 


12th 


n 


17.7 


11.5 


6.2 


13th 


» 


17.7 


11.6 


6.1 


Uth 


n 


17.9 


11.7 


6.2 


15th 


n 


18.2 


11.8 


6.4 


16th 


» 


18.4 


11.9 


6.5 


17th 


» 


18.8 


12.0 


» 6.8 


18th 


99 


19.1 


12.1 


7.1 


19th 


w 


19.5 


12.2 


7.3 



>te^ 



It is evident from the above that the head of the Delta, or the 
bifurcation of the Nile, was much nearer to Cairo in early days than 
just now, and the ladt three centuries have seen great changes. The 
fall of watersurface is very considerable at every bifurcation, and the 
difference between mean high and low supply at the Barrage to-day 
is 6.0 metres against 7.2 metres at Cairo. Judging from the above 
figures, I should say that from the 7th to the 13th century the bifur- 
cation was gradually approaching Cairo, while since the 13th it has 
been receding. 



C A I F 



PLATE XII. 




|~ Distano« from Assuan down 
t oentn Iiim of low ftupply 
-al Slope of W.8. Dunng low supply 



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L* 

X 

~i 

LLI 

c 



5 O 


% 


o 


i ^ ' 


OP 




'V 


9 


H 




-J 


n 


cv 


9! 


Ui 




91 


CO 


1 


C>> 


03 




u- 


CV) 


• 


■o 


o 

O 



! 

I 



rr.i-.i 



C ' 

c> 
111 
cc 

o 
o 

L. . 



go N 
'^ CO 



LU 

o 
> 

> 
CD 

tu 

o 



U) 

-1 

hi 

o 

I. 



-< 
O 



< 
LU 

L. 

> 
< 

LU 

L^ 



I 
-I 






W 



CO. O 

j . ^: H 

' I c? O 

\ 1 ^^^ 



/ :0 









CO 

o 

O 
LU 
CO 

CO 

cv> 

o 
o 



t^?- 



.0 ^ 






10 ^n 
U3 io 



\ BiCHX 



j;: o' 



— 51 — 



The following table gives the highest and lowest floods at Cairo 
in intervals of 25 years from A.D. 639 to A.D. 1904. 

The gauges are in pics and kirats and are referred to mean low 
water or R.L. 12*25 metres above mean sea. 





HlOREST MAXIMDM 


Lowest maximum 


N> 


of 




Tean 
























1 

• • 




Metres 








Metres 


years 


RemarkB. 


A. D. 




Metres 
B. L. 


referred 
to zero at 


1 


1 
21 


Metres 

B. L. 


referred 
to zero at 


recorded. 






19 




B.L.12-2S 






B.L. 12-26 








639- 650 


18 '16 


5-91 


14 


16'74 


4-49 


11 years 




651- 675 


19 


23 


18-42 


6-17 


15 


12 


17-07 


4-82 


25 


99 




676- 700 


18 


17 


18-08 


5-83 


13 


6 


15-87 


3-62 


25 


9) 




701- 725 


18 


22 


18-14 


5-89 


13 


18 


16-13 


3-88 


25 


99 




726- 750 


18 


13 


18-04 


5-79 


14 


i 


16-28 


4-03 


25 


99 




751- 775 


18 


10 


18-00 


5-75 


14 


19 


16-70 


4-45 


25 


99 




776- 800 


18 


4 


17-93 


5-68 


14 


1 


16-29 


4-04 


25 


99 




801- 825 


17 


18 


17-82 


5-57 


14 


2 


16-31 


4-06 


25 


99 




826- 850 


17 


12 


17-76 


5-51 


13 


5 


15-85 


3-60 


25 


99 




851- 875 


18 


8 


17-98 


5-73 


15 


15 


17-15 


4-90 


25 


99 




876- 900 


17 


22 


17-86 


5-61 


14 


22 


16-76 


4-51 


25 


99 




901- 925 


18 


1 


17-90 


5-65 


13 


4 


15-83 


3-58 


25 


99 




926- 950 


19 


• • 


18-16 


5-91 


14 


17 


16-65 


4-40 


25 


99 




951- 975 


18 


5 


17-94 


5-69 


14 


19 


16-60 


4-45 


24 


99 




976-1000 


26 
19 


23 

8 


21-65 


9-40 


15 
14 


2 
9 


16-85 
16-47 


4-60 
4-22 


25 
25 


99 


Max. year 199 


1001-1025 


18-25 


6-00 




1026-1050 


18 


6 


17-95 


5-70 


15 


9 


17-01 


4-76 


25 


99 




1051-1075 


17 

18 


18 
16 


17-71 
18-07 


5-46 
5-82 


12 
13 


3 
17 


15-30 


3-05 


25 
24 


5J 
99 


Min. year 1070 


1076-1100 


16-11 


3-86 




1101-1125 


19 


1 


18-17 


5-92 


16 


12 


17-48 


5-23 


25 


99 




1126-1150 


18 


18 


18-09 


5-84 


16 


9 


17-45 


5-20 


24 


99 




1151-1175 


18 


18 


18-09 


5-84 


15 


1 


16-83 


4-58 


25 


99 




1176-1200 


18 
18 


14 

8 


18-05 
17-98 


5-80 
5-73 


12 
15 


21 

7 


15-68 


3-43 


25 
25 


n 

99 


Min. year 1199 


1201-1225 


16-96 


4-71 




1226-1250 


18 


8 


17-98 


5-73 


14 


• • 


16-27 


4-02 


25 


99 




1251-1275 


18 


17 


18-08 


5-83 


16 


12 


17-48 


5-28 


23 


99 




1276-1300 


19 


7 


18-24 


5-99 


15 


18 


17-22 


4-97 


25 


99 




1301-1325 


18 


19 


18-10 


5-85 


16 


2 


17-37 


5-12 


25 


99 




1326-1350 


18 


21 


18-13 


5-88 


16 


5 


17-40 


5-15 


25 


99 




1351-1375 


24 
20 


• • 

3 


20-05 


7-80 


16 
16 


18 
13 


17-55 
17-50 


5-30 
5-25 


24 
25 


99 


Max. year 1359 


1376-1400 


18-46 


6-21 




1401-1425 


20 


12 


18-56 


6-31 


16 


13 


17-50 


5-25 


24 


99 




1426-1450 


20 


21 


18-67 


6-42 


15 


7 


16-96 


4-71 


23 


99 




1451-1475 


18 


8 


17-98 


5-73 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


1 


99 




1476-1500 


20 


21 


18-67 


6-42 


19 


17 


18-55 


6-30 


2 


99 




1501-15251 20 


16 


18-61 


6-36 


16 


• • 


17-35 


5-10 


19 


99 




1526-1550 


.. 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 




• • 





— 52 — 



Tean 
A. D. 


Highest maxtiiitm 


Lowest maximum 


N*of 

years 

recorded. 








Metres 

B. L. 


Metres 
referred 
to zero at 
B.L. VI 26 




1 


Metres 

B. L. 


Metres 
referred 
toseroat 
B.L. 12-25 


Remarks. 


1551-1575 
1576-1600 


• • 

26 

24 

19 
22 

24 

23 
24 

24 

24 

2.2 

24 

26 

26 

• • 


• • 

• • 

5 


21-13 


8-88 


• • 

18 
17 
15 

• • 

22 

16 

20 

18 
12 
0)8 
18 
19 
17 

• • 


• • 
8 

23 

• • 
■ • 

• • 

• • 

14 
17 
12 

• ■ 

23 

13 

3 


17-98 
17-88 
16-81 

• • 

18-97 

17-35 
18-58 

18-08 

15-49 

13-14 


5-73 
5-63 
4-56 

• • 

6-72 

5-10 
6-33 

5-83 

3-24 

0-89 


11 

19 

3 
1 

3 

18 
24 

25 

25 

3 

25 
25 
25 

4 


• • 

years 

W 

n 


Max. yekr 1587 


1601-1625 


20-16 


7-91 


„ 1602 


1626-1650 
1651-1675 


• • 

• ■ 

• • 

4 
12 

12 

• • 

• • 

9 
12 

6 

• • 


18-16 
18-97 


5-91 
6-72 


Max. year 16(39 


1676-1700 


20-05 


7-80 


1697 


1701-1725 
1726-1750 


19-60 
20-32 


7-35 
8-07 


Max. year 1738 


1751-1775 


20-32 


8-07 


„ 1756 


1776-1800 


20-05 


7-80 


„ 1779 


1801-1825 


18-97 
20-26 


6-72 
8-01 


Min. year 1809 


1826-1850 


18-15 

i8-:w 

17-65 
18-02 


5-90 

. 6-05 

5-40 

5-97 


Max. year 1850 


1851-1875 


21-40 


9-15 


„ 1874 


1876-1900 


21-27 


9-02 


« 1878 


1901-1904 


19-18 


6-93 


Min. year 1877 



(1) There is an error here in the records. 



i 



At Assu&n the Nile has a mean range of 7.90 metres between high 
and low supply, with a maximum of 9.80 metres and a minimum of 
6.40 metres. The high supply varies between 13,200 and 6,500 cubic 
metres per second, with a mean of 10,000 cubic metres per second, 
while the low supply varies between 350 and 1400 cubic metres per 
second with a mean of 590 cubic metres per second. September is 
generally the highest month and May the lowest. The mean low 
water level is R. L. 85.00. 

^ ^At Cairo the Nile has a mean range of 7.00 metres with a maximum 
of 9.6 metres and a minimum of 5.3 metres. The high supply varies 
between 12,000 and 4,800 cubic metres per second with a mean of 
7,600 cubic metres \ er second, while the low supply varies between 



I%8 



PLATE XI. 



No. 21 . Atian RlnriiKltor AHa^wiSkm. frm Hlh 



H.W^ 



^•^i^^ ' '^?^;^ ' ^^l^4^'\fMf !! ^^ ?^ ^! ' '^-^f^'f\'-^^ ^i'^WW^ 








M.ri. 






• 1 

, _ . J. 


f 

1 

. i 


r 
\ 




■1 
5 

1 


MB* 



t?,^'- 



' -»» H« 




■-*! 



^\<^- 



1^ 



^^.- ■ 



Lith. 8up. D«p. Ouro. 



.IX>» 



' .J 



noVhnuVQ^'vW ^ %Y04ft .mi4Q&.ftV^^,\ioM^>4>n.te \M .Q-t .OM. 



PJK. 




--/^'■:^^ 



.l.A.Vl 



.J 



"'*^^- r-*. / 



.J 



y 



-.p- 



0» » t« 



.- ,^' 




— 53 — 

1,300 and 250 cubic metres per second, with a mean of 500 cubic 
metres per second. October is the highest month and June the lowest. 
The mean low water level is at R. L. 12.25. — 

Tables 41 to 52 refer to the Nile between Assuftn and the Barrage 
at the head of the Delta proper. 

Table 46 gives the Reduced Level of the mean low water level of 
the Nile at various points between Assu&n and Cairo. If, for example, 
it is known that the water surface at any time of the year at Assiout is 
R. L. 50.80; we know the mean low water by the Irrigation Department 
levels is 45.05. The gauge is therefore 5.75, and by turning to Table 37 
we know the discharge. 

Table 37 gives the discharges of the river for gauges referred to 
the mean low water level. Between Esna and Kena the table is in 
excess of the truth, and between Assiout and Beni-Suef it is slighty 
under. Taken all round the table is reliable, calculated from the 
means of hundreds of discharges and carefully prepared. ^ 

Table 45 gives the slope of the water surface of the Nile in flood 
and in summer between AssuAn and Cairo. Owing to the more 
winding track of the low supply than of the flood waters, the former ^ 
is 948 kilometres and the flood 900. The slope in summer is |3qqq and 1 
in high flood f 2200. ^ i 

The other tables need no explanation. 

23. The Rosetta and Damietta Branches.— Plates XYII and 
XVIII give longitudinal sections of the two branches of the Nile and 
their cross sections are given on Plate XL ^_ 

During winter, summer, and low floods, regulation at the Barrage \ 
interferes with the natural discharges of the two branches. The 
Damietta branch is gradually silting up and decreasing in size, while / 
the Rosetta branch scours in high floods. The mean width of the 
Rosetta branch is 500 metres, and the mean area of the section in 
flood is 4000 square metres. The mean width of the Damietta branch 
is 270 metres and the mean section 2700 square metres. The mean 
velocity of the floods range from 1.00 metre to 1.60 metres per second. 
In summer the branches are hermetically closed at their heads and 
receive only the water which filters into them from the subsoil. This 
in the Rosetta branch amounts to 20 cubic metres per second, and less 
in the Damietta branch. It may be noted here that at Cairo the girder 
bridge at Kasr-el-Nil is 403 metres between the abutments and the 
smaller bridge is 178 metres, making a total width of 581 metres. 



— 54 — 

The width of the Ka£r Zajat bridge on the Rosetta branch is 530 
metres, while the old Benha bridge on the Damietta branch is 285 
metres. The average depth of water in flood in the two branches may 

, be taken as 7 metres. 

The barrage at the head of the Rosetta branch has 61 openings of 5 
metres each and one lock 15 metres wide and the other 12 metres. 
They are all open in high flood. The Damietta barrage has 61 openings 
of 5 metres and one lock of 12 metres. The depth of water in a high 
flood is 9 metres. The Rosetta barrage has 10 openings too few, and 
the Damietta barrage 15 openings too many. 

^^ Before the construction of the Barrage in the middle of the 19th cen- 
tury, the maximum discharges of the two branches at the head of 
the Delta were nearly the same. A little lower down, however, the 
Rosetta branch had considerably more water than the Damietta. About 
2 kilometres below the Barrage there was a branch called the Shalakan 
branch which flowed from the Damietta into the Rosetta branch. 
About 20 kilometres below the Barrage, the Bahr Ferounieh took 
about \ the total discharge of the Damietta branch and led it into the 
Rosetta branch. Both these were closed by Mehemet Ali, while at the 
same time the Bahrs Sirsawiah, Baguria, Shebin, Khadrawiah, Moes, 
Um-Salama, Bohia and Sogair were also completely closed or provided 
with regulating heads, which very considerably diminished their 
discharge. During the time that they had been open the Damietta 
branch had lost water at every kilometre as it approached the sea, and 
though 400 metres wide at the head it had a channel only 200 metres 
wide in its lower reaches. The Rosetta branch on the other hand 
received the tail waters of many Bahrs and had only one escape, the 
Bahr Saidi near its tail. 

The closing of so many escapes on the Damietta branch has caused 
this branch in its upper reaches to carry so much water that its 
tail reaches can not carry it without having the surface of the water 
raised inordinately and dangerously above the level of the country. 

^ An examination of the longitudinal sections will show that while the 
Rosetta branch in its middle reaches is from 1.50 to 2.00 metres above 
the level of the country in a high flood, the Damietta branch is from 
2.50 to 3.00 metres. They will also show how the slope in the early 
reaches of the Damietta branch is considerably less than that in the 
early reaches of the Rosetta branch, which results in the gradual silting up 
of the former as already noted. The Karanain regulator at the head of 



PLATE XVII. 




Sh/M of wtter 8uifae$ 
In Flood. 



Klloimtreo from Httd. 



Top of Hilt Bulk. 









S 



-4 < «0 



« 

^ 



Hood Levef 1892. 



Qround L$¥et8, 



B9dLer$f8. 



20 



10 



038 JAkliaUTIOMOJ 



5 

CO 



--^i- 



02 



' I 
I * 

s * 

- 1-- 



3 

I 






CM 

:0 






G,:r Cf 



a- ■-/'-•: 



O^ff 



■ * - ■ 

t 



O . . 0»: 



CkJ .i-»r ;\ I 



PLATE XVIII. 




230 



20 10 



S S S 

00 g Oft 

•^ ^ " 1 ^ 



s 



s 



-1 — n 



s s § 

icS «d 00 



s 8 i 

n: ^ ^ 



ty Datum Sea LereL 

Slope of Water Surface 
InFiood 



Kiiometret from Head. 



Top of NUe Bank. 



Flood Level 1892. 



Ground Levelt, 



Bed Levels. 



20 10 



033 JAMiaUTIDHOJ 



o 



3 






? 









30 

5 



5 






{,ti 



W--" r..T, ,TT • 



■T-r.>- : -N 



7^ 
-1 



.4. ..-., 



,j-j,.-. 



I 



C3 



000.2 f 






oer o^r oer oer OTf oer oer 001^ ore oijfi oes 





s 


eo 




. <o 


<o 


,__ ^ 




s 


§ 




bo 


CO 


t. i 






0? 

-IT 


1 , 



\'i>i^i M& >Ho\«ia 



'X 



g 



? 


cv CV 


1 



oer o>f oer oar 



ovr 



0«f 



J 



T 



oer 



ooi' ors OSS 



- 56 — 

the old Bahr Shebin, taking from the Damietta branch below the Bahr 
Ferouniah, was built in 1842 by Linant Pasha, with its wing wall 
60 centimetres higher than any previous flood. By 1870 the Damietta 
branch had risen 70 centimetres above the wing wall as measured by 
Linant Pasha. In 1878, though the Damietta branch was relieved by 
the Gizeh breach in the left bank of the Main Nile which drained 
into the Rosetta branch, the flood water surface of the Damietta branch 
at Karanain was 1.50 metres above the wing wall. 

The maximum, minimum and mean floods in the Rosetta branch 
are 6,600, 2,600 and 4,000 cubic metres per second. In the Damietta 
branch they are 4,600, 1,300 and 2,300 cubic metres per second 
respectively. - ^ 



— 56 — 



CHAPTER III. 
The utilisation of th«» Nile. 

24. The Nile in flood. — We are now in a position to apply our 
knowledge of the Nile and its tributaries to an examination of the be- 
haviour of the rivers in flood and in time of low supply. Lake Victoria, 
the Victoria Nile, and Lake Albert may all be considered as the great 
equatorial regulators of the Nile. The river, as a river, begins at the 
outlet of Lake Albert, i.e., at the head of the Albert Nile. Generally at 
its lowest in April, it rises gradually and reaches its maximum in 
November. The mean minimum of 600 cubic metres per second is 
gradually increased to its mean maximum of 900 cubic metres. The 
regulating eflEect of the lakes is very evident. 

Between Lake Albert and Gondokoro the heavier rains begin late in 
April and with a break in June and July continue to November. The 
mean minimum discharge of 600 cubic metres per second in April is 
increased by alternating rises and falls to the mean maximum of 1600 
cubic metres per second in September, which has disappeared by the end 
of November, when the water of Lake Albert alone remains in the river. 

The Gazelle river in no way affects the flood or the low supply. Its 
great function is to maintain the levels of the great swamps between 
latitudes 7° and 9°, saturate the soil, and prevent the complete disap- 
pearance of the waters of the Albert Nile between January and May. 
The functions this river performs are humble ones, but deprived of its aid, 
the Nile north of Khartoum would frequently be dry in April and May. 

The Albert Nile at its tail just upstream of the mouth of the Sobat 
is at its lowest in April and May with a mean low dibcharge of 375 
cubic metres per second, when it is joined by the Sobat river with an 
approximate mean low discharge of 125 cubic metres per second; 
making a joint discharge for the head of the White Nile of 500 cubic 
metres per second as a mean minimum. Now begins one of the most 
interesting operations of any in the whole valley of the Nile, exceeded 
only in interest by what happens at Khartoum lower down. The 
Albert Nile and the Sobat river both rise together, the Albert Nile on 
a very gentle slope freely overflowing its banks in the Sudd region, 



— 57 — 

and the Sobat river confined within its channel during its highest 
floods. The White Nile has a very gentle slope, little carrying capacity 
and is quite incapable of taking on both floods. The water rises at the 
junction and the Sudd region becomes a reservoir flooded to a depth 
of 3 metres. As the Sobat river increases its discharge gradually 
from 75 cubic metres per second in April to 1000 cubic metres per 
second in October and November (for it is confined to its channel), the 
Albert Nile decreases the actual discharge it sends down the White Nile 
and increases what it spreads over the Sudd region. The Albert Nile, 
having increased its quota for the White Nile from 375 in April to 
450 cubic metres per second in September, gives less in October and 
November and gradually passes on its waters in December, January 
and February when the Sobat has fallen. 

The White Nile at its head near Tewfikieh has its mean minimum 
of 500 cubic metres per second in April, and increases slowly to its 
mean maximum of 1500 cubic metres per second in December. During 
this interval its water surface is raised by 3"50 metres. This water 
travels very slowly on to Khartoum, where the mean minimum is 450 
cubic metres per second in May, the slope is very insignificant, and the 
trough of the river is 1500 metres wide. 

At Khartoum the White Nile meets the Blue Nile. No greater 
contrast exists in the world. If maximum discharges are alone 
considered, the little finger of the Blue Nile is thicker that the loins 
of the White Nile. 

The Blue Nile is at its lowest on the Ist May with a mean minimum 
supply of 200 cubic metres per second rising to a mean maximum flood 
of 10,000 cubic metres per second on the 1st September. The flood has 
fallen to 2000 cubic metres per second by the middle of November. 

Up to the middle of July the Blue and White Niles keep increasing 
their discharges steadily at Khartoum, but after that date the Blue Nile 
gauge and discharge rise rapidly together, and the Blue Nile not only 
feeds the Main Nile, but flows up the White Nile and arrests its discharge, 
so that at Duem, 200 kilometres above Khartoum, the White Nile 
discharge decreases in July and August while the Blue Nile is steadily 
flowing up the White Nile valley and converting it into a reservoir for 
the Nile in winter. It is only after the 15th September, when the Blue 
Nile has begun to fall steadily and continuously that the White Nile 
discharge really commences and reaches its mean maximum of some 
2000 cubic metres per second in October. 



— 58 — 

The mean minimum discharge of the Nile of 650 cubic metres per 
second at Khartoum is obtained on the 1st May and the mean maximum 
of 9000 cubic metres per second on the 1st September. Fed by the White 
Nile reservoir the river falls comparatively slowly. Whether this pecu- 
liar relation of the two rivers to each other could not be taken advantage 
of to increase the supply in December, January and February, and 
decrease it in October and November by means of a regulating dam 
built across the White Nile at Khartoum is worthy of study. 

I greatly prefer the idea of storing the flood waters of the White Nile 
at Khartoum to any storage of the Albert Nile water above the junction 
of the Sobat river. A regulator above the Sobat junction would store 
up a very considerable quantity of water, but the quality would be 
very doubtful and possibly dangerous to health. 

At El Damer, south of Berber, the Atbara flows into the Nile. Dry 
from January to May, the flood begins in June and is at its maximum 
as a rule in the last week of August ; with a mean high flood discharge 
of 3600 cubic metres per second. This water cannot come on to 
Assu&n without fiUing up the 200 kilometres downstream of the 6th 
cataract where the slope of the Nile is gentle and the river lends itself 
to being used as a reservoir. It is owing to the fact that none of the main 
feeders of the Nile flow in immediately below cataracts that the rise 
and fall of the Nile in Egypt, is so regular and constant. If the Sobat, 
Blue Nile and Atbara all flowed into the White or Main Niles below 
cataracts we should have floods in Egypt whose sudden changes of level 
and fluctuations would be an unending source of danger to the country. 

It is owing to the earliness of the Atbara high flood and the compa- 
rative lateness of the Nile high flood, that the ordinary maximum 
discharge of the Nile at Assu&n is only 10,000 cubic metres per second. 
This is generally on the 5th September. When the monsoon is early 
the maximum at Assuftn is reached before or on the 5th September ; 
when the monsoon is late the maximum is reached about the 20th 
September. An early maximum at Assuftn is generally followed by a 
low summer, while a late maximum is generally followed by a high 
summer supply. Only once has this rule been broken and that was in 
1891 when there were two maxima, one on the 4th September and 
another on the 27th. In this year there must have been an extra- 
ordinary fall of rain in Abyssinia in September, for the flood of the 
27th September was very muddy, while as a rule the river at Assuftn 
is very muddy in August, less so in September, still less so in 



— 59 — 

October and much less in November when the White Nile is the ruling 
factor in the supply of the river. 

If the September rains in Abyssinia are very heavy, an ordinary 
flood passes Assu&n at the end of September and is disastrous for 
Egypt. This happened in 1878. Table 26 contains details of this 
flood, of the minimum flood year 1877 and the mean of the 20 years 
from 1873 to 1892. 

At Assuftn the Nile enters Egypt, and it now remains to consider it 
in its last 1,200 kilometres. The mean minimum discharge at Assiian 
is 590 cubic metres per second and is reached about the end of May. 
The river rises slowly till about the 20th July and then rapidly through 
August, reaching its maximum about the 5th September, and then 
falling very slowly through October and November. The deep pere- 
nial irrigation canals take water all the year round, but the flood 
irrigation canals are closed with earthen banks till the 15th August, 
and are then all opened. These flood canals, of which there are some 
45, are capable of discharging 2,000 cubic metres per second at the 
beginning of an ordinary year, 3,600 cubic metres per second in a maxi- 
mum year, and have an immediate effect on the discharge of the Nile. 
The channel of the Nile itself and its numerous branches and arms 
consume a considerable quantity of water (the cubic contents of the 
trough of the Nile between Assufin and Cairo are 7,000,000,000 cubic 
metres), the direct irrigation from the Nile between Assuftn and Cairo 
takes 50 cubic metres per second, 130 cubic metres per second are lost 
by evaporation off the Nile, and 400 cubic metres per second by absorp- 
tion. Owing to all these different causes, there is the net result that, 
from August 15th to October 1st, the Nile is discharging 2,400 cubic 
metres per second less at Cairo than Assftan. During October and 
November the flood canals are closed, and the basins which have been 
filled in August and September discharge back into the Nile, and in 
October the Nile at Cairo is discharging 900 cubic metres per second in 
excess of the discharge at Assuftn and 500 cubic metres per second in 
excess in November. 

The mean minimum discharge at Cairo is 500 cubic metres per 
second and is attained on the 15th of June ; the river rises slowly 
through July and fairly quickly in August, and reaches its ordinary 
maximum on the 1st October when the basins are full and the 
discharge from the basins is just beginning. The ordinary maxi- 
mum discharge at Cairo is about 7,600 cubic metres per second. 



— 60 — 

Through October the Nile at Cairo is practically stationary, and falls 
rapidly in November. 

North of Cairo are the heads of the perennial canals which irrigate 
the Delta proper. The canals, with their feeders lower down, discharge 
1,200 cubic metres per second, and the ordinary maximum flood at 
Cairo of 7,600 cubic metres per second is reduced by this amount 
between Cairo and the sea. Of the 6,400 cubic metres per second which 
remain, 4,100 cubic metres per second find their way to the sea down 
the Rosetta branch, and 2,300 cubic metres per second down the 
Damietta branch. During extraordinary floods the Damietta branch 
has discharged 4,300 cul)ic metres per second and the Rosetta branch 
7,000 cubic metres per second. 

25. The Nile in loiv supply. —We have so far considered the 
Nile in flood, it now remains to quickly dispose of the low supply. 
After reaching its maximum, the Atbara, which is a torrential river, 
falls more rapidly than others, and by the end of September has practi- 
cally disappeared ; after the middle of September the Blue Nile falls 
quickly, while the White Nile with its large basin, gentle flow and 
numerous reservoirs, falls very deliberately. The mean minimum 
discharge of the White Nile at Gondokoro in an ordinary year, at the 
time of low supply, is 600 cubic metres per second. Of the Sobat 
river it is 100 cubic metres per second. By the time the water reaches 
Khartoum it is reduced to 450 cubic metres per second. The mean low 
supply of the Blue Nile is 200 cubic metres per second, giving a mean 
low supply to the Nile at Khartoum of 650 cubic metres per second. 
The Atbara supplies nothing. Between Khartoum and Assudn there 
is a further loss of 60 cubic metres per second, and the mean low supply 
delivered at Assu&n is 590 cubic metres per second. In very bad years 
the discharge at Assuftn has fallen to 400 cubic metres per second. 

Lombardini was no untrue prophet when he wrote that he was 
convinced that the more carefully the discharges were taken and the 
results known, the more would engineers be astonished at the extra- 
ordinary amount of the subsoil water which filtered into the Nile 
from the head of the White Nile to the sea, and which gave back to 
the Nile in the months of deflux of the river, the water which had 
percolated into the soil during the afliux. He predicted that heavy as 
the evaporation was in April, May and Jutie in the Nile valley, the 
influx of subsoil water would be found to counterbalance it. When 
we calculate the extent of the water used in irrigation along the 



— 61 — 

course of the Nile, and compare the discharges at Tewfikieh, Khartoum, 
Assuftn, Cairo and at the tails o£ the Rosetta and Damietta branches 
during the time o£ low supply we can only admire the perspicacity of 
the greatest hydraulic engineer of the last century. 

26. Nile 'water. — For th » following information I am principally 
indebted to M. J. Barois' " Les irrigations en Egypte" just published, 
and to an article by Mr G. P. Foaden in the Journal of the Khedivial 
Agricultural Society for January 1903. The colour of Nile water is 
generally a pale yellow, but in June, when the first indications of the 
coming flood are given by a continuous gentle rise of the river from 
its minimum gauge, the water changes to green and remains so for 
two or three weeks. This green water has a very disagreable taste and 
odour, and is especially objectionable when the Nile has been very low 
and the rise is a slow one. In June 1900 it was extraordinarily bad, 
and the river water was so poor in oxygen that standing on Kasr-el-Nil 
bridge at Cairo one could see the surface of the water covered with 
fish which apparently could only live near tlie surface. In the deep 
reaches near Kalabsha in Nubia, the fish died in myriads. This green 
water is attributed by some to the immense amount of vegetable matter 
brought down by the White Nile from the Sudd region. Some say 
that it comes principally with the first rise of the Sobat river. But 
the generally accepted theory to-day is that the green water is the 
result of vegetable growths from germs is the ^ater itself, and that 
wherever or whenever the current becomes exceedingly slack they 
multiply greatly. Upstream of the Assu&n dam in June 1903 the 
water was extraordinarily green and exceedingly objectionable. As it 
was shot out of the upper sluices of the dam and broken up into spray 
on the downstream side of the dam it became so purified that I found 
it difficult to understand that the water flowing past Elephantine 
Island was what I had seen at Shellal. The green water is followed 
by the red water of the Nile flood, which has always thoroughly 
established itself at Cairo by the 1st of August. This red water comes 
from the scourings of the volcanic plateau of Abyssinia by the Blue Nile 
and the Atbara. Rich in mud and rich in manures, tfiis red water is^. 
the creator of Egypt. Egypt is nothing more than the deposit left by 
the Nile in flood. The water is most heavily charged with detritus 
in August, less in September, and still less in October. 

Many analyses have been made of Nile water. Following M. Barois, 
I place side by side the analysis of Dr. Letheby of 1874/75 and 



Dr. Mackenzie of 1896/97/98. 
high flood. 



-62 — 
The year 1874 was an extraordinarily 



Month. 



January • • • • • • • • 

February 

March •• •• •• •• • 

April • 

May*. • •• 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December •• •• •• 

Mean 



PARTS nt 100,000 OF WATBB 



Dr. Mackenzie. 



31' 
25' 
12- 



15-8 



14-7 

14-1 

13-9 

159-0 

156-1 

110-0 

70-8 

47-0 



56-0 



Dr. Letheby. 



16-7 
12-6 

5-3 

6- 

4- 

6- 
17- 



•6 
•8 
-9 
•8 



149-2 



53' 
37' 
34- 

28' 



31-3 



The Mean 
of the two 



27- 

22- 

10- 

13- 

12-2 

12-3 

14-8 



-4 

•1 

•9 
-5 



156- 
130- 



92-8 



61- 
42' 



49-8 



From this last column M. Barois concludes that in high floods 
100,000,000 tons of solid matter pass Assuftn, and 88,000,000 in mean 
floods. It is unfortunate that we have no analyses of low floods like 
1877, 88, 99, 1902 and 1904 which were extraordinarily muddy. The 
water had little sand but much mud. The sand is scoured out of the 
bed of the river itself in high floods. 

After Dr. Letheby the composition of Nile deposit is as follows : — 



Organic matter 

Phosphoric acid 

Lime • 

Magnesia.. .. • 

Potash 

Soda ., .. 

Alumina and oxide of iron 

Silica 

Carbonic acid and loss 

Total 




— 63 — 



Comparative analyses of subsoil water in Egypt and Nile water in 
time of low supply are given below. 



Dissolved matter. 



Lime*. 

Magnesia 

So(k 

Potash 

Chlorine 

Sulphuric acid 

Nitric acid • • 

Silica, alumina and oxide of iron 

Organic Matters 

Carbonic oxide and loss . • • 



FABT8 IN 100,000 


Well water. 


Sammer vater 
in Nile. 


16-56 


4-24 


4-53 


1-00 


8-20 


6-20 


•37 


1-44 


13-60 


-67 


5-93 


2-16 


•17 


—Traces 


1-80 


•97 


•60 


1-75 


12-26 


4-03 



64-02 



22-46 



It must be remembered that Nile water in the time of low supply 
consists in a very appreciable part of subsoil water which has filtered 
into the Nile. 

Mr. Foaden states that, speaking in round numbers, we may say that 
Nile deposit in flood contams 

Nitrogen '1 percent 

Phosphoric acid "2 „ 

Potash '6 „ 

He values the manure deposited by the Nile annually in a well 
irrigated basin at £'75. He concludes that Nile water in flood is rich 
in potash, fairly rich in phosphoric acid and poor in nitrogen. 

27. The soil of the Nile valley. — According to numerous 
analyses made of Egyptian soil in 1872 by MM. Payen, Champion and 
Gastinel, the soil of Egypt consists of 



45 per cent 

•2 to 1-6 „ 

.. 1-3 to 4.9 „ 

.. -03 to -10 „ 

.. -03 to -32 „ 

Some stiff soils contain 84 per cent argile and some light soils contain 
68 per cent sand. As one approaches the Mediterranean the quantity 
of chloride of soda increases and runs from a fraction to 4, 5, and even 
10 per cent. 



SUica ••• 
Argile. . . 
Magnesia 
Lime ... 
Nitrogen 
Phosphoric acid. . . 



— 64 — 



From the means of ten samples of soil from Eena Mudirieh analysed 
for me in May by Mr. Frank Hughes of the Agricultural Society we 
gather that the constituents of the soil are as follows : — 



Bngredienta. 



Silica etc., insoluble in strong acid 

Total Lime 

Total Potash 

Total Potash available 

Total Phosphoric Acid • 

Total Phosphoric available . . . . 
Carbonic Acid = Chalk • • . . 
Nitrogen 



MaxO/^, 



Min %. 



Mean Vo- 



66 


53 


60 


3-80 


2-50 


3^34 


1'19 


•46 


•74 


•072 


•020 


•042 


•49 


•20 


•35 


•090 


•029 


•066 


3-52 


1^79 


2^69 


•106 


•056 


•084 



We have here a general sufficiency of phosphoric acid, plenty of 
potash and lime, and a low proportion of nitrogen. 

The salts of the soil, when in excess, are chlorides and sulphates of 
soda : the carbonates are present in very small quantities indeed. 

The following selection from a paper by Mr. Lang Anderson in 
the December 1903 number of the Journal of the Khedivial Agricul- 
tural Society is interesting. 

" Voelcker's analyses of the two samples of soil taken from the drained 
bed of what was Lake Edku near Alexandria give the following 
results : — 



Oxide of iron . 

Iron jpyrites < 

Alummium 

Lime 

Magnesia 

Soda.. 

Sodium chloride 

Potash 

Sulphuric acid 

Caroonic acid 

Phosphoric acid . . ... . - 

Insoluble silicates and sand. . 
Organic matter 

Total 

Containing nitrogene .. .. 
„ ammonia •• •• 




No. 2. 



11-04 
0-11 

10-88 
7.73 
0-93 

8-56 



•23 
'56 
•75 
•19 



45-81 
6-21 

100-00 



0-070 
0-079" 



— 65 ~ 

38. Basin irrigation. — GonBidering the tames of flood and low 
supply, the climate of Egypt, the turbidity of the Nile flood, and the 
deltaic formation of the Nile valley, no better system than basin 
irrigation as practiced in Egypt could possibly have been devised. If 
the flood had come in April and May and been followed by a burning 
summer, or if the actual autumn floods had been followed by the frozen 
winters of Europe or the warm winters of the Sudan, basin irrigation 
would have been a failure or a very moderate success ; but, given the 
Egyptian climate, basin irrigation has stood without a rival for 
7000 years. 

Basin irrigation, as it has been practised in Egypt for thousands of 
years, is the most efficacious method of utilising existing means of 
irrigation which the world has witnessed. It can be started by the 
sparsest of populations. It will support in wealth a multitude of 
people. King Menes made his first dyke when the Egyptian nation 
was in its infancy. Egypt, in Roman times, supported a population 
twice as dense as that of to-day. The direct labour of cultivation is 
reduced to an absolute minimum. 

Shakespeare's genius has crystallised the system for all time :— 

"They take the flow o' the Nile 
By certain scales in the Pyramid ; they know, 
By the height, the lowness, or the mean, if dearth 
Or f oizon f oUoW : the higher Nilus swells. 
The more it promises : as it ebbs, the seedsman 
Upon the slime and ooze scatters his grain, 
And shortly comes to harvest." 

If we cast back our view to the dawn of Egyptian history, we can 
picture the Nile Valley as consisting of arid plains, sand dunes, and 
marshy jungles, with reclaimed enclosures on all the highest lands. 
Every eight or ten years the valley was swept by a mighty unmdation. 
The seeds of future success lay in the resolve of King Menes' engineers 
to confine their attention to one bank of the river alone. It was the 
left bank of the river which history tells us was first reclaimed. A 
longitudinal dyke was rim parallel to the stream, and cross dykes tied 
it to the Lybian hills. Into these basins or compartments the turbid 
waters of the flood were led by natural water-courses and artificial 
canals and allowed to deposit their rich mud and thoroughly saturate 
the soil ; and meantime the whole of the right bank and the trough of 



— 66 — 

the river itself were allowed to be swept by the floods. It must have 
been on this wild eastern bank that were conducted all the hippo- 
potamus hunts which are crowded on the wall pictures of buildings of 
the early dynasties. In all probability, the first six dynasties contented 
themselves with developing the left bank of the Nile. As, however, 
the population increased, and with it the demand for new lands, it 
became necessary to reclaim the right bank of the river as well. The 
task now was doubly difficult, as the river had to be confined to its 
own trough. This masterful feat was performed by the great Pharaohs 
of the Xllth Dynasty, the Amenemhats and the Usartsens, who, 
under the name of Sesostris, usurped the place of Menes in the imagin- 
ation of the ancient world. They were too well advised to content 
themselves with repeating on the right bank what Menes had done on 
the left. By suddenly confining the river they would have exposed 
the low-lying lands of Memphis and Lower Egypt to disastrous 
inundations. To obviate this, they widened and deepened the natural 
channel which led to the Fayoum depression in the Lybian hills, and 
converted it into a powerful escape to carry off the excess waters of 
high floods ; and so successful were they in their undertakings that 
the conversion of the Fayoum depression into Lake Moeris was long 
considered by the ancient world as one of its greatest wonders. They 
led the flood into the depression when it was dangerously high, and 
provided for its return to the river when the inundation had come to 
an end. By this means, they insured the lake against being at a high 
level during a period of flood. The gigantic dykes of entry and exit 
were only cut in times of emergency, and were reconstructed again at 
an expense of labour which even an Egyptian Pharaoh considered 
excessive. To understand how capable Lake Moeris was to control 
the floods, and turn a dangerous into a beneficial inundation, I should 
recommend a study of Sir Hanbury Brown's "Fayoum and Lake Moeris.*' 
As years rolled on the Nile widened and deepened its own trough, to 
which it was now confined ; and, eventually, the time came when Lake 
Moeris could be dispensed with without danger. It was gradually 
reclaimed and converted into the Fayoum with its 350,000 acres of 
cultivated land. 

Basin irrigation holds the flood waters for some 45 days per annum 
over the whole of the valley. The water is in places 3 metres deep, 
and in others only 30 centimetres deep, while the average depth is 
about 1 metre. Now the retention of this water over the land for a 



TE 



Mt€$ 

)rdlnm 
.owFk 



— 67 — 

period of six weeks permits of the thorough saturation of the subsoil 
in places where the subsoil is of proper consistency ; and this water 
can be drawn on, in winter and summer, for maturing certain crops 
and growing others. It was where the subsoil gave a plentiful supply 
of water, and permitted of intense cultivation throughout the year, 
that we find all the ancient capitals of Egypt. Abydos has the finest 
subsoil water in the Nile Valley ; Memphis has an excellent supply ; 
while Thebes has the only good subsoil water on the whole of the 
right bank. Good subsoil water was to the ancient Egyptian world 
what the presence of a rich gold mine is to one of our new colonies. 

Subsoil water supplies the hnk between basin and perennial irrigation. 
It explains the reason why modern Egypt is not satisfied with' the 
irrigation which has come down from the remotest antiquity, but is 
desirous of conferring on the length and breadth of the Nile Valley 
those advantages which gave Abydos, Memphis, and Thebes their 
pre-eminence in the past. Any country which possesses rivers and 
streams whose waters are in flood for six weeks per annum at a suitable 
season of the year can betake itself to basin irrigation with more or 
less profit. The science of dams, weirs, and regulators has received 
such development during recent years that there can be no problem 
so diflSicult that it cannot be solved by experience and originality. 
Basin irrigation allows of the thorough development of countries whose 
streams have short and turbid floods which precede a fairly cool 
season ; whether such irrigation be the stately irrigation of the Nile 
Valley, perfected by the science and experience of 7,000 years ; or the 
less perfect, but still highly developed and river-fed tank systems of 
Madras ; or the primitive, but effective basins of Bundelkund, where 
the impounded water irrigates the crops on the down-stream sides of 
the basins for one season, and then allows of the basins themselves 
being dried and cultivated in the next. 

The Nile in high flood rises 10 metres above its bed, in a mean 
flood 9 metres and in a poor flood 7 ^ metres. The beds of the main 
basin canals are about 4 ^ metres, and the cultivated land at the river's 
edge about 9 metres above the river-bed. The basins have an average 
area of 7,000 acres. Where the valley is narrow, they average 2,000 
acres each, and where it is wide 20,000 acres; while some of the tail 
basins are 40,000 acres in extent. Each canal has about seven or 
eight basins depending on it, of which the last is always the largest. 
There are masonry regulators at the canal heads, at each crossing of 



— 68 — 

the cross banks, and at the tail escapes into the river. In the more 
perfect basins the canals and escapes syphon under one another and 
overlap and supply each other's deficiencies, so as to meet the require- 
ments of every kind of flood which Egypt can experience. Colonel 
Ross's work on the basin irrigation of Egypt is a monument of patient 
observation and a storehouse of information. Some of the canals 
like the Sohagia on Plate XIV are veritable rivers, discharging 450 
cubic metres per second ; but a good average canal discharges 30 cubic 
metres per second. The largest canal has a width of 75 metres, while 
the average width is 9 metres. Good basin canals discharge in an 
average year one cubic metre per second per 700 acres. Forty-five 
days^suffice for a perfect irrigation. The cost of providing basin irriga- 
tion in Egypt for basins of 10,000 acres may be taken at £3 per acre 
thus made up :— Banks, £1.50. ; canals, £'75. ; masonry works, £'50. ; 
and bank protection, £'25. If the basins are under 6,000 acres, the 
cost will be nearly double this. The annual cost of maintenance is £'10 
per acre ; while the lands themselves are rented at £3 per acre. In 
well irrigated basins no manures are needed, and alternate crops of cereals 
and legumins have been reaped for centuries without the land having 
been exhausted in any way whatever. Where the subsoil water is 
good and double cropping resorted to, then manures have to be applied. 
29 Perennial Irrigation. — The foundation-stone of the con- 
version of the whole of Egypt from basin to perennial irrigation was 
laid by Mehemet Ali in 1833, when he began the construction of the 
Barrages across the Nile branches north of Cairo. These weirs were 
intended to raise the summer level of the Nile by 3 metres. As the 
ordinary summer level of the Nile was 1.50 metres above its bed, the 
weirs were expected to raise it 4.50 metres above the Nile bed. The 
old basin canals had to be considerably deepened to take in the summer 
supplies ; while in other parts new perennial canals were dug. Peren- 
nial irrigation requires canals capable of discharging 1 cubic metre per 
second per 3500 acres, as against 700 acres for basin irrigation. Some 
of the perennial canals are very capacious. The two largest discharge 
700 and 450 cubic metres per second respectively. There are no 
artificial canals in the world like them. All the canals are liberally 
provided with regulators and locks. The energies of the Irrigation 
Department during the last ten years have been chiefly directed to the 
provision of suflBcient drains to meet that over-saturation of the soil, 
which all but the best regulated perennial irrigation invariably entails. 



'»TE XIX. 



-■'tf < 




^"'Lf w SUEZ 



«J«>. 8«r. Dip. c^ 



} n 3 T I 




«B.3« •'►"S 



jMV^^' 



tq^oB 



f\3NN0J 



ro^ 




— 69 — 

After many years' experience in India and Egypt, we are convinced 
that the construction of drains and escapes should precede, and not 
follow the canals. It seems fatuous for engineers to be always over- 
saturating and half -ruining tens of thousands of acres of low-lying 
lands, during the improvement of hundreds of thousands of acres of 
high-lying lands, when it would be perfectly easy, with a little fore- 
sight, to secure all the advantages without piling up disadvantages. 
The drains have generally one-third the capacity of the canals. Dry 
crops require 1 cubic metre per second per 3500 acres ; and rice requires 
the same per 2000 acres. The drains in dry -cropped lands provide for 
1 cubic metre per second per 10,000 acres, and in rice lands 1 cubic 
metre per second per 6000 acres. 

While basin irrigation is followed by the winter crops of wheat, 
beans, clover, barley, flax, lentils, vetches and onions, perennial irriga- 
tion allows of all the above winter crops and in addition the summer 
crops of cotton, sugar-cane, oilseeds, gardens and orchards. It will 
readily be understood that all this double cropping necessitates a very 
free use of manures. 

It would be a healthy innovation indeed, if the provision of suitable 
manures were to be considered as an essential part of a project for 
providing perennial irrigation. The day is not far distant, I believe, 
when governments which provide irrigation works will also provide 
manures, and sell the water and the manures together, one being as 
essential as the other ; I know well, from observation, that a well- 
manured field needs only half the water that a poorly manured field 
does ; and in years of drought and scarcity manures almost take the place 
of irrigation. Why should there not be a manure-rate as well as a 
water-rate ? Here in Egypt, the numerous ruins of old-world cities 
have hitherto provided manure for a great part of the perenially ir- 
rigated lands ; but these are being fast worked out, and other sources 
must be sought for. Farm -yard manure will never suflBce for the 
intense cultivation in this country. In connection with this subject, 
I can recommend the study of a remarkably able paper on " Nile Culti- 
vation and Nitrates, " read by Mr. J. B. Fuller, C.I.E., before the 
Agricultural Society of England, and embodied in the 3rd Series, 
Vol. VII., Part 4, 1896. Egypt possesses, in the vicinity of Luxor, 
natural beds of nitrates of unlimited extent, which come down to the 
river's edge. These nitrate beds have been used from time immemo- 
rial, but were brought to the notice of the general public by Mr. Floyer. 



— 70 — 

They contain only about 6 per cent, of pure nitrates, but as they are 
on the edge of the Nile, in a perfectly cloudless and very dry country, 
it might be possible, with the aid of the plentiful supply of water 
always at hand to profitably extract pure nitrates. The demand for 
nitrates is without limit in the Nile Valley, as Nile water, though rich 
in everything else, is exceedingly poor in nitrates. 

The perennial canals and collateral works have cost £4.50 per acre, 
and the maintenance charges are £"10 per acre. The perennially irri- 
gated lands are let at £5 to £8 per acre per annum as against £3 to £5 
for the basins lands. 

30. Flood protection in Eg^pt. — The Nile during high floods 
is considerably above the level of the country, which is protected by 
embankments stretching from Assou&n to the sea. In Upper Egypt, 
a very high flood is one metre above the country ; in Middle Egypt 
it is 2 metres, and the same on the Rosetta branch of the Nile. On 
the Damietta branch it is 3 • 50 metres in places. 

In parts of Upper Egypt, but nearly everywhere in Lower Egypt, 
the Nile on curves is protected by stone spurs. These spurs contain 
each from 4,000 to 250 cubic metres. They are very effective where 
the Nile bank has been well thrown back below them to a distance of 
some 50 metres on a length of at least 100 metres. This allows the 
waters of the flood to swirl harmlessly in whirlpools below the spurs 
while the banks are far removed from their action. 

When we first came to Egj'^pt, we found that the pohcy wa« to spread 
the flood into as many channels as possible and protect the whole of 
them with tens of thousands of corvee, in addition to the corvee on the 
Nile banks. We changed that and concentrated our energies on the 
Rosetta and Damietta branches. 

In 1861, 1863, 1866, 1869, 1874, and 1878 the Damietta branch 
was badly breached. There has been only one serious breach on the 
Rosetta branch, and that was in 1863. The great breach of 1878 on 
the Damietta branch was attended with serious loss of life ; but far 
more serious was the breach of 1863 on the Rosetta branch not far 
from its head. The whole western half of the Delta proper was 
swept by the river, and as the canals there have not got good high 
banks, the people had no place of shelter to flee to and were drowned 
in very great numbers. The same thing would happen again if a 
breach were to occur now, only the damage would be far more 
serious. The country is covered with villas and rich plantations and 



— Ti- 
the low lands to the very edges of Lake Borrilos are being reclaimed 
and inhabited. The loss of life which would occur nowadays would 
be truly appalling. A breach anywhere within 100 kilometres of the 
Barrage on the east bank of the Rosetta branch or the west bank of 
the Damietta branch during a very high flood would be a national 
disaster. 

The terror reigning over the whole country during a very high 
flood is very striking. The Nile banks are covered with booths at 
intervals of 50 metres. Each booth has two watchmen, and lamps 
are kept burning all night. Every dangerous spot has a gang of 50 or 
100 s{^cial men. The Nile is covered with steamers and boats carrying 
sacks, stakes, and stone ; while the banks along nearly their entire 
length are protected by stakes supporting cotton and Indian corn 
stalks, keeping the waves off the loose earth of the banks. In a settle- 
ment of a culvert in the Nile bank north of Mansourah in 1887 I 
witnessed a scene which must have once been more common than it is 
to-day. The news that the bank had breached spread fast through the 
village. The villagers rushed out on to the banks with their children, 
their cattle, and everything they possessed. The confusion was inde- 
scribable. A narrow bank covered with buffaloes, children, poultry, 
and household furniture. The women assembled round the local 
saint's tomb, beating their breasts, kissing the tomb, and uttering loud 
cries, and every five minutes a gang of men running into the crowd 
and carrying off the first thing they could lay hands on wherewith to 
close the breach. The fellaheen meanwhile, in a steady, business-like 
manner, plunged into the breach, stood shoulder to shoulder across 
the escaping water, and with the aid of torn-off doors and windows 
and Indian corn stalks, closed the breach. They were only just in 
time. This is the way the fellaheen faced a breach. And this is how 
the old Governors of Egypt faced them. During the flood of 1887 
I complimented an official on the Nile bank, whose activity was quite 
disproportionate to his apparent age. He told me that he was a 
comparatively young man, but he had had charge of the Nile bank at 
Mit Badr when the great breach occurred in 1878, and that Ismail 
Pasha had telegraphed orders to throw him and the engineer into 
the breach. He was given 12 hours' grace by the local chief, and 
during that interval his hair had become white ; subsequently he was 
pardoned. These were the senseless orders which used to petrify 
officials into stupidity. 



— 72 — 

The following estimate was made by me of the cost of protecting the 
Delta proper between the two branches of the Nile during the high 
flood of 1887 :— 

Cost of protection for 432 kilometres of bank or 1,200,000 acres of 
cultivation : — 



Materials 
paid for 



Materials 
not paid for 



Sandbags 60,000 @ 

[Stone 5,000 @ 

Stakes 55,000 @ 



Oamel loads of stalk for 42 kilometres, 
14,000 @ £ -15 



£•03 


s: 


£ 1,800 


„ -50 


= 


„ 2,500 


„ -06 


= 


„ 3,300 



£ 7,600 



= £ 2,100 



Total materials £ 9,700 



15 engineers @ £ 80 

Unpaid corvee, 1,374,079 men @ £ '03 



= £ 1,200 
- „ 41,222 



Total labour £ 42,422 

Total materials and labour £ 52,122 



This works out to £120 per kilometre of bank, or £'045 per acre 
of land protected. It is a very cheap insurance. 



— 73 — 



CHAPTER IV. 
Projects. 

31. Projects. — ^No account of the Nile in 1904 would be complete 
without an enumeration and slight examination of the projects before 
the public for the provision of suflScient water to the Nile in times of 
low supply to insure the perennial irrigation of the whole of Egypt ; 
to utilise these perennial waters by converting basin tracts into peren- 
nially irrrigated ones ; to protect the country from the dangers accom- 
panying high floods; and to permit of the reclamation of the low salted 
lands of Lower Egypt which border the Mediterranean sea. 

Egypt has a total irrigable area of 6J millions acres. Of this area, J 
of a million acres, which are to-day inundated in flood and lie along 
the edge of the deserts, must continue to be inundated in flood for 
all time, to prevent the sands of the desert from spreading over the 
Nile Valley. Their value is £5,000,000. Four million acres are peren- 
nially irrigated. They have a mean value of £55 per acre, and have 
a total value of £220,000,000. Of the remaining two million acres, 
two-thirds are irrigated only in flood and one-third is not irrigated 
at all. These 2 million acres have a mean value of £25 per acre, and 
are worth £50,000,000. The land of Egypt may be considered as 
worth £275,000,000 to-day. If it were possible to perennially irrigate 
the 2 million acres which are without such irrigation, their value would 
be increased by £30 per acre, or by £60,000,000. 

The problem before us is how to provide perennial irrigation to 
these 2 million acres and so add £60,000,000 to the wealth of the 
country. 

It has been calculated that each milliard of cubic metres of water 
stored in reservoirs situated in Egypt itself is sufficient to insure the 
conversion of half a million acres from flood to perennial irrigation. 
Egypt therefore requires reservoirs capable of storing 4 milliards of 
cubic metres of water. 

In Mehemet Ali's time, the great preoccupation of the Government 
was the pressing on of the cultivation of cotton, and as this crop 
needed perennial irrigation, the securing of an abundant supply of 
water all the year round was the problem of the day. 



^ 



— 74 — 

The fame of the ancient Lake Moeris had made a profound impres- 
sion on the mind of Mehemet Aly, and he urged on his chief engineer 
the necessity of undertaking similar works. Linant Pasha first set 
himself to discover the site of the ancient lake, and then estimated 
roughly the cost of reconstructing it, but considered the cost prohibitive. 
He recommended Silsila as a suitable site for a weir and a canal head. 
The failure of the Barrage discouraged the Government from 
undertaking new works and the question dropped. In 1880 Count 
de la Motte proposed a dam at Silsila and a reservoir to the south of 
it. He also proposed putting a capacious depression to the east of 
Kalabsha in communication with the Nile by the aid of a dam at 
Ealabsha. 

About two years later Mr. Cope Whitehouse suggested utilising the 
the Wadi Rayan depression as a reservoir. This depression had been 
already mentioned by Linant Pasha in his book and located by him 
on his hydrological map. Financial difficulties prevented Sir Colin Scott- 
Moncrieff from immediately considering the question of reservoirs. 
The success of the Barrage repairs in 1887 however gave new life to 
the question of reservoirs and Sir Colin Scott- Moncrieff deputed Col. 
Western to give scope to the suggestion made by Mr. Cope Whitehouse, 
to make plans of the Wady Rayan and the deserts between it and the 
Nile, to find out the cajiacity of the reservoir, and see if it could be 
utilised. Col. Western's report, plans and estimates were printed by 
the Egyptian Government in 1888. At the same time I was deputed to 
examine the other projects of Count de la Motte. In 1889 and 1891 I 
reported unfavourably on them, because 1 could find no depression near 
Kalabsha to put in communication with the Nile, and could find no 
rock at Silsila on which to build a dam. The Bergat Takham pan was 
the only depression near Kalabsha which could have been used as a 
reservoir and it was over 100 metres above the level of the Nile flood; 
while both in the Silsila pass and the Silsila gate I bored for rock 
and was everywhere still in sand 10 metres below the level at 
which the existence of rock was assumed by the Count's engineers. 
On my report reaching Cairo, M. Prompt proposed using the 
trough of the Nile itself at Kalabsha as a reservoir in place of the de- 
pression which did not exist. Col. Western left the country in 1890 
and I became Director General of Reservoir Studies. M. Prompt had 
supposed that rock could be met with at Kalabsha at a depth of 4 metres 
below low-water level. I could not find it at a depth of 26 metres. 



— 75 — 

After sounding and boring at every possible site on the Nile and 
surveying, boring, and levelling in the desert between Wadi Haifa and 
the Fayoum, I submitted my report in 1894, proposing an open dam 
at Assouan of a type which I trusted would meet the requirements of 
a Nile reservoir dam. Sir William Garstin approved of the site and the 
design, and the dam was built between 1898 and 1902 with Mr. Maurice 
Fitzmaurice C.M.G, as resident engineer. 

The Assouan Reservoir at its present level contains one milliard of 
cubic metres of water which will suflSce for the conversion of half a 
million acres to perennial irrigation, adding £15,000,000 to the wealth 
of the country. But though the dam was only completed at the end 
of 1902, already the whole of the water has been devoted to special 
tracts, and the Government is reluctantly compelled to refuse all appli- 
cations for water. 

32. The raising of the AssuAn dam.— Egypt already possesses 
the germ of all the storage works she needs. Six years ago a few far- 
seeing men saw clearly what all of us understand to-day ; but among 
the few, no man had greater faith in the future of the country than 
Sir Ernest Cassel. The Assou&n Reservoir project had been lying 
buried for four years in oflScial pigeon holes, when in 1898 Sir Ernest 
came forward with the funds, and with Sir John Aird & Co., as con- 
tractors, and Sir Benjamin Baker as Consulting Engineer, undertook 
to complete the Assou&n dam and the Assiout weir by December 1903. 
The Egyptian Government, advised by Sir William Gurstin, accepted 
his ofiEer, and received the completed works by December 1902, 

The Assou&n dam is a granite structure 2,000 metres long which 
crosses the head of the Assou&n cataract of the Nile in one continuous 
straight line. The dam is pierced by 140 under sluices of 7 metres by 
2 metres for passing floods, and by 40 upper sluices of 3J metres by 
2 metres for passing the high level water of the reservoir. The sluices are 
regulated by "Stoney" gates worked by winches at the roadway level. 

While the red, muddy waters of the Nile flood are pouring down 
the river, the whole of the sluices are open and the river discharges 
itself through them without parting with its silt. This is the real object 
of the sluices, for if the dam were solid and the river forced to flow 
over the top, the reservoir would soon be filled with deposit and obli- 
terated, while Egypt, deprived of this rich mud, would be considerably 
the poorer. This is the great feature of the dam. While the dam holds 
together, the reservoir will be free of silt. 



— 76 — 

When the turbid flood has passed and the comparatively clear winter 
supply of the river has begun to arrive, the sluices are gradually closed 
and the reservoir filled. Beginning about the 1st December, the reser- 
voir is filled in 100 days. It will ordinarily be full on the 1st March. 
No additional water is needed for irrigation between March 1st and 
May 1st as the river naturally has enough for the requirements of the 
area at present under crop at this season. As the area under peren- 
nial irrigation will be gradually increased, the demand for water for 
the new lands will begin about the 1st of April. The demand in- 
creases through May and June, and the reservoir willjthen be aiding the 
river with its supplement. If the flood is very late, water may be 
required from the reservoir till the 10th July ; if the flood is early no 
water will be needed after the 20th of June, as in 1903, the first year 
of the- reservoir. The earlier the flood the more effective the reservoir. 
By the time the flood has begun to get turbid, the under and upper 
sluices will all be open and the muddy waters of the Nile will sweep 
through the dam without impediment. 

The dam has worked for two years and given satisfaction. When the 
Nile was at its lowest in May 1903, the natural discharge of the river, 
supplemented by all the subsoil infiltration water which enters the 
river between Assou&n and the sea, was 400 cubic metres per second. 
The reservoir was adding 200 cubic metres per second to the suppl)^ 
raising the total supply available for irrigation to 600 cubic metres })er 
second. The reservoir was supplying one-third of the water which 
was beiug utilized in Egypt. This water will suffice for an increase to 
the perennially irrigated area of ^ million acres. 

At the time of designing the dam it was intended that it should be 
of such a section that it could be raised 6 metres in height and hold 
up another milUard of cubic metres of water. Such an operation, if 
performed to-day, would mean: the whole length of dam being raised 
6 metres, the winches working the sluice gates being raised 6 metres 
and provided with new wire ropes; and new copings being given to 
the parapets. It would necessitate two more locks and three more lock 
gates, and nothing else. The expenditure incurred would be about 
£500,000. 

33. The Wady Rayan Reservoir Project. — When the 
Assou&n dam will have been raised, we shall be standing on the 
threshold of what it will be able to do. The projected Wady Rayan reser- 
voir, or the modem Lake Mceris, will be well able to supply the two 



PLATE XV 



Ui 



^M 



1 

UOPOLISi 



«- L 



§/■ 



Outlet Canil for proposed 
/o!^ WADI RAYAM RESERVOIR 



■7: 



/ 



[Proposed fnlet Canal for 
, ^ WAOl RA YAH RESERVOIR 



X 







I iAk ftur. D«rf 



IOVF1383FI MAYAfl IQAW 0380^0^1^ 



MUOYAT 3HT 0HIW0H8 







I 



— t- 



.oiiii>^ 4)Ba luS HjiJ 



— 77 — 

remaining milliards of cubic metres of water when working in conjunc- 
tion with the Assu&n Reservoir. The great weakness of this pro- 
jected lake has lain in the fact that by itself it could give a plentiful 
discharge in April and May, less in June, and very little in July, and 
it was for this reason that in my report of 1894 to the Egyptian 
Government I had reluctantly to recommend that it be not carried out. 
But when the Assou&n reservoir is capable of supplying two milliards 
of cubic metres of water it will be possible to utilise the Moeris Lake 
to its utmost capacity. The Assouan Reservoir, being high above the 
level of the Nile can give its supply at the beginning or end of the 
summer; it can give it slowly or with a rush; while the projected 
Lake Moeris, being directly in communication with the Nile, and only 
slightly above low Nile level, its discharge would depend entirely on 
the difference of level between it and the Nile, and consequently as the 
summer advanced its level would gradually fall and the lake would 
not be able to give at the end of the summer a quarter of the discharge 
it could give at the beginning. 

But let us imagine that the reservoir and the lake are both com- 
pleted and full of water, and that it is the first of April. Lake Moeris 
will be opened on to the Nile and give all the water needed in that 
month, while the Assouan Reservoir will be maintained at its full level. 
In May, Lake Moeris will give nearly the whole supply and the reser- 
voir will give a little. In June the lake will give little and the 
reservoir much ; while in July the lake will give practically nothing 
and the reservoir the whole supply. Working together in this harmo- 
nious manner, the reservoir and the lake, which are the true complements 
of each other, will easily provide the whole of the water needed for Egypt. 

The Wady Rayan is a depression in the deserts to the south of the 
Fayoum and separated from the Fayoura by a limestone ridge. In 1888 
Col. Western recommended it very strongly as a reservoir. In this he 
was supported by Col. Ross, the first Inspector General of irrigation. 
On Col. Western's leaving Egypt, the study was entrusted to me, and 
Messrs. Hewat and Clifton deputed to make a final project. The Wady 
Rayan project, with its plans and estimates, was published by the 
Egyptian Government in 1894. As I said before, I was reluctantly 
compelled to reject its adoption owing to the one radical defect already 
described. That defect will have been completely removed by the com- 
pletion of the Assou&n Reservoir, when it will be possible to under- 
take the construction of the modem lake Moeris. 



— 78 — 

The question of Lake Moeris has intjerested the world for centuries. 
For the ancients it was one of the world's seven wonders. Sir Hanbury 
Brown, in his book on the " Fayoum and Lake Moeris, " has collected 
all the information available about the lake, and after a thorough 
examination of the question has declared in favour of the Wady Rayan 
being converted into a modern Lake Mceris. 

Herodotus, writing about B.C. 450, was the first to describe the 
lake: "Now the Labyrinth being such as I have described, the lake 
named that of Moeris, causes still greater astonishment, on the bank 
of which the Labyrinth was built. 

" The water in the lake is not derived from local sources, for the 
earth in that part is excessively dry and waterless, but it is brought 
in from the Nile by a canal. It takes six months filling and six months 
flowing bock. During the six months of the return flow, it yields a 
talent of silver every day to the treasury, and during the flow twenty 
minae for the fish. " 

Strabo, writing in B. C. 20, remarks : " It has also a remarkable lake 
called the Lake of Moeris, large enough to be called a sea, and re- 
sembling the open sea in colour. 

" Thus the Lake of Moeris is, from its size and depth, capable of 
receiving the overflow of the Nile at its rising, and preventing the 
flooding of houses and gardens ; when the river falls, the lake again 
discharges the water by a canal at both mouths, and it is available for 
irrigation. There are regulators at both ends for controlling the inflow 
and outflow. " 

Diodorus Siculus, writing at the same time, says : - "King Moeris 
dug a lake which is amazingly useful and incredibly large. For as 
the rising of the Nile is irregular, and the fertility of the country 
depends on its uniformity, he dug the lake for the reception of the 
superfluous water, and he constructed a canal from the river to the lake 
80 furlongs in length and 300 feet in breadth. Through this he admit- 
ted or let out the water as required." 

At one time there was much discussion as to what was Lake 
Moeris, but since the publication of Sir Hanbury's book there can be 
but one opinion. The lake covered the whole of the modern Fayoum 
below the level of the contour which is 22^ metres above mean sea 
level. The common Nile shells are to be met in myriads at any point 
on this contour round the Fayoum that one cares to look for them. 
The ordinary high flood level of Kushesha basin to-day is 26J metres 



— 79 — 

above mean sea. In Amenemhat's time, which was 4,000 years ago, 
the level was 4 metres lower, or at 22^ metres above mean sea. This 
was the highest possible level the lake could have attained in his day. 
In the course of time the level of the Nile valley rose by about 10 
centimetres per century, but the frequent occasions on which the canal 
was kept closed during poor and low floods gradually sited up the 
channel and made it tess capacious. As there are no Nile shells above 
the contour of 22^ metres above mean sea (except a few on the south 
side of the lake which have evidently been blown up by the north 
west winds in sand drifts) it is evident that the gradual silting up of 
the channel more than kept pace with the rising level of the Nile. 
Eventually the silting up exceeded the rise, and that at an accelerated 
rate, the canal became weaker and weaker, and the Fayoum Province 
gradually occupied the site of the lake. Lake Moeris had lasted over 
2,000 years. 

The connection between the Nile and the germ of the future Lake 
Moeris was in existence in King Menes's time, as I have been informed 
by professor Sayce, but it was King Amenemhat, of the Xllth dynasty, 
who widened and deepened the canal, cleared away the rocky barriers, 
and converted the trifling lake of King Menes's time into the mighty 
inland sea which controlled the highest floods of the Nile. Those 
ancient Pharaohs were giants in hydraulic engineering. They were, 
moreover, as wise as they were courageous. 

Sir Hanbury Brown has well described the action of the lake. It 
had a surface of 2,500 square kilometres, and being drained back into 
the Nile and kept at a low level it was able to take from a very high 
flood 20 milliards of cubic metres of water. It was quite capable of 
reducing a very high flood to moderate dimensions ; and if injudiciously 
or maliciously opened in a low flood, it was capable of depriving Lower 
Egypt of any flood irrigation at all ; and in those days they had prac- 
tically no irrigation except flood irrigation. 

The Wady Rayan, as already stated, is a depression in the Lybian 
hills immediately south of the Fayoum. It has, at a level of about 29 
metres above the sea, a surface of 700 square kilometres, or about one 
quarter the area of the ancient lake. Like the ancient lake, the lowest 
point of the Wady is 41 metres below sea level. When filled with 
water the greatest depth will be 70 metres. The uppermost four or 
five metres only will be utilised annually, or some 3 milliards of cubic 
metres of water out of a total volume of 20 milliards. Just as the 



— so- 
great size of the ancient lake was of inestimable value to a work whose 
principal use lay in moderating high floods, so the smaller area of the 
modem lake will render it far more useful as a work for feeding the 
low Nile. This lake, will render no mean aid in time of dangerous 
floods, but, in its early years, its main use will be the provision of 
water in summer. It will supply the two milliards which are needed 
to convert the whole of Egypt from basin to perennial irrigation. 

In my book on " The Assu&n Reservoir and Lake Moeris " I have 
worked out the cost of the project and estimated it at £2,600,000. 

The rates I have allowed for the excavation work are considered too 
low by some critics. If the earthwork in the Nile Valley had to be 
excavated within 30-day rotations as on the running canals, I should be 
the first to agree ; but the work will last three years and the contrac- 
tors will be able to concentrate all the spare labour of the country on 
the works when demand for labour is slack, and in this way the rate 
of F.T. 3 per cubic metre which I have allowed will be found to be 
ample. In the hill of salted marl it will be possible to employ the 
American system of excavating by the aid of water issuing from nozzles 
under pressure. By this method it will be possible to do much work at 
P.T. 2 and P.T. 3 per cubic metre as it is done in America. I have 
allowed P.T. 5 per cubic metre. To this hydraulic pressure work the 
salted marls will be specially suited, and indeed the recollection of the 
ease with which Amenemhat dug his canal though this very material 
lasted long in the memory of Egyptians. Some 1,600 years after the 
canal was excavated, Herodotus was informed that the excavated mate- 
rial was thrown into the canal and transported by the running water. 
A 12-inch pump on the Yusufi canal lifting water on to the top of the 
hill, a number of spade men helping the water as it coursed down the 
hill and leading the licjuid mud along wooden troughs into side ravines 
and depressions, and a steep slope on the western half of the hill where 
the rock had been blasted away would soon remove all the material 
required at a very low cost. I have allowed P.T. 10 per cubic metre 
for the soft limestone. Here it will be easy to work on a vertical face 
of some 7 metres, blast out the rock, carry it away on four lines of 
railway running down hiU, deposit the rubble on the desert ; and as 
each 7 metres depth is completed, to begin the next 7 metres in depth 
in the same way. 

In my 1894 Report I had anticipated difficulties with the canal 
running through the salted marl. Since then I have thoroughly in- 
spected the ravines in the Fayoum and seen the El-Bats ravine where 



PL. XVI. 



VOUM 



I 



^ R. L. of Bank 30 00 
Flow>d L evel 27.26 
28.06 




puntry- 
000 



. 1 I M i I I i I i 
3 as 8 

I I M I M I I I 



8 8 8 



4- 



-J — t f i 1 i L. 



$ round LereU 

WatBr Le¥0ii April 1886. 



.0 5 

/ Scale 1 : 1000 



Bed Levels 
Kilometres from Head 



Fttiure fow Summer 
Present low Summer 




Qreynd Level In metres 
above mean Bea 
Kilometres 



— Sl- 
it cuts through many kilometres o£ this very, salted marl. The sides 
are absolutely vertical and deposits of mud and self-sown tamarisk 
bushes protect the vertical sides at places where the running water is 
nearly touching the marl. Such natural protection will be far superior 
to the masonry lining I proposed and far more effective. It will more- 
over cost nothing. 

To those critics who suggest that the waters of the lake might 
become salted or leak into the Fayoum I have to reply as follows : 
When the old Lake Mceris, or the present Fayoum, was full of water 
and 63 metres higher than the bottom of the Wady Rayan, and re- 
mained so for thousands of years, there was no question of the waters 
having become salted or having escaped into the Wady. The Wady 
was as dry as it is to-day and the great inland sea was always fresh. If 
there had been any serious infiltration from the ancient Lake Moeris 
into the Wady Rayan, there would have resulted a lake which could not 
have escaped the notice of the numerous travellers who visited the lake. 
No mention was ever made of such a lake. This body of water 
moreover would have been inhabited by fresh-water animals whose 
remains would have strewn its shores. No such remains are to be 
seen to-day. If therefore the ancient Lake Moeris with a head of 63 
metres on to the Wady Rayan could not leak into the Wady, it is not 
likely that the Wady Rayan reservoir with a head of from 27 to 29 
metres on the Garak side of the Fayoum will leak into that part of the 
area covered by the ancient lake. Any leakage into the Lake Kurun side 
is never contemplated by anybody, since many kilometres of compact 
Umestone lie between the Wady Rayan and it, while about one or two 
kilometres of the same limestone lie between the Wady Rayan and the 
Garak depression. 

34. Lake Albert reservoir project and project for training 
the Albert Nile and the Zeraf River.— If we wish not only tx> 
irrigate the whole of Egypt, but to include the Sudan in the sphere o£ 
operations we must regulate the supply issuing from Lake Albert 
Nyanza and ensure its passage through the great swamp regions. To 
my mind no work in the Sudd regions will be of any substantial value 
unless the Albert reservoir dam is first built. Tabulating the informa- 
tion collected in the gauges and discharge tables we may state that the 
discharge of the Albert Nile in cubic metres per second between the 
loth January and 15th May was as follows in : — 

1901 1902 1903 1904 

Discharge at Gondokoro 600 600 700 1000 

Discbarge above Sobat mouth 300 300 350 435 



— 82 — 

In 1861 the discharge at Gondokoro was as low as 500 cubic metres 
per second. It will be seen that, in spite of the great waste, there is 
an increase a* the northern end of the Sudd region even under present 
conditions when the discharge at the south end is increased in the 
interval between the 15th January and 15th May. The water which 
enters the White Nile during these months represents the summer 
contingent of the White Nile to the Nile in Egypt. 

Now though an increase in April at the south end of the Sudd region 
is felt at the north end, no such increase is felt in September and 
October, and the reason has been given in Chapters II and III. 

In April the Sobat river is discharging practically nothing, and 
the whole supply available in the Albert Nile can pass down the White 
Nile past the Sobat mouth. In September the Sobat river may be 
discharging 750 to 1,000 cubic metres per second, and as the White 
Nile cannot discharge the combined waters of the two rivers, the water 
of the Albert Nile is headed up and accumulated in the lowlands 
-between Lake No and the Sobat mouth. This is greatly to the ad- 
vantage of Egypt, for it is the discharge at the head of the White Nile 
between January 15 and May 15 which decides the White Nile contin- 
gent to the summer supply of the Nile in Egypt, and the greater the 
quantity of water above the head of the White Nile, in the absence of 
a regulator or barrage at Wadelai or Dufile, the better the summer 
supply of Egypt. After the abnormally high flood of 1878, when 
Gordon was up the Nile, so great was the accumulation that the dis- 
charge at Assu&n never fell below 1500 cubic metres per second in the 
summer of 1879. The Barrage was not regulated upon and yet all 
the Lower Egypt canals were full of water, and the cotton crop of 
Egypt for that year was quite abnormal for the seventies of the last 
century. 

Now an expenditure of between £400,000 and £1,000,000, say 
£800,000, could secure a regulator for Lake Albert at any point 
between the outlet and Dufile. Such a regulator would insure 1 200 cubic 
metres per second every year to the Albert Nile at Gondokoro between 
the 15th January and the 15th May. With this supply insured, the 
training works in the Sudd region would soon begin to aifect the 
discharge at the north end of this region where the White Nile begins. 

The way in which this work of training should be carried out has 
been admirably laid down in page 174 of Sir William Garstin's Report. 
"Alter the flood conditions of the Albert Nile (Bahr-el-Gebel) as little 



— 83 — 

as possible, let the excess flood water escape on both sides, but keep 
the summer supply in its channel." This is, to my view, the soundest 
statement from an engineering point of view in the whole report. 
Hitherto we have always assumed a vast expenditure for keeping the 
flood supply in one channel ; but with our attention devoted to the 
summer channel, we should have before us all the advantages of summer 
training works without any fear of inundations. The very wildness 
of the regions would be in our favour. To be able to train a river in 
summer without any nervousness about floods, is given to few engineers. 
I had never thought that any good thing could come out of the sudd 
region, but looked at from this point of view, we can, even in this 
inhospitable waste of waters, confirm Shakespeare's saying that "there 
is some soul of goodness in things evil." 

The Lake Albert reservoir could easily insure 1200 cubic metres per 
second every year between the 15th January and the 15th May. To 
pass through the Sudd regions as much as possible of the 1200 cubic 
metres per second received at Gondokoro, the following works would 
be necessary : — 

The first work to be done would be the removal of sudd block No. 15 
which for 37 kilometres south of Hillet-el-Nuer has turned the Albert 
Nile out of its course. The importance of this is strongly insisted on 
by Sir William Garstinon page 55 of Appendix VI of his Report, which 
is the very last thing he wrote. With this block removed, the Albert 
Nile would be given a good opportunity of working out its own salvation. 

The next point is one to which I attach the greatest importance. 
Indeed, I look upon it as the key of the whole region. The Albert 
Nile enters the south-east comer of Lake No and almost immediately 
afterwards leaves its east corner. Now Lake No is the final evaporating 
basin of the Bahr-el-Gazelle, probably the most unsatisfactory river in 
the whole world ; and it is open to doubt whether in a year of deficient 
rainfall on its own catchment basin and a year of good supply down the 
Albert Nile, it does not evaporate a considerable quantity of the water 
of the Albert Nile. If the discharge of the Albert Nile north of Hillet 
Nuer was brought to 450 cubic metres per second in April, this lake 
might waste much of it. Such being the case, a cut of a maximum 
length of some 5 kilometres should be dredged south of the south-east 
corner of the lake, and the waters of the Albert Nile separated from 
those of the Gazelle. A cheap wooden lock and regulator would allow 
boats to pass, and take in any water from the Gtizelle river when it had 



— 86 — 

give relief to the Nile, a relief which will be much appreciated by 
the whole country from Beni Suef to the sea, and especially by 
Cairo. 

I have already stated that the Damietta branch is especially danger- 
ous and unfit to act as an escape under existing conditions. That 
branch could be regulated on at its head and treated like a canal. 
Thanks to Sir Hanbury Brown's initiative the Barrages can be regul- 
ated on in flood as well as in summer, and by lowering the supply in 
the Damietta branch and turning the surplus down the Rosetta branch, 
the latter would become the flood escape of the Nile. It might be 
trained as Mr. Eads suggested that rivers should be treated. 

Mr. Eads' argument is very clear. He insists that rivers eat away 
their bejiks in places, not owing to the direct action of the water but 
by the alterations in the velocity of the current. When the river 
water is charged with sediment to its full carrying capacity it cannot 
take up more unless the rate of current be increased. If the channel 
be nearly uniform the river water cannot eat away any of its banks. 
If, however, the channel is varying, the silt deposits in the wide 
sections, and the water, free of some of its sediment, is ready to eat 
more. It is this alternate dropping silt and eating away 6f earth which 
does the harm. To treat the Rosetta branch according to Mr. Eads 
it would be necessary to fix the top width to be worked to, at say 
550 metres. The river could be brought to this uniform top width 
by building light inexpensive permeable spurs on the sandy shoals. 
The land between the spurs would become cultivated and such river 
training would pay the Government, which taxes all cultivated land; 
it would even pay handsomely for any company to undertake the work 
once the rule about foreshores was understood. The Government 
would, however, always succeed; when it could not sell, it could always 
tax. Such training would permanently lower the flood. 

In addition to the above it would be necessary to complete the sys- 
tem of spurs begun in 1884, and to throw back the banks as already 
recommended. It has been estimated that the completion of this work 
would cost £900,000 for spurs and banks, while the training works 
would pay for themselves in addition to greatly impro^'ing the channel 
and lowering the level of the flood. 

It may be humiliating to make the confession, but from B.C. 2,200 
to the Arab invasion of Egypt in A.D. 640, while Lake Moeris 
performed its allotted task and the Nile possessed training works such 



— 87 — 

as those we can see to-day in Nubia, Egypt was better protected 
from innundation, and the Nile better trained, than it is to-day. And 
yet we haA^e many advantages which no Pharaoh possessed. By the 
aid of telegraphy we have knowledge of a comming flood a full fifteen 
days before it arrives in the Delta ; the Khartoum gauge allows us 
to anticipate its very height. Meteorology is aiding us still further. 
In a paper I read at the Chicago International Exhibition I stated 
that years of heavy rainfall in India are years of high flood in Egypt, 
while years of poor rainfall in India are years of low flood in Egypt. 
Sir John Eliot, the Director General of the Meteorological Department 
of India, corrected this statement. He said that though this was 
not true of the Bengal monsoon, it was true of the Bombay monsoon. 
Years of heavy rainfall in Gujerat and Bombay are years of high 
flood on the Nile, and mce versh. As the rain falls in Bombay a 
month earlier than the Nile flood reaches Cairo, we have information 
of a high flood a month before it arrives, if we receive telegraphic 
information from Bombay. 

36. Complete project for water storage and flood pro- 
tection for Egypt. — The complete project for water storage and 
flood protection for Egypt as proposed by me, contemplates the following 
works : — 

Baisinff^the Assuan reservoir (2 years) £ 500,000 

WadyRayan reservoir (4 years) „ 2,600,000 

Training the Rosetta branch „ 900,000 



Total £4,000,000 



To these have to be added the approximate estimates of the proposed 
works on the Upper Nile : — 

Regulator for Lake Albert (4 years) £ 800,000 

Dredging and training works in the Albert Nile and 
the Zeraf river (12 years) £ 1,200,000 

Total £2,000,000 



Grand total of works on the Upper and Lower Nile £ 6,000,000 



— 88 — 

The total expenditure amounts to £6,000,000 spread over 12 years. 

The great advantage of undertaking all those works together may 
be thus summarized. The increased supply from the Assu&n reservoir 
will be felt in Egypt after a period of two years. Five years later the 
waters of the Wady Rayan will be added to those of the Assuftn 
reservoir, and it will be possible to increase the cotton crop of Egypt 
from 6 million to 10 million cwt. It will be possible to allow the 
Sudan to thoroughly develop its agricultural resources, and with the 
aid of the 25,000 horse power as a minimum which the 6th cataract 
near Khartoum can supply, to utilise for its own consumption the 
waters which can be stored at that cataract ; and, in addition to those, 
the available supplies from Lake Tsana provided that that lake is fur- 
nished with an outlet tunnel. 

While all this life and activity will be developing themselves in 
Egypt and the Sudan, the effects of the regulator of Lake Albert and 
the training of the Albert Nile in the Sudd regions will be gradually ' 
asserting themselves; and, if the works are being steadily and 
perseveringly carried out, it is well within the range of possibility 
that before 10 or 12 years will have passed, the additional supplies 
from the upper waters of the White Nile will have become so ample, 
that it will be possible to dispense with the Wady Rayan as a reservoir. 
When this will have happened, the Wady Rayan with its canal will 
become the true flood escape of Egypt, like the ancient Lake Moeris, 
and will, with the Rosetta branch, afford complete protection to Egypt 
against the dangers of a high flood. Egypt, in the fullest meaning 
of the term, wiU be enjoying perennial irrigation and flood protection. 
In my book on the " Assu&n Reservoir and Lake Moeris " I had 
recommended a more extended programme, but the reading of Sir 
William Garstin's Report has convinced me that useful as the Lake 
Victoria reservoir dam may be, its postponement as recommended by 
Sir William is sound, until all the other works have been executed. 
The really essential work is the Lake Albert reservoir dam, of which 
the study might indeed be commenced immediately. Sir William's 
proposal to train the summer supply of the Albert Nile and allow the 
overflow of the floods to find its way through the gudd region is so 
sound and convincing that the necessary training works in the Sudd 
region are greatly reduced. With these reductions the estimated cost 
of the project for water storage and flood protection for Egypt is 
reduced from £8,200,000 to £6,000,000. I have left the Wady Rayan 



— 89 — 

estimate as it was in my original programme. Mr. Webb's criticism 
of the project was based on facts which are outside the project. 
He supposed that the Wady Rayan was to remain a reservoir for all 
time and that it was not to be aided by the works on the Upper Nile. 
Now the project I proposed and which I propose now, presupposes 
that the Wady Rayan will be a temporary reservoir and final flood 
escape for the Nile, and that it will be aided in years of very deficient 
flood by the gradual improvement of the Upper Nile owing to the 
works undertaken there. 

37. Sir William Garstin's programme for water storage 
and flood control. — ^In the first appendix to his Report on the 
Upper Nile, Sir William Garstin, G.C.M.G., Adviser to the Ministry 
of Public Works, has drawn up a programme of works for water 
storage and flood control in the Nile valley. He approves of the 
raising of the Assu&n dam for £500,000, and the conversion of th§ 
Rosetta branch of the Nile into a flood escape for £900,000. He 
then conditionally approves of a proposal suggested by Mr. J..S. Beres- 
ford, CLE., for making a straight cut from Bor on the Albert Nile to 
the mouth of the Sobat river at the tail of the Albert Nile. The line 
would be 340 kilometres in length and is estimated to cost £5,500,000, 
and carry 600 cubic metres per second in summer. In case of the 
line being found impracticable when it was surveyed and levelled. 
Sir William proposed abandoning the Albert Nile and thoroughly 
widening and deepening the Zeraf river for £3,400,000. 

As a criticism of the Bor cut project I cannot write anything more 
convincing from my point of view than a letter written by me and 
published by " The Engineer " in October of this year. 

"In your issue of the 16th September Sir Hanbury Brown has 
reviewed the scheme suggested by Mr. J. S. Beresford, C.I.E., and 
conditionally approved by Sir William Garstin, for diverting the 
waters of the Albert Nile (known as the Bahr-el-Gebel) from Bor to 
the mouth of the Sobat river, on a length 340 kilometres, and sending 
them down a canal capable of carrying 600 cubic metres per second, 
at an estimated cost of £5,500,000. In his review Sir Hanbury puts 
his finger on the weak point in the project, viz., the difficulty and loss 
of water entailed at the crossing of the Albert Nile just upstream of 
the Sobat mouth. The difficulty will be got over, as Sir Hanbury 
himself suggests, by an earthern embankment provided with a regu- 
lator. The loss of water cannot be got over. 



— 90 — 



1901. 


1902. 


1903. 


1901. 


600.. 


. 600. 


... 700 ... 


1,000 


300... 


300. 


..350... 


435 



" I have taken the following figures from Sir William's report and 
from the gauge records of the Public Works Ministry : — 



Discharge m Cubic Metres per Second During February, March, 
AND April ok the Albert Nile. 



At Gondokoro above Bor 

Upstream of the mouth of the Sobat river 



"Now, in a year like 1901 or 1902, with 600 cubic metres per second 
passing Gondokoro, the diversion canal might be allowed to take in 
500 cubic metres per second, leaving 100 cubic metres per second for 
the Albert Nile, Atem river, and all the Nuer, Dinka, and Shillook 
country between Gondokoro and the Sobat mouth. An allowance of 
100 cubic metres per second would not be liberal, and would probably 
result in the water becoming stagnant .and very impure ; but we sh^ 
leave that alone. Starting with 500 cubic metres per second of clear 
water the high level diversion canal would never lose less than 50 
cubic metres per second through percolation and evaporation before it 
reached the Sobat mouth. Many authorities would put the loss at 
40 per cent., but we shall say 10 per cent. 

" We should then have 450 cubic metres per second entering the 
White Nile at its head, just at the end of the Albert Nile and at the mouth 
of the Sobat river. At this point, however, under normal conditions 
the Albert Nile would have been discharging 300 cubic metres per 
second. This supply, after the opening of the diversion canal, would 
have failed utterly, as the waters of the Albert Nile would have been 
diverted down the diversion canal. Whatever water there was in the 
Albert Nile would, moreover, have been at so low a level that it could 
not have flowed down the White Nile together with the high level 
water of the diversion canal. We should therefore have had in a 
year like 1901 and 1902 a net gain of 450 less 300 cubic metres per 
second, or 150 cubic metres per second at the head of the White Nile. 
By the time this extra water reached Assu&n it would have become 
100 cubic metres per second. 

" If this project, or any other project of any kind, is ever to be 
carried out on the upper waters of the White Nile, the very first thing 



— 91 — 

tx) be done will be to construct a weir or barrage at the outlet of the 
Albert Lake, at Wadelai, or lower down at Dufile. I should say, judg- 
ing from the map and the cross section, that Wadelai itself would be 
an excellent site for a weir. I have advocated this project in season 
and out of season these ten years, and now that actual discharges and 
figured are before me I am more than ever convinced that I wbb no 
untrue prophet when I wrote in my book on "The Assuftn Reservoir 
Dam and After" that "the point where Lake Albert ends and the Albert 
Nile begins to have a rapid and contracted stream will be the site of 
the future great regulator or barrage of the upper waters of the Nile, 
This work will be here or at Dufile." Such a work would cost anything 
between £400,000 and £1,000,000. 

" If such a work were carried out it would be possible to insure 
every year a discharge of between 1,000 and 1,500 cubic metres per 
second at Gondokoro from the 15th of January to the 15th of May, t.^., 
during the months which determine the summer water supply of the 
White Nile for Egypt. Such a quantity of water would insure 435 
cubic metres per second at the head of the White Nile, as it has done 
this year, even under existing conditions ; while with training and 
dredger work in the Albert Nile and Bahr Zeraf between Gondokoro 
and Lake No, it might be increased to 600 cubic metres per second, 
and even more. The way in which this work of training should be 
carried out has been admirably laid down on page 174 of Sir William's 
Report". 

There are moreover other reasons I think for condemning the exca- 
vation of a straight cut 340 kilometres in length across the eastern 
comer of the Sudd regions. The reasons are to be found in Sir Wil- 
liam Garstin's Report itself. One of the most interesting features of 
this report is the number of actually measured discharges at different 
sites. Of all these sites Gondokoro, the southern key of the Sudd 
region, is the most interesting. 

It is very evident from an examination of Sections Nos. 18, 19, 26 
and 27, Plate VIII of Sir William's Report, that the Albert Nile at 
Gondokoro scours out its bed very severely after a high flood like that 
of 1903. The width of the section is about 230 metres with vertical 
sides, and yet while a gauge of "50 metres on the 1st April 1903 
(after the low year of 1902) gave a section of 615 square metres ; on 
the 9th September 1903 (after a good year), the section was 1,347 
square metres for a gauge of 2.33 metres. In other words, a rise of 



— 92 — 

1.83 metres gave anincresused Bection of 732 square metres ; while, if 
the bed had not scoured, it would have been 421 square metres. We 
have here an increase of 311 square metres, or more than 1 metre of 
scour. All this happened in 5 months, and proves that the clear 
water of the lakes, when in volume, has a fine cutting edge. 

In footnote (2 ) of page 1 1 6 of his Report, Sir William Garstin says that 
in the parts of the river where the sudd has been cleared there are indi- 
cations that a scour of the bed has set ul, Again, on page 55 of the 
appendix, he says that the removal of the sudds has caused the levels 
of the shallow lakes to fall. All this proves that if the spills and escapes 
from the Albert Nile were closed with ambatch, as proposed by Sir 
William Garstin on page 175, and a few dredgers put into the Albert Nile 
and the Zeraf river the expenditure of a sum of money very moderate 
indeed compared with £5,500,000 would in all probsibility result in 
the two rivers being so widened and deepened that they could carry 
the full summer supply of the lakes, and so there would be a resulting 
economy of over £4,500,000 in the new channel from Bor which, 
when it began working, might introduce on an aggravated scale all 
the difficulties of to-day in the Albert Nile. 

A good description of certain spills is given on page 112 of the 
Report, a good idea of scour in Plate XXIX., opposite page 110, while 
on page 181 Sir William Grarstin makes the remark that the experience 
of American engineers has taught us that though in theory it may be 
possible to shorten or straighten a great river, in actual practice it is 
accompanied with almost insurmountable difficulties. If the new chan- 
nel were dug and set working, in a few years it might be as crooked 
as the Albert Nile itself, unless it were protected with stone along its 
entire length. 

In my project for deepening and widening both the Albert Nile and 
the Zeraf river to enable them to carry 600 cubic metres per second, 
I think I have given very solid reasons against abandoning the Albert 
Nile and sending the whole supply down the Zeraf river at a cost of 
£3,400,000. 

I cannot but think that Sir William Garstin's recent objections to 
the Albert Nile are founded on an oversight. He has, apparently, 
not kept the flood discharges of the Albert Nile at Gondokoro 
and above the Sobat mouth sufficiently apart from those of low 
supply. It is the Sobat flood, combined with the poor carrying 
capacity of the White Nile, which is the disturbing factor, and 



— 93 — 

not any inherent viciousness in the Albert Nile itself. The Albert 
Nile has a good section, and, if it were trained in conjunction with 
the Zeraf river, would, I feel confident, discharge all the water required 
with a very moderate expenditure of money. This, I always understood, 
was Sir William's own opinion. In such projects it is wise to remem- 
ber Horace's saying, " Naturam furcft expellas tamenusque recurrit. " 

38. Project for converting the basin irrigated lands of 
Upper Egypt into perennially irrigated lands. — ^No conside- 
ration of this question would be complete without first examining into 
the changes which would be made in the regimen of the Nile flood by 
the contemplated conversion of basin irrigation into perennial irri- 
gation. This question was examined very thoroughly by me in 1892 
and 1893 and I give here my arguments for not anticipating any 
serious difficulties. 

We have to consider the effect of the introduction of perennial irri- 
gation on the regime of the Nile. The perfection of the perennial 
irrigation of the Delta north of Cairo will in no way affect the Nile 
in flood. The canals will continue to run as they do at present, 
and the question of conversion in Lower Egypt is therefore quite 
independent of the subject of flood protection. In Upper Egypt, 
however, we have 1,460,000 acres of basin irrigation ; and as each 
acre receives in a low flood 80 cubic metres of water per day, in an 
ordinary flood 130 cubic metres per day, and in an extraordinary flood 
170 cubic metres per day, while the demands of perennial irrigation 
are only 25 cubic metres per acre per day, it will readily be understood 
that we are dealing with a quantity of water which demands the greatest 
attention. 

To foretell with exactitude the anticipated changes in the regime 
of the Nile, it is necessary to know first the daily gauges of the Nile 
at Assuftn and Cairo for a period of at least twenty years, and the 
discharges corresponding to these gauges. The difference between 
these discharges represents the consumption of water. We have next 
to determine the amount of water which passes into the canals, the 
amount utilised in filling up the trough of the Nile and covering the 
berms, and the amounts evaporated and absorbed. We know that 
the last three items are constant while the canal discharges are variable 
and depend on the system of irrigation and, if our data are correct, we 
can tell with moderate certainty what changes in the level of the Nile 
will follow certain changes in the system of irrigation. 



— 94 — 

Tables 65 and 67 of Appendix L contain the Assu&n and Cairo 
gauges for typical years in a period of twenty years from 1873 to 
1892, and the mean gauges of these twenty years. Finding it impos- 
sible to understand the Nile without first referring every gauge to 
some uniform standard, I have had to choose the line of reference. 
The mean high water level and the mean low water level are both 
available. In Egypt the mean high water level varies very consider- 
ably whether we take it in August and the early part of September 
when the basin canals are running full supply, or in the latter half of 
September whan the canals are running only half supply, or in October 
when the basins are discharging back into the Nile. Early and quick 
rising floods have a different series of levels from slow and late floods; 
while again the recent works carried out in Upper Egypt by Col. Ross 
have so increased the discharging capacity of the canals that the flood 
gauges have been appreciably affected. All this points to the conclu- 
sion that the mean high flood is no satisfactory standard. The mean 
low flood on the other hand is much less liable to change and is very 
fairly constant from year to year. High floods are certainly followed 
by scouring out of the bed, and low floods by a silting up of the 
channel, but the changes are very moderate compared to those in 
high flood. I have chosen the mean low water level as the line of 
reference, and referred all gauges to it. From the mean of twenty 
years' observations, this level at Assu&n is R. L. 85 metres. By 
observations along the Nile generally, and by calculations at Cairo, 
I have fixed it at all important places north of Assu&n. Table 46 
of Appendix K gives the Reduced Levels at different places, while 
it is also drawn on the longitudinal section of the Nile in Plate XII. 
It was on this system that the ancient Egyptian engineers worked 
the Nile. They however chose the mean high water level during 
the early part of the flood as their standard of reference and conse- 
quently made the so called cubits in the flood reaches of the Cairo 
gauge half cubits. This means a discharge of 1600 cubic metres 
per second and fairly represents the discharges of the basin canals in 
flood. When it is considered that the level of the Nile valley is 
raised by about 10 centimetres per 100 years it will be seen that 
the old Cairo gauge, which was a living record 1500 years ago, is 
to-day a meaningless anachronism. It has also to be compared with 
the Assu&n gauge which was erected in Ismail Pasha's time with 
an arbitrary zero some 90 centimetres below mean low water level, 



— 95 ~ 

and which may be reading 17 cubits while Cairo may be recording 25 
cubits. The Cairo gauges in winter and summer are no records of 
discharge as the afflux from the Barrage affects them. To find the 
discharge at Cairo during these months, I have added those of th8 
Rosetta and Damietta branches and the Delta canals upstream of the 
Barrage. When the Nile falls below mean low water level, the gauges 
are recorded as minus quantities. 

Discharge sites having been chosen for the Assu&n, Assiout and 
Cairo gauges on the Nile, a continuous series of surface velocity obser- 
vations, cross sections and slope measurements were made during 1892 
and 1893 and the resulting discharges recorded. Curves of discharge 
have been drawn and referred to the gauges of twenty years and mo- 
dified until finally a curve has been found which will suit any year 
whether it is a maximum or a minimum. In connection with this 
subject, it must be remembered that the Nile bed is raised by silt 
during low floods and scoured out during high floods and that conse- 
quently August and September discharges vary considerably at times 
from October and November discharges for the same gauge. In ad- 
dition to this, it must also be borne in mind that the slope of water 
surface and that consequently the discharge of a flood during the rise 
is far greater than during the fall for the same gauge reading. Indeed 
the Nile often discharges more when it is 30 centimetres below its 
maximum and rising fast than when it has reached its maximum and 
begun to fall. It is owing to this fact that we often see the discre- 
pancy of the Assuftn gauge reaching its maximum a day before Haifa 
which is 350 kilometres higher up the river. The discharge depends 
on gauge and slope, and the gauge only records one element. Keeping 
these facts in my mind, I saw that it was of no use recording the 
gauges to two places of decimals and covering paper with useless 
figures, and consequently I have chosen the higher unit for a rising 
gauge and the lower for a falling gauge when I have been dealing with 
discharges. 

Flood discharges have been taken of all the canals in Upper Egypt 
through 1892 and 1893 and have been recorded in Tables 48 and 49 of 
Appendix K. From these tables. Table 47 has been compiled which 
gives rough approximate discharges of the canals corresponding to the 
Assu^n gauges in the first half of the flood. 

To obtain information about the trough of the Nile, the area exposed 
to evaporation and the area of absorption, a longitudinal section of the 



— 96 — 

Nile from Assuan to Cairo has been levelled, and cross sections taken 
at every 3 kilometres. The kilometrage on Plate XII counts from the 
Assuan gauge and is measured down the centre of discharge of the 
flood, since it is with flood discharges that we are principally dealing. 
As the Nile winds about considerably and is often broken into nume- 
rous channels, the areas of the cross sections vary very appreciably 
according as they are taken at right angles to the centre line of 
discharge or of the deep channel of the river. The former gives the 
more reliable results. I have taken 8 millimetres per day as the eva- 
poration during flood in Upper Egypt. The absorption has been 
calculated from the water consumption dnring the floods of 1892 and 
1893, and found to be about 300 cubic metres per second between As- 
suftn and Assiout, where there is practically no perennial irrigation. 
Between Assiout and Cairo, where there is a considerable length of 
perennial irrigation on one bank and limestone rock on the other, the 
absorption is about 100 cubic metres per second. 

When perennial irrigation has once established itself in Upper 
Egypt, we may assume that the absorption during flood will be halved 
in quantity for the reasons given above, and become 150 cubic metres 
per second between Assu&n and Assiout, and 50 cubic metres per 
second between Assiout and Cairo. The amount of water expended 
in irrigation will be about 700 cubic metres per second. The evapo- 
ration during flood will be approximately 120 cubic metres per second. 
The quantity of water needed to fill the trough of the Nile will depend 
on the gauges and may be calculated from table 43 of Appendix K. 
The last item will be the only variable one and the others may be ap- 
proximately tabulated as follows : — 



Easpenditure of water in flood in cubic metres per second: 

BsTWBBN AbsuIn A!n> AssiouT. Brwibn Amiodt and Gaibo. total 

Perennial irrigation 350 350 700 

Evaporation 65 55 120 

Absorption 150 50 200 

Total of above 565 455 1020 



Taking these quantities and calculating directly for the filling of the 
trough from the gauges themselves, I have collected in Tables 50 
to 52, the Cairo gauges corresponding to the Assu&n gauges for 



— 97 — 



the high years 1874 and 1878 and the minimum year 1877. As far 
as the more important results are concerned, I tabulate them here : — 



CMOgem at Assuan and Cairo. 



Dmta. 



August 



September 



October.... 



. 5 
10 
15 
20 
25 
31 

. 5 
10 
15 
20 
25 
30 

. 5 
10 
15 
20 
25 
31 



1874 



6.9 
7.4 
8.5 
8.6 
8.7 
8.7 

9.0 
8.8 
8.7 
8.4 
8.4 
8.2 

7.9 
7.6 
7.2 
6.C 
6.2 
5.6 






6.5 
6.9 
7.3 
7.5 
7.6 

7.7 
8.0 
8.2 
8.3 
8.4 
8.4 

8.7 
8.5 
8.3 
8.0 
7.7 
7.0 



ili 

i 



5.8 
6.4 
7.8 
7.9 
8.1 

8.2 
8.3 
8.4 
8.5 
8.2 
8.2 

7.9 
7.6 
7.4 
7.0 
6.3 
5.9 



1878 



5.6 
5.3 
7.2 
7.5 

8.1 
7.6 

8.1 
8.5 
8.9 
8.9 
9.0 
9.1 

8.9 
8.5 
7.9 
7.6 
7.4 
6.8 



4.9 
5.4 
6.0 
6.3 
6.6 

6.5 
6.8 
7.2 
7.6 
7.9 
8.2 

8.4 
8.7 
8.4 
8.1 
7.9 
7.7 






4.4 
5.2 
6.3 
6.5 
7.2 

7.5 
7.5 

8.0 
8.5 
8.5 
8.5 

8.6 
8.6 
8.4 
8.0 
7.4 
7.2 



1892 



6.3 
6.8 
6.7 
7.4 
8.3 
8.3 

8.6 
8.8 
8.8 
8.9 
8.6 
8.4 

8.2 
7.8 
7.4 
7.2 
6.8 
6.3 



1^1 



5.3 
5.8 
5.4 
5.8 
6.6 

6.9 
7.1 
7.5 
7.9 
8.1 
8.3 

8.4 
8.3 
8.1 
7.9 
7.9 
7.8 



5.1 
5.8 
6.2 
6.5 

7.7 

7.7 
8.0 
8.3 
8.3 
8.4 
8.4 

8.3 
8.1 
7.7 
7.2 
7.0 
6.6 



1877 



4.9 
5.4 
5.8 
6.4 
6.1 
6.2 

6.3 
6.1 
6.0 
6.0 
6.3 
6.1 

5.6 
5.2 
4.9 
4.6 
4.5 
4.0 



fl 



4.0 
4.7 
4.6 
5.3 



f- 



3.9 
4.6 
5.0 
5.5 



5.3 5.6 



5.2 
5.3 
5.2 
5.2 
5.1 
5.3 

5.2 
5.0 
4.9 
4.6 
4.4 
4.2 



5.2 
5.3 
5.5 
5.4 
5.4 
5.6 

5.4 
5.0 
4.6 
4.4 
4.0 
3.9 



— 98 — 



To enable one to compare these figures which are in metres and 
referred to mean low water level, with the gauges as recorded at 
present, I add the following table : — 



ASSUAN 



Real 

gauge 

In metres. 



0.0 

.5 
1.0 

.5 
2.0 

.5 
3.0 

.5 
4.0 

.5 



Osage 

as recorded 

In cubits 

snd Utb». 


Heal 

gsnge 

In metres. 


Cubili. t(tb. 




1 13 


5.0 


2 12 


.5 


3 10 


6.0 


4 8 


.5 


5 6 


7.0 


6 4 


.5 


7 3 


8.0 


8 1 


.5 


8 23 


9.0 


9 21 





Gauge 

as recorded 

In caMts 

and lUbs. 



ClUts. tiUs. 

10 20 

11 18 

12 16 

13 14 

14 12 

15 11 

16 9 



17 
18 



7 
5 



16 cubits at Assu£n corresponds to 7.8 metres. 

^' » It n « II "•" II 

^0 H n 11 II II O." II 



A cubit is iLDOwn in Egypt as a pic. 



CAIBO 



Real 


Oauge 
ss recorded 


Beal 


gauge 
In metres. 


In cubits 
and 24tbB. 


gauge 
In metres. 




CiHts. ttUu. 




0.0 


6 9 


5.0 


.5 


7 7 


.5 


1.0 


8 5 


6.0 


.5 


9 4 


.5 


2.0 


10 2 


7.0 


.5 


11 


.5 


3.0 


12 


8.0 


.5 


13 


.5 


4.0 


13 23 


9.0 


.5 


14 21 





Qsuge 

as leoorded 

in cnUts 

and Mths. 



Cibita. t4tti. 

15 19 
17 12 



19 
21 



8 
4 



22 12 

23 10 



24 
25 
26 



9 
7 
5 



16 cubits at Cairo corresponds to 6.1*metre8. 

22 n }, „ „ „ 6.7 ^ 

*** »i II II II » ••«' II 

** II II H II II '•" II 

*5 „ }, ,1 „ ,1 8»o „ 

25i „ }, „ „ ,1 8.6 „ 



The flood of 1874 was an early one and the basins were discharged 
on a falUng Nile, still they raised the Cairo gauge to 8*7 metres on the 
5th October while it would have risen to 8*5 on the 15th September 
with perennial irrigation. The flood of 1878 was an exceedingly late 
one and the basins had to be discharged while the river was still very 
high. By the 10th October, the river had risen to 8'7 metres at Cairo 
when the banks were breached and all future rise stopped. With 
perennial irrigation, the maximum gauge of 8*6 metres would have 
been reached on the 10th October. The flood of 1892 was at Assuftn 
10 centimetres below that of 1874 and 20 centimetres below that of 
1878, and midway between them in point of time. It was also under 
complete control owing to the new regulating works on the basins. It 
rose to 8'4 metres at Cairo on the oth October and fell exceedingly 
slowly. With j>erennial irrigation, it would have risen to 8*4 at Cairo 
on the 30th September and then fallen rapidly. 

Speaking generally, we may say that with perennial irrigation the 
very high floods at Cairo will be 15 days in advance of what they are 



— 99 — 

at present, that they will not rise higher, and that they will fall 15 
days earlier than what they do now. With low floods there will be no 
appreciable difference as to date, but the floods will be slightly higher 
at Cairo. In ordinary floods, there will be an advance of from 20 to 25 
days in the date of the maximum flood, and a maximum gauge at Cairo 
50 or 60 centimetres under the maximum gauge at Assuftn. We have 
so feir considered Cairo only, as the Delta proper depends on the Cairo 
gauge. We now turn to the Nile in Upper Egypt itself : south of 
Sohag, there will be no serious change in levels, but the Sohagia and 
Ibrahimia canals between them carry at present 750 cubic metres per 
second in excess of what they would carry if there were perennial 
irrigation in Egypt, and the greater part of this water is not returned 
to the Nile until the Kushesha escape is reached. The reach of the 
Nile from Sohag to Kushesha is the one which will experience the 
greatest changes, and I calculate that there will be a rise of 40 centimetres 
as compared with the maximum gauges under basin irrigation. 

It will be noted that at the beginning of this paragraph I stated that 
"the perfection of the perennial irrigation of the Delta north of Cairo 
will in no way affect the Nile in flood." This had reference only to the 
quantity of water taken from the Nile in high floods. There is however 
one very serious aspect of this quescion. The regulation on the Bar- 
rage in low floods, which has gone on steadily since 1899 when Sir 
Hanbury Brown used the Barrages in flood for the first time, has 
enormously increased the value of the works, but it has certainly 
caused the Main Nile to silt, and probably also the branches, owing to 
a reduced discharge and velocity of the silt-bearing water, whose 
capacity to carry on that quantity of silt depends on its velocity. It 
seems to me that unless steps are taken to insure the scouring out of 
this silt by the clear water of November, December and January the 
consequences will be very serious. High floods scour out their beds, 
but if a very high flood were to come early before the silt had been 
scoured out, it might overflow the banks near Cairo or in the middle 
reaches of the Nile branches in the Delta. 

Sir William Garstin has estimated the cost of converting the existing 
basins of Upper Egypt into perennially irrigated hand at £7,000,000, 
thus made up : — 

Conversion of Upper Egypt basins £5,000,000 

Two barrages between Assyut and Kena „ 2,000,000 

Total £7,000,000 



— 100 — 

The resulting land tax from the improved irrigation in Upper or 
Lower Egypt he has estimated as follows : — 

Ti^r.^^ v^^^rr ir i Basiii kud converted . . 750,000 acres @ £ •50=£ 375,000 
upper J^gypt. | j^^^ irrigated by pumps. . 100,000 „ @ £ '30= „ 30,000 
Lower Egypt. Reclaimed land 800,000 „ @ £1.00= „ 800,000 

Total £ 1.205,0 00 

39. Development of the Sudan. — Lord Cromer's wise decision 
to construct the Suakin -Khartoum railway immediately and the Abu 
Hamed-Dongola railway as soon as possible, is the charter of the deve- 
lopment of the Sudan. With these railways and especially the former 
in working order, we can arrange for irrigation works for the produc- 
tion of cotton and wheat for export, knowing that they can be exported 
at a cost of transport which wiU not be absolutely prohibitive. The 
soil of the Sudan along the Blue Nile, the Atbara, the Main Nile and 
a great part of the White Nile is the same as that of Egypt itself. It 
has all come from Abyssinia. When at Khartoum last February, I 
collected specimens of typical Gezireh soil from points 10 miles south 
of Khartoum and from near Khartoum itself. They were analysed 
by Mr. Frank Hughes and reported on by Mr. Foaden. 

The specimens were numbered as follows : — 

(1) Typical Gezireh soil from a point 10 miles south of Khartoum 
near the Blue Nile. 

(2) Typical Gezireh soil from a point 2 miles south of Khartoum 
near the White Nile. 

(3) White Nile side under cultivation in 1904. 

(4) White Nile side below flood level. 

(5) Blue Nile side, not so common as (1). 

(6) The sandy soil generally within 5 miles of Khartoum. 
Nos. 1, 2, 5, and 6 are above high flood level of both Niles. 

" The nitrogen and salt were determined in the samples, as received, 
without drying. 



Nos. 


12 3 4 5 6 


Nitrogen 


0-078 0-069 0-062 0-057 0-056 0-052 


Common salt 


0-050 0-020 0-010 0-090 0-170 0-020 



" All contain abundance of carbonate of lime ; Nos. 1 and 2 might 
almost be called calcareous. All gave a strong reaction for phos* 



— 101 — 

phoric acid, and there is therefore every reason to believe that they are 
rich in this ingredient. So far as the texture of the soils is concerned, 
little can be said except that they differ from those previously examined 
for Kena Mudirieh, in containing a large amount of coarse sand 
1-3 m.m., which is entirely absent in most Egyptian soils; No. 6 would 
probably be too light for agricultural purposes in its present condition. 

" The nitrogen is as high as one would expect but is lower than is 
necessary for fertile soils. It would be necessary therefore to en- 
courage the growth of leguminous crops to increase the quantity of 
nitrogen in the soil and to employ nitrogenous manures. It must be 
borne in mind that in soils of this class the nitrogen is usually in a 
highly insoluble aild un-nitrifiable form. 

" The salt is in no case high; 0.25% is usually considered to be the 
limit for satisfactory growth ; all the samples are well below this Umit." 

I had complete analyses made of numbers (1) and (2). The results 

were as follows : 

No. 1 No. 2 

Silica etc. insol in mineral acid 74.76 73.85 

Lime(Ca.O.) 6.07 4.56 

Carbonic Acid (CO.,) 3.64 2.40 

Equal to Chalk (Ca.C.O.») 8.27 5.46 

Potash 0.23 0.34 

Phosphoric Acid 0.14 0.12 

Organic Matter 2.88 4.07 

Nitrogen 0.075 0.062 

Calculated on soil dried at 100°. 

Though none of these specimens contained salt in excess, Nile 
deposit in certain localities has very large proportions of common salt 
and sulphate of soda. The dark soil near the Atbara mouth at El- 
Damer is largely exploited for common salt, while similar soil south of 
Khartoum is free from it. 

The extent of this Nile deposit soil is very great indeed and if irri- 
gation could be assured, there would be a great future before the 
Sudan. 

In Mr. Dupuis's Report which is the last appendix to Sir WiUiam 
Garstin's Report, he speaks of this soil as being met with on the Blue 
Nile, on the Rahad, on the Atbara and on the Gaash. From Khartoum 
northwards the main Nile flows between berms of this soil. 

The extent and quality of this soil may therefore be considered as 
an undisputed asset of the Sudan. We have next to consider the 
seasons. 



— 102 — 

A reference to tables 76, 77, and 80 will show how much warmer 
the Sudan is than Egypt, and any attempt to introduce Egyptian 
methods into the Sudan without modifications will not at once turn the 
Sudan into Egypt. I allow that extensive plains of irrigated land 
greatly moderate the heat as they have already done in Middle Egypt; 
but we have to begin from the beginning in the Sudan, and there are 
no extensive plains of irrigated land. Basin irrigation will be a 
failure in the Sudan unless it is supplemented by two or three water- 
ings in the winter, for all crops except the cheapest and coarsest 
leguminous crops. Wheat must be irrigated in winter whether sown in a 
basin or on the Nile berm, except in a few choice, low and damp locaUties. 
Cotton, on the ther hand, which has to be sown in spring in Egypt 
and reaped in autumn will need such an extraordinary quantity of 
water to pull it through the summer that it will be found preferable 
to grow it in June with the rising flood and reap it at the end of the 
winter. Irrigation therefore from June to October for Indian com, 
from June to February for cotton, and from November to February 
for wheat will be essentials of a good harvest in the Sudan. 

We now come to the question of the water supply. Unless permits are 
given for pumps to work from the 15th June to the 15 February, the 
cultivation of cotton and wheat on any scale in the northern part of 
the Gezireh, along the main Nile between Khartoum and Dongola, 
and on the lower reaches of the Atbara will be out of the question. 
Maize and millets and some of the coarser leguminous plants might be 
developed by pumps with permits to work from 15th June to 15th 
October, but it would pay no one to put up pumps on these terms. 

Fortunately for the joint interests of Egypt and the Sudan, though 
Egypt cannot spare water between the 15th March and 30th June, which 
would correspond to 1st March and 15th June in the Sudan; she has 
enough to spare for pumps at other times, though she has not always 
enough to spare for large free flow schemes in the Sudan. Free flow 
schemes in the Sudan, except during high and good floods, have 
however yet to be found. 

Speaking generally we may say that the agricultural success of the 
Sudan will depend on permits for pumping engines to work between 
the 1st June and the end of February. There should be no difficulty 
in the way of such permits being given. We have spoken so far of 
schemes within the power of individuals and companies. Of schemes 
which the Government alone could carry out by itself or in conjunction 



XX 3TAJS 




PLATE XX 



Skbtch Flam 
OF , 

COUNTRY ABOUT DELQI 

N. W. OF L. TSANA 




Lifck. fiur. D*n. Cmmh 



— 103 — 

with powerful companies, the most promising seem to be those which 
are connected with the 6th cataract. This cataract seems well suited 
for the construction of a solid dam to create power and develop elec- 
tricity to work pumps between it and Khartoum, and some 30 kilometres 
up the Blue Nile j and if possible to allow of a canal down the left 
bank of the Nile as far as Berber. This project might be studied with 
advantage and a greater amount of water storage for summer use be 
also obtained. 

Another scheme is the construction of a double barrage and weir 
near Wad Medani on the Blue Nile, with canals irrigating the Gezireh 
and the right bank of the Blue Nile and the Nile to Shabluka. Unfor- 
tunately no cross sections have been taken of the Blue Nile showing how 
high the Gezireh is above the bed and water surface of the Blue Nile 
at Wad Medani. A weir further south would, as Mr. Dupuis states, 
entail very expensive canals to irrigate the lands south of Khartoum. 

Mr. Dupuis's report on the Atbarais not very hopeful. Without reser- 
voirs this torrential river could insure no crop except millets and In- 
dian com. The same may be said for the Graash. Basins without 
winter irrigation would, I thik, be most unsatisfactory. 

Examining Mr. Dupuis's figures and sections for the outlet of lake 
Tsana, I calculate that this reservoir would not supply a fraction of the 
water estimated by Mr. Dupuis. If I were wrong, and I should be 
pleased indeed to be wrong here, a tunnel along the alignment roughly 
surveyed by Mr. Dupuis, Plate XX, leading the waters of Lake Tsana 
into the Rahad river, and from there under the Blue Nile by a syphon, and 
branch canals irrigating both banks of the Rahad and both banks of the 
Blue Nile to Khartoum, would be one of the boldest projects in the world. 

It will be noted that no mention has been made of the tracts 
between the foothills of Abyssinia and Wad-el- Medani which can 
produce good crops of Indian corn, millets and even cotton in nine 
years out of ten with the aid of rain without irrigation. If the land 
could lend itself to basins similar to those of Bundelkund or to river 
fed pans as in Madras, a development of this country would be possible. 
Ordinary Egyptian basin irrigation would be, I think, of no use. 

The following quotations from a letter written by Messrs. Choremi, 
Benachi and Co., of Alexandria, to Mr. Foaden on the 8th February 1904, 
will give an idea of the estimation in which Sudan grown cotton is 
held in Alexandria : — 

" The cotton generally is good and superior to any Sudan cotton I 



— 104 — 

have yet seen. Last year the best I saw was sent by the Sudan 
Government and grown in Miralai Stanton Bey's garden, with arti- 
ficial irrigation and quality was (first picking) class "good", equal to 
Beni-Suef or Minieh cotton, but more woolly. In any case it is saleable 
cotton for coarse Nos. of Yarn, not what we call Bolton Spinners* 
cotton. 

" I now give you the following classification and values compared 
to Standard of Full Good Fair Lower Egypt which is the basis of 
" Futures " in our Market and Liverpool. 

" On Upper Egypt the outturn in ginning on basis 315 lbs. per cwt. 
in seed runs from 100 to 104, and Lower Egypt 105-110 according to 
province grown and quality of seed. 

No. 1 Outturn 96 Class "good", value P.T. 5 over Delta 

fully good fair — colour rather light — 
good staple, better than Beni-Suef Ash- 
mouni or even Afifi. 

No. 2 „ 98^ Long staple and finish does not look grown 

from afifi seed but from superior quality, 
value about P.T. 15 over F.G.F. 

No. 3 „ 99 Class " good ", the seed of this is from 

Delta because mixed — there is also some 
Abassi in and does not look as from afifi 
seed because finer than any afifi grown in 
Minieh and Beni-Suef, value 5 to 10 over 
F.G.F. 

No. 4 „ 102^ " Good " in class, from mixed seed — some 

looks afifi, other better, probably Yanno- 
vich seed. There are traces of abassi — 
and is irregular in strength, value P.T. 15 
to 20 over F.G.F. 

No. 5 „ 100 Also from mixed seed — I can trace afifi 

quality and Yannovich, also some abassi. 
Value over F.G.F. about 7 to 10 P.T. 

No. 6 „ 103J About same as No. 5 and with same 

mixture. 



— 105 — 

" From the above report you will see that quality generally is good — 
but I regret the seed got mixed — probably through mistakes in 
transport or if in single bags some broke and seed became mixed. 

" The outturn in ginning I consider good and the seed I notice 
deteriorates but very little as you can see — though with that of 
Stanton Bey's I examined with you last year, the deterioration was, 
if I remember right, something like 10 ^/^ in one year. The seed from 
the non irrigated Sudan (I suppose near Khartoum) though from good 
Afifi seed, almost becomes unfit for sowing and the quality of this 
cotton had a very poor outturn of about 73 Y©- 

" Rain crops cannot be depended on, because if no rain for some 
time the quality will be totally spoilt. 

" I fail to find any trace of sand in the samples — though the common 
Sudan non-irrigated cotton was very dirty and sandy." 

The following extracts from a letter written to me by Ibrahim 
Eflfendi Fahmy, originally a student of the Cairo Agricultural College 
and at the time of writing Government agriculturist at Khartoum and 
on leave in Cairo, will be found interesting. 

" There are three seasons in the Sudan, which are different from 
those in Egypt. The seasons are: — 1st the winter which extends 
from the 1st November to the end of February, in this season wheat, 
beans, barley onions, Indian corn and millets are planted : 2nd, the 
summer which extends from 1st March to the 15th June, in this season, 
practically speaking, nothing is planted except a small quantity of 
millets, and in the middle of the season from the 1st May to the 
15th June all agricultural work is stopped owing to the great heat 
and deficiency of water: and 3rd, the flood season or "Demera" from, 
the 1 5 June to the end of October ; in this season the rains fall, the 
Nile rises and the heat is decreased, two crops of millets can be taken 
and cotton, sesame and earthnuts are sown. 

" Manures are the same as in Egypt. 

" Cotton sown in March, April and May needs so much water through 
the summer that its cost is prohibitive. In the really hot weather it 
must be irrigated every three days. High winds and rain hurt the first 
open pods, and the pickings are on the 20th August, 20th September 
and 15th October. After 22 waterings a good field ^vill give 4 J cwt. 
per acre. 

" Cotton sown in June and July has an even, regular growth. The 
rains and moisture in the air encourage the growth of the plant. 



— 106 — 



The height o£ the flood permits of easy irrigation even when it is lift. 
The plants grow to a great size but have many bolls. The following 
table will show the growth of the plants. 



Date of planting. 


No of waterings 


First picking. 


Last picking. 


25 June 

3 July 

30 July 


16 
16 

15 


1st January • • . . 
15th January • . . . 
15th February.. .. 


March 15 
March 31 
April 15 



" The yield of a good field is 5 J cwt. per acre. The fibre is better 
than that of the cotton sown in March and April. 

" I consider that June and July are the best months for sowing, and 
that cotton sown from well-selected seed and well cultivated will prove 
itself a cotton of superior quality, ranking with Egyptian cottons. 

" The following table gives the kinds of crops, other than cotton 
which can be profitably grown in the Sudan :— 



Crop 


Time of sowing. 


Time of ripening. 


of waterings 


Produce 


Egyptian wheat. . . , 
Indian wheat . . • . 
Egyptian barley 
Australian barley • . 

Beans 

Lentils 

Earthnuts 

Indian corn • • . . 
American maize 

Potatoes 

Lucerne 


Nov. & Dec. 
December 

> 

> 

July 
> 

> 

November 

March 


April 

> 

March 31 

> 

> 

January 

September 

October 

March 

March year 


3 
3 
2 
2 
3 
3 
9 
4 
7 
3 
12 


5 i ardebs 
5 > 
11 > 
5 > 

5 » 
3i > 
9 > 

6 > 
4 > 

150 kantars 

1800 »_ 

in 12 cuttings 

of 150 kantars 

each. 



Fodder crops such as birseem and vetches (gilban) when well 
watered are satisfactory. 

" If the land is not well tilled, manured and looked after, wheat will 
require 6 waterings and barley 4 waterings. 

" If water can be obtained in the Sudan, the agricultural problem is 
very easy. " 

I cannot do better than close this chapter with this thoroughly 
Egyptian remark of Ibrahim Effendi Fehmy. 



— 107 — 



CHAPTER V. 



The Oa$e$ and the Geology of the Nile valley, 

by Mr. H. J. L. Beadnell, F. G. S., F. R. G. S. 

« 

40. The Oases.— The chief oases C) of the Libyan desert— Dakhla, Kharga, 
Baharia and Farafra, — occupy extensive depressions cut down through the 
horizontal Eocene strata (*) to the underlying saddle of Cretaceous rocks ; some 
of the more porous beds of the latter are water-bearing and from them, either 
through natural passages or through artificial borings, the water rises to the 
surface, often under considerable pressure. The floor level varies considerably 
but the cultivated lands in general lie between 70 and 115 metres above 
sea level. 

41. Dakhla oasis. — This, by far the most important and prosperous of the 
Egyptian oases, lies three days' march west of Kharga, or about 300 kilometres 
due west of Armant in the Nile valley. The site is a depression lying at th^ 
foot of the great east and west Cretaceous escarpment, bounded to the south by 
the undulating desert of Nubian sandstone, which stretches unchanged almost 
to the heart of the continent. The inhabitants of Dakhla, numbering over 
17,000, are distributed among 12 villages and form a practically self-supporting 
community. The cultivable land within the oasis (400 square kilometres) 
amounts to nearly 50,000 acres, of j which one half is under cultivation; in addition 
several extensive areas of alluvium covered ground exist outside the oasis proper, 
notably on the Gabbari road between Dakhla and Kharga. Owing to the diffi- 
culty of drainage, salines, saltyland, marshes and pools occupy some 7,000 acres. 

There are nearly 130,000 adult palm trees in Dakhla, a large export trade in 
dates being carried on with the Nile valley ; the finest crops of wheat and barley 
are raised, while the fruits of the oasis, oranges, apricots, mulberries, etc., are 
abundant and of excellent quality. 

Taxes are levied as follows :^1) Mature date-palms are taxed 1^ piastres 
each per annum ; (2) Modern wells (i.e. biyar, made with the existing boring 
plant) pay 50 piastres per annum per qirat of water ; (3) Ancient wells (aiyiin) 
pay the same, except that in some cases those used for irrigating palmgroves 
are exempt. There are 7^ trees and 1^ acres per inhabitant, and the total tax 
paid by the community is about £E. 2,500. 

The water-supply of the oasis is derived from an underground bed of sandr 
stone, 55 metres thick, underlying a dense impervious red clay 45 metres in 

(i) See Geological Surrey reports, P.W.M., Cairo. 

(>) With the exception that Dakhla is almost entirely cut out in Cretaceous strata. 



— 108 — 

thickness; the upper part of the latter is conspicuous throughout the oasis, under- 
lying the alluvium and forming the base of the surrounding escarpments in 
many localities. Below the water-bearing sandstone lies a black clay, never 
yet penetrated by the boring rods ; it is probable that other water-tables exist 
below and such would be invaluable for the irrigation of those parts of the oasis 
where the present supply is unsatisfactory. There seem to be no natural springs 
extant at the present day, the whole of the water-supply being through boreholes, 
both ancient and modern. The old wells, known as am, atywn, appear to be mostly 
of early Egyptian and Roman construction, and number over 400; exactly similar 
wells have been sunk by boring plant during the last few decades and are called 
bir, hiydr; there are over 160 of these; all are true artesian wells. At the present 
day the method in vogue is as follows : — ^a two metre square timbered shaft is 
sunk by hand to the base of the red clay and within this is built up a watertight 
wooden pipe, 35 cm. in diameter, made of 'sunt' (a species of thorny acacia), the 
surrounding space being packed with clay. Sinking is continued in the sandstone 
with the boring machine until a satisfactory flow of water is obtained. Many 
of the older wells in the oasis have become choked up, and although some have 
been successfully cleaned out by the inhabitants, but the process is costly and 
laborious and frequently fails. The work is done by divers, a small but hardy 
class only found in Dakhla and Farafra. 

The output of wells is determined in a somewhat rough and ready manner by 
measuring the depth of water passing over a weir fixed in the stream. It is 
reckoned in qirats, one qirat being a water-section of 64 square centimetres; from 
some test observations in Kharga Dr. Ball deduced the average value of a qirat, 
as measured in that oasis, as 230 litres a minute. The total water-output in 
Dakhla (1096 qirats) may thus be taken as approximately representing a dis- 
charge of 132 million cubic metres per annum, and taking the cultivated lands 
as 25,500 acres the duty is 6,130 acres per cubic metre per second. That the 
water-supply could be largely increased, and the limits of cultivation greatly 
extended, admit of no doubt, but with the free hand accorded the natives during 
the last few decades a considerable amount of damage has been done throughout 
the oasis by the injudicious sinking of wells. Promiscuous boring is fatal, and 
strict and efficient control of all boring operations imperative. Considering the 
number of wells abandoned owing to a slight fall in the water-level having caused 
them to cease running at the surface, the importance of lifting appliances, in the 
shape of shadiifs, saqias, or windmills, is evident, but until a few years ago the 
oasis was destitute of such appliances; a number of saqias have recently been fixed 
in the village of Mushia and have met with success, but it is not an easy matter to 
persuade the inhabitants to have recourse to lifting appliances of any description. 

Some of the Dakhla wells are of considerable depth ; Bir-el-Dinaria, the most 
northerly in the oasis, is 144 metres deep and its water emerges with a temper- 
ature of 39*5° C. The best wells yield 9 or 10 qirats, though before the modern 
boring operations the output of some was as much as 16. The terms 'artesian' 
and ' thermal ' may fairly be applied to the Dakhla wells, and it is noteworthy 
that the temperatures as a whole increase from south to north. The thermal 
character of the springs may be considered to be due to the great depths from 



THE EGYPTIAN OASES 

Soal* t : 6.000.000 



PLATE XXI. 



M 



e o 



I T e R '^ 







SIWA OASI5 ^;.>i.,^^^^ 
(Jupiter Ammon) \ 



BAHARIA OASI5 / f // 

V 

r"' \ ii 

fArAPRA OASli^l 



DAKHLA OASIS 




IOC so 

'-■■■■■ 



^ 



— 109 — 

\fvihich the water is derived, the actual temperature at the point o£ exit being 
dependent on local conditions, such as the depth of the well and the rate at 
which the water finds its way to the surface. It is probable that the water- 
bearing table has its outcrop in the rainy regions of Darf ur, although some of 
its water may be derived by direct infiltration from the Nile in its upper 
reaches. 

42. Kharg^a oasis. — ^Kharga, the easternmost of the two southern oases, is a 
north and south lying depression, mostly bounded by steep and lofty escarpments 
but open to the south and south-west. A great part of its floor, which is composed 
of the Nubian sandstone, is buried under sand accumulations. There are seven 
principal villages, besides numerous hamlets and smaller settlements, with a total 
population of under 8,000. Taxes are elvied as in Dakhla and amount to slightly 
over £E. 1000. The adult palm trees in the oasis number about 60,000 and the 
cultivated lands have an area of some 4,500 acres, or half an acre and eight 
palm trees per inhabitant. The crops raised do not appear to be sufficient to 
support the population, as a certain amount of grain is imported from Dakhla. 
Dates are exported to the Nile valley, though in less quantities than from Dakhla 
and Baharia. 

The general level of the floor of the oasis lies between 50 and 130 metres above 
sea level, though near Qasr Zaiyan a limited area appears to lie below sea level. 
Water is met with in most localities on digging to a moderate depth ,but the 
best supplies are from deep wells ; as in Dakhla the majority of the wells are 
of considerable antiquity, though some have been recently made with modern 
boring plant. With an increased water-supply cultivation could be very much 
extended, as there are large areas of unoccupied alluvium covered land within 
the oasis. The same difficulties exist in Kharga as in the other oases, though 
here perhaps aggravated by the encroachments and movements of blown sand, 
namely, the lack of control of the wells and water-supply and the apathy of the 
inhabitants generally. 

43. Baharia oasis, lying 180 kilometres west of Minia, is a large natural 
excavation 150 metres deep and entirely surrounded by escarpments. The 
cultivated lands bear a very small proportion to the total oasis-area ; their 
general level is 110-115 metres above sea level, rising to 155 metres at Ain-el- 
Haiss in the southern part of the depression. There are four chief villages with 
a population, inclusive of outlying settlements, of just over 6,000. The standard 
of public health in this oasis is low, mainly owing to febrile disorders. The total 
area of cultivated land is about 2,500 acres (barely ^ an acre per inhabitant), largely 
made upofpalmgroves; rice, wheat and barley are grown, but the area sown with 
cereals has of late years being decreasing in extent owing to a diminished output 
from the springs. Baharia is par excellence the date-producing oasis of Egypt 
and very large quantities are annually exported to the Nile valley; besides date- 
palms the gardens contain numbers of olive, apricot and other fruit trees. 
Taxation is on palm trees and land. 

The water-supply is derived from the Cretaceous sandstones forming the floor 
of the depression, the water rising naturally to the surface of the lowest areas. 
In numerous cases long adits have been driven into the rock to obtain an 



— no — 

increased supply ; these tunnels communicate with the surface of the ground by 
a series of air shafts ; they mostly date from early times. No deep wells appear 
to exist in the oasis and certainly no borings have been made in modern times. 
The fall of the water-level is probably due to the gradual choking of the passages; 
an unsatisfactory and laborious method of cleaning out wells is in vogue but 
little trouble is taken to prevent the deterioration of the water-supply generally. 
Practically all the available land in this oasis is under cultivation, although 
with the reduced output of the springs the supply is barely sufficient for efficient 
irrigation. 

44. Farafra oasis occupies a large semicircular depression 300 kilometres 
west of Assiut. The floor is formed of the white chalk at the top of the Creta- 
ceous, but at Ain-el-Wadi, a spring in the north part of the depression at 26 
metres above sea level, the underlying beds are locally exposed. The solitary 
village of Qasr Farafra is situated on the western side at 76 metres above sea 
level, and contained 542 inhabitants at the last census. In the entire area there 
are some 20 springs, mostly grouped round the village, each irrigating a small 
patch of cultivated ground; the total area of the latter, including the few palm- 
groves, probably does not amount to 500 acres. Wheat, barley, durra, rice, 
onions and some itait are grown, and small quantities of dates and olives are 
exported; formerly the olives of Farafra were celebrated for their quality, but of 
late years the trees have deteriorated. 

The water rises as springs from the white chalk and does not necessitate the 
use of lifting appliances, though the output appears to be decreasing through 
natural causes. There are a few examples of horizontal conducting channels of 
ancient date and two or three of the springs appear to have deep vertical shafts 
as in the ancient wells of Dakhla. Sweet and brackish water-holes occur in 
several outlying localities w^ithin the depression, as well as in the neighbouring 
little known oasis of Iddaila to the west. Owing to the absence of waste pools 
and marshy land the climate of Farafra is more healthy than that of the 
other oases. 

^ 45. The Geology of Egypt ('). The north-east corner of Africa, lying between 
the Red Sea on the east and the sand merged portion of the Libyan Desert on 
the west, and stretching from the Mediterranean to the 22nd parallel of north 
latitude, both in its topographical and geological characters is distinctly tripartite, 
as follows : — 

(1) A rugged broken undulating sandstone desert, foijjning the southern part 
of the country ; 

(2) Elevated plateaux, for the most part of limestone, stretching from lat. 25^ N. 
(approximately) to the Mediterranean ; 

(3) The mountainous igneous range of the Red Sea Hills, with peaks over 
1800 metres (6Q00 feet) in height. 

As a whole one of the most waterless and desolate areas in the world, the 
country is traversed from south to north by a narrow highly cultivated and thickly 

n) In writing this note at the request of Sir William WillcockB I have made free use of all 
sources, of information, but am chiefly indebted to the publications of Schweinfurth and the late 
Professor Zittel, Capt. Lyons, and my past and present colleagues on the Geological Survey of 
Egypt. 



— Ill — 

populated strip of alluvial land, formed and watered by the Nile. In the J 
southern sandstone country the river occupies only a shallow valley, but to the / 
north flows over the floor of a deep gorge cut down from the surrounding lime-' i 
stone plateaux. On either side of the river are alluvial plains of varying extent, 
composed of the finest loam, a fertile soil for the most part formed by the 
disintegration of the volcanic rocks of the Abyssinian highlands, annually denuded 
by rains and brought down by the Atbara and Blue Nile floods and deposited in 
the lower courses of the river. Unlike most countries therefore, the soil of Egypt 
has no connection with the underlying rocks, being entirely of extraneous origin f 
and owing its existence absolutely to the peculiar conditions of rainfall in J 
Abyssinia and the direction of drainage from the watersheds of that country. 1 

46. Igneous rocks. The most ancient rocks in Egypt are found in the central 
igneous ranges of the Red Sea Hills and in the crystalline floor underlying the 
sandstones in the southern part of the country. 

In Nubia the crystalline rocks consist largely of granite and gneiss, with 
associated diorites and schists, traversed by basaltic and f elsitic dykes. Cataracts 
have been formed at those points where the river crosses the hard igneous belts, 
which may be regarded as the summits of the higher ridges of an old eroded ' 
continental land surface. 

In the Red Sea Hills the most ancient rocks are the gneisses, schists, and slates, 
constituting the metamorphic series of Jebel Meeteq. Next in succession is a 
volcanic group, consisting of dolerite and sheared diabases in the south and of 
dolerites, andesites, tufiEs and agglomerates in the north. These volcanic rocks ! 
are underlaid and intruded by still younger quartz-diorites and grey granites, 
and like them are pierced by masses of red granite and dykes of quartz felsite 
and dolerite. The red granite is itself traversed by dykes of diabase, which ari,^^ ' 
thus the youngest of all, except for the still more recent andesitic intrusions into A 
the Eocene limestones (occasional occurrences of which are met with on the I ' 
plateaux on both sides of the Nile valley), and the basaltic sheets which commonly.^ : 
mark the base of the Oligocene sandstones in the north of the country. \ 

The whole of the Red Sea Hills igneous complex has been planed down by 
marine erosion, the oldest sedimentary deposits being laid on to the smoothed , 
denuded surfaces. 

47. Sedimentary rocks. Geologically the sedimentary deposits of Egypt are , 
not of great age. Broadly they consist of a great development of Upper Cretaceous ' 
and Eocene strata, followed by more restricted deposits of Oligocene and Miocene 
age, the still younger formations being represented only by comparatively local 
though important, accumulations. As a general rule the different members of the 
Cretaceous and Tertiary succeed each other in regular order from south to north, I 
the strata being undisturbed and dipping northwards at a very low angle. | 

48. Upper Cretaceous. The Cretaceous system in Egypt is divisible into 
three main groups, (1) a great thickness of freshwater arenaceous sediments 
known as the Nubian Sandstone, of Senonian age in the south (Dakhla, Nile 
valley, and southern part of Eastern Desert), and Cenomanian age in the north 
(Baharia, Abu Roash(?), and Wadi Araba); (2) 300 metres of argillaceous 
deposits with bone-beds near the base, of Senonian age ; (3) a deep water forami- 



— 112- 

niferal white chalk (Danian) 60 to 100 metres thick, especially developed in tne 
region of the oases to the west of the Nile. 

The Nubian Sandstone, the oldest sedimentary deposit in Egypt, occupies a 
very large area, especially in the south; wherever its base is exposed and has 
been critically examined, the sandstone is found to be laid on to the denuded 
surface of the underlying crystalline rocks. Thinner argillaceous bands are 
almost everywhere associated with the sandstones and the latter vary much in 
colour, texture, and hardness. In its widest sense the term "Nubian Sandstone" 
includes deposits of much greater age than Upper Cretaceous, undoubted Carbo- 
niferous fossils having been detected in some localities. The formation must be 
regarded as representing the slow accumulation of sediment in immense inland 
lakes during a great lapse of time. Although temporary marine invasions left 
their mark at intervals, it was not until the Cenomanian that continued depression 
caused a steady recession of the shore line from north to south, so that in 
Senonian times practically the whole of the country was occupied by the 
Cretaceous sea. 

J North of Silsila in the Nile valley the sandstones gradually give way to a 
\ series of flaggy ripple-marked sandstones alternating with sandy shales and 
clays, at the top of which are beds rich in bones and coprolites of fish, associated 
with hard oyster-limestones, overlain in Wadi Hammama, E.-N.-B. of Qena, by 
a limestone containing abundant remains of cephalopoda; these beds are of Upper 
Senonian (Campanian) age. East of Sabaia, in the Nile valley, they are followed 
by a 200 metre series of finely laminated clays, [separated by bands of marly 
limestone, the greater part of which is of Cretaceous age and homotaxial with the 
Exogyra clays and white chalk (of Campanian — Danian age) which in the 
^^.-•Muthern oases follow on the rich bonebeds overlying the Nubian Sandstone. 

Anterior to and during the deposition of these clayey beds in the south, thick 
accumulations of limestone were being formed in the more open sea to the north 
and are visible to-day in the Cretaceous area of Abu Roash near the pyramids 
of Giza, (and to a lesser extent in Jebel Shebrewet on the Gulf of Suez), where a 
great complex of limestones of Turonian and Senonian ages occurs. Finally a 
deep sea deposit of white chalk forms the summit of the Cretaceous throughout 
the Western Desert. 

i9. Eocene. Our knowledge of the junction of the Cretaceous and Eocene in 
several parts of the country leaves much to be desired. Where the Eocene is 
most fully developed its basal member consists of a group of green argillaceous 
deposits, known as the Esna shales, well seen at the base of the cliffs throughout 
the Esna-Qena reach of the valley. These beds everywhere pass conformably 
upwards into the Lower Eocene (Libyan) limestones above, but in the Nile Valley 
and the Eastern Desert the exact line of demarcation between them and the 
lithologically similar Cretaceous clays below is still somewhat obscure. In Kharga 
and Farafru they form a well-marked band between the White C/halk (and 
associated clays) at the top of the Cretaceous and the Libyan limestone of the 
Lower Eocene. The Esna shales may in fact be regarded as passage beds, and 
where they exist appear to bridge over the lapse of time which is represented by 
a decided unconformity between the Cretaceous and Eocene in the north of the 
country, as in Baharia Oasis and at Abu Roash. 



— 113 — 

The thick mass of limestone which forms the plateaux and cliffs on both sides ^ 
of the valley from lat. 25° N. to Cairo is of Lower Eocene (Libyan stage) and I ^ 
Middle Eocene (Mokattam stage) age. These limestones, frequently nummulitic / 
and typically marine calcareous accumulations, exceed 500 metres in thickness, / 
and over a wide area are unrelieved by a single band of clay or sandstone. J 
Towards the summit of the Middle Eocene, however, terrigenous deposits were 
laid down, the Upper Mokattam consisting of an alternating series of impure 
limestones, clays, and sandstones. In the Fayiim the Middle Eocene is followed 
by a great thickness of fluvio-marine deposits of Upper Eocene age, in which the 
remains of the animals that inhabited the land to the south and the adjoining seas 
at the time are abundantly preserved. 

50. Oligocene and Miocene. Throughout Oligocene and Miocene times 
conditions similar to those which led to the deposition of the Upper Eocene 
formation in the Fayiim prevailed, accompanied by a continual retreat of the se^ 

to the north. In the littoral area marine beds were intermingled with the j • 
sediments brought down by rivers from the land to the south ; and throughout J 
these deposits the remains of land animals and great quantities of large silicifiedf 
trees are common. A considerable part of the deserts east and west of the 
valley north of lat. 29° 30' is covered with deposits of this age, and shallow water 
Miocene beds, unconformably overlying the Eocene, form marked flanking 
plateaux to some of the igneous ranges of the Red Sea Hills. 

51. Pliocene, Pleistocene and Recent. In Pliocene times the relative 
areas of land and sea approximated to those of to-day and powerful earth-move- 
ments initiated the formation of the lower part of the Nile Valley. The determin- 
ing faults and the huge blocks of displaced rock are visible along the cliff walls 
in many parts of the valley, and at Gebelain isolated ridges of highly tilted 
limestone protrude above the floor of the trough, though as a rule, except near 
the cliffs, the faulted rocks are invisible, being buried under great thicknesses of 
lacustrine and fluviatile deposits. A few kilometres south of Jebel Silsila, 
however, Eocene and Cretaceous limestones are met with at river level in the 
centre of the valley and point to the Kom Ombo plain being let down by a fault 
of over 400 metres throw. 

The Nile Valley trough or "grab" became a marine fiord in later Pliocene 
times, sea-beaches being formed up to 70 metres above present sea level. 
Extensive terraces of gravel, perched up on the surrounding slopes of the Fayflm, 
prove that the sea, or a great inland lake, stood at 180 metres in latest Pliocene 
or early Pleistocene times. From this time also dates the Eed Sea (in its modern 
aspect), the highest Older Pleistocene coral reefs being now found at some 200 
metres above searlevel; younger reefs associated with later Pleistocene gravels 
occur at a lower level. In later Pleistocene and early pre-human times, under 
the very moist climate which preceded the present desert conditions, the Nile 
Valley north of latitude 24° was occupied by a series of deep freshwater lakes, 
perhaps co-existent with that in which the Fayum gravel terraces were accumu- 
lated. The denudation of the surrounding country was rapid, and tributary 
streams from the plateaux on either side brought down fine limestone detritus, 
which was deposited along the margins of the lakes in the form of compact beds 



/ 



— 114 — 

of remade limestone, interbeddod with frequent layers of conglomerate and 
gravel, washed down by the larger streams and by torrential floods. In the 
quieter parts of these lakes clays and calcareous tufas were laid down and are 
visible to-day from Kom Ombo to Heluan. Subsequently, owing to the breaking 
down of the dividing barriers, or as the result of a general slight elevation, 
drainage became more pronounced and the river cut its way down through these 
lacustrine deposits. It was probably at this time that, following the partial 
removal of the gravel ridge between the FayCim and the valley, part of the 
drainage obtained access to the Fayum depression and a lake, the precursor of 
the historical Moeris, was formed. Subsequently, under climatic conditions 
similar to those of to-day, the accumulation of Nile alluvium commenced within 
the wide trough cut out in the older lake beds. Flood plains were formed on 
either side of the river, and by successive deposits, at the rate of about twelve 
centimetres a century, were built up to their present level. 

^52. Economic products. Limestones for building and other purposes are 
abundant in the Lower and Middle Eocene formations, though as a rule of only 
medium quality. The chief quarries are those of Jebel Mokattam, Tura, Heluan, 
Abu Foda, Haridi, and el-Tarif . At Isawia, near Tahta, a fine tough freshwater 
tufaceous limestone of Pleistocene age occurs, and was largely used in the 
construction of the Assiut barrage. Clays of good quality are not widely 
extended, though certain bands of the Esna shales are very largely used near 
Qena in the manufacture of pottery. For bricks the Nile alluvium is used 
throughout the country. 

Sandstone is quarried for local purposes at J. Ahmar near Cairo and in several 
localities in the south part of the country ; it was formerly extensively quarried 
at J. Ahmar for the temples of the Delta, at J. Silsila for those of Upper Egypt, 
and at Qirtassa, south of Assuan, for the Nubian monuments. Although a fairly 
hard and good weather-resisting stone when carefully selected, the frequent 
presence of soft uncemented and clayey laminae gives it an unreliable character, 
and a good deal of the decay of many of the ancient Egyptian monuments is 
attributable to this cause. 

Numerous rocks in the Red Sea Hills and the Nile Valley were worked in 
Egyptian and Roman times for ornamental purposes ; among them may be 
specially mentioned the purple imperial porphyry of J. Dokhan, the green breccia 
of Wadis Hammamat and Dib, the dolerite of Wadi Esh, and the hornblende 
granite of the first cataract. In modern times local granite was used throughout 
the Assuan dam and an Oligocene basalt is quarried at Abu Zabel and used for 
road-metal in the capital and other towns. 

Old workings and mining camps are of common occurrence in many parts of the 
Eastern Desert and there is no doubt that considerable quantities of gold were 
extracted by convict labour. The quartz lodes traverse not only the metamorphic 
rocks but also some of the granites. Iron (hematite, limonite), copper (chryso- 
colla, copper pyrites) and lead (galena) bearing veins also occur, and turquoise, 
jasper and chrysolite are found in certain localities. Petroleum and sulphur occur 
sparsely near J. Zeit, and <rypsum in largo quantities in many parts of the 
country. 



— 115 — 

Phosphate deposits in the form of accumulations of bones, teeth and coprolites 
of fish in compact beds, have a wide distribution in the Eastern Desert, the Nile 
Valley and the southern oases, though these beds have not yet received the 
attention their importance deserves. Better known are the nitrate bearing clays 
which are so highly valued and largely used by the fellahin throughout the 
country. The chief horizons aro the Esna shales and the underlying cretaceous 
clays, but disintegrated clays of every age are worked throughout the country, 
though their nitrate content may be very low and their salt content high ; more 
prized still is the material from the middens marking the sites of ancient towns. 

Natron (carbonate of soda) and salt are associated in considerable quantities 
in Wadi Natrun, and the latter is widely distributed in limited quantities through- 
out the country, the main supply being however obtained by evaporation from 
the shore lagoons along the coast of the delta. Rock salt of fine quality occurs 
in many localities, notably in the Eocene limestones three to four days east of 
Assiut. 



117 - 



.A^n^Hliq- DICES 



Tables Pages 

A. I. Areas of the catchmeDt basins of the Nile . • 119 

B. II, Slopes of the Nile in its different reaches . . 120 

C. Ill and IV. Velocities of the Nile in its different reaches. 121 

D. V to X. Distances of places on the Nile from each other 123 

E. XI and XU. Details of observed discharges 129 

P. XIII to XXIII. Observed discharges referred to gauges. . . . 131 

0. XXIV. Mean discharges of the Nile tributaries in 

1902, 1903 and 1904 139 

H. XXV. Maximum and minimum discharges in 1902 

andl903 141 

1. XXVI. Monthly discharges at Khartoum, Assuan 

and Cairo 142 

J. XXVII to XL. Discharge tables for the different gauges on 

the Nile 143 

K, XLI to LII. Detailed information about the Nile, Assuan 

to Cairo 153 

L. LIII to LXIX. Quuges of the Nile and its tributaries • • . • 167 
M, LXX and LXXI. Assuan and Cairo gauges, metres correspond- 
ing to pics 209 

N. LXXII and LXXIII. Table converting cubic metres per day to cubic 

metres per second and vice versa 211 

P. LXXIV. Bombay rainfall referred to the Assuan gauge 213 

Q. LXXV to LXXXI. Meteorological data in the Nile Valley . . . . 214 



K.B.— In Appendix L, the gauges are recorded in two diiferent methods. If the faU or rise 
of water surface is gradual throughout the yeiir, the gauges are recorded in five daily intervals. 
If, on the other hand, the rise and fall is gradual for the first four and last three mouths of 
the year, but the changes are abrupt in the remaining five months, the gauges are recorded 
in five daily intervals for seven months and daily for five months. 



— 119 — 



Appendix A. 

Tablb I. — Areas of Catchment Basins of the JKile, 



River. 



Victoria Nile at Ripon Falls 

Additional area drained into Lake Albert 
Albert Nile at outlet of Lake Albert • . 
Albert Nile from Albert Lake to Gon- 

dokoro 

Albert Nile at Gondokoro . . . . 
Albert Nile,Gondokoro to above Sobat 

month 

Gazelle River 

Arab River 



Albert Nile above Sobat River mouth . . 

Saubat River 

White Nile below Sobat River mouth. . 
White Nile, Sobat River to Khartoum 

White Nile at Khartoum 

Blue Nile in Absynian Hills and foot 

hills.. .. 

Blue Nile foot hills to Khartoum . . 

Total Blue Nile.. .. 



Nile at Khartoum 

Nile between Khartoum and Atbara 

junction 

Nile above Atbara junction . . 

Atbara River in Abvssinian hills and foot 

hills ^ 

Atbara River foothills to mouth . . 

Total Atbara River. . . . 



Nile below Atbara junction 

Lybian Desert from Atbara junction 

to Soa 

Arabian Desert from Atbara junction 

to Sea 

Total Desert Area 



Nile from its sources to its mouths 



Abba in square Kilometres 



Area. 



244.000 
135,(KX) 



94,000 



202,000 
240,000 
231,000 



673,000 

150,000 
393,'(K)0 



247,000 
53,000 



54,000 



131,(KK) 
106,(K)0 



335,000 
38(5,000 



Total. 



244,000 
379,(X)0 

473,000 



1,136,000 
1,292,000 

1,685,000 

3(K),000 



237,(K)0 



721,000 



Grand Total. 



1,685,000 



1,985,000 



2,049,000 



2,286,000 



3,007,000 
3,007,000 



\ 



— 120 — 

Appendix B. 

Tahlk II.— Slope oj the NUe in flood from the Ripon Falls to the Sea. 



IUvi:r. 



Victoria Nile 



Albert Nile 



White Nile 



The Nile. 



From 



Ilipon Falls 

Kakoji . . . • 

Fowera . . • • 

Murchison Falls. 

Lake Albert • • 

Dufile 

Fort Berk(^l(»y . . 

B6r 

Gaba Sbamba .. 

Lake No . • . . 

Sobat 

3(X) kilom. South 
of Khartum. 

Khartum •. 

Gth (\itaract 

5th (^ataract . . 

4th Oatanict . . 

3rd Catanict • . 

WaiU Haifa .• 

Assuan • • . , 
Rarrai;t* . . . . 



To 



• • • • 



Kakoji. 

Fowera 

Murchison Falls.. 

Lake Albert. . . . 

Dufile 

Fort Berkeley . • 

B6r 

Gaba Shamba . . 

Lake N6 . . . . 

Sobat 

300 kilom. South 
of Khartum*. 

Khartum . . . • 

Shabluka . . . • 

Gth Cataract 

Ml Cataract 

4th('ataract.. ,, 

3rd Catamct 

2nd Cataract 

9> 

1st Cataract.. .. 

Barrage • . • • 
Mediterranean Sea 



DUtance 

in 

kilometres. 



5535 



Slope. 



11500 



1129 




— 121 — 



Appendix G. 

Table III.— FiJoct^ of the If He in its diff events reaches. 





^^^SSB 






▼KLOOITT 


TSLOomr 


maDi wnem 








^ifltanoe 


nr KBiUi 


v nLomnui 


Tia WAVB 


Name 


From 


»fi_ 


in 


TER 


OO. 


not DAT 


flUTKt Dl SA.lt 


of 
Biver. 


To 


Ulo- 


in 


in low 


in 


in low 


in 


in low 








metras. 


flood. 


supply. 


flood. 


•apply. 


flood. 


•apply. 


Victoria 




















Kile. 


Ripon Falls.. 
Eakoji « . • . 


Kakoji .. 


.. 64 


1-2 


1-2 


100 


100 


•7 


•7 


w 


Lake Choga 


,. 47 


•7 


•6 


60 


50 


•8 


•9 




Lake Choga . • 


.. 80 


. . 


. . 


. . 


• . 


. . 


. . 


99 


Lake Choga. • 


Fowera.. 


.. 110 


•7 


•6 


60 


50 


1-8 


£•2 


99 


Fowera.. .. 


Murchison 




















Falls 


.. 68 


1-2 


1-2 


100 


100 


•7 


•7 


99 


Marchison 




















Falls.. 


Lake Albert 


.. 30 


•9 


•7 


80 


60 


•4 


•5 




Lake Albert . • 


.. 10 


. . 


. . 


. . 


. . 


. . 


. . 


Albert Kile. 


fjake Albert.. 


Dufile .. 


.. 218 


•7 


•6 


60 


50 


3^6 


4*4 


•9 


Dufile .. .. 


Fort Berkeh 


jy 155 


•9 


•7 


80 


60 


1*9 


2^6 


99 


Fort Berkeley 


B6r 


.. 206 


1-2 


•9 


100 


75 


2-1 


2-7 


99 


Bdr . . . * 


Gaba Shamb 


a. 196 


•9 


•7 


80 


60 


2^4 


3^2 


99 


GabaShamba. 


Lake N6 


.. 380 


•6 


•6 


50 


50 


7^6 


7^6 


99 


LakeNd .. 


Sobat .. 


.. 134 


•35 


•35 


30 


30 


4^5 


4-5 


White KUe. 


Sobat .. .. 


300 kil. Soul 


th 


















of Khartui 


n. 538 


•6 


•35 


50 


30 


10-7 


17'9 


99 


300 kil. South 




















of Khartum. 


Khartum 


.. 300 


•35 


•35 


30 


30 


10-0 


10^0 


The Kile. 


Khartum . • 


Shabluka 


.. 86 


1^6 


•8 


140 


70 


•6 


1^2 


99 


6th Cataract .. 


18 


2-3 


•8 


200 


100 


•1 


•2 


99 


6th Cataract— 5th Cataract 


.. 285 


1^6 


•8 


140 


70 


2^0 


4^1 


99 


5th Cataract .. 


.. 160 


2^3 


1^2 


200 


100 


•8 


1-6 


99 


5th Cataract— 4th Cataract 


.. 97 


1*75 


•85 


150 


75 


•6 


1^3 


9« 


4th Cataract • • 


.. 110 


2-3 


1-2 


200 


100 


•6 


1^1 


99 


4th Cataract— 3rd Cataract , 


.. 313 


1^75 


•85 


150 


75 


2^1 


4^2 


99 


3rd Cataract .. , 


.. 80 


2-1 


1-0 


180 


90 


•4 


•9 


99 


3rd Cataractr— 2nd Cataract , 


. 110 


2-1 


1-0 


180 


90 


•6 


1-2 


99 


2nd Cataract . • . 


. 200 


2^3 


1-2 


200 


100 


1-0 


2-0 


99 


Wady Haifa— Ist Cataract , 


. 345 


1^75 


•85 


150 


75 


2-3 


4-6 




.. Ist Cataract •• 

Assuan^Barrago^ • • . . ' . 


. -5 • 


- i'-3- 


-1*5 


?I00 


100 


0^02 


-0^fl5 


99 

99 


. 964 


1*75 


•85 


150 


75 


6^4 


13-0 


Rosetta 
Branch. 


Barrage — Mediterranean Sei 


a. 236 


1^75 


•85 


150 


75 


1^6 


2-2 



c 



Appendix G (continued). 
Tablb IV. — Time water travels along the Nile. 





To 


DATS 


Diatonoe 


From 


in 
flood. 


in 
low lupply. 


in 
kilometres. 


Lake Victoria.. .. 

Lake 
Lake Cboga • . . • 

Uke 
Lake Albert . . . . 
Gondokoro . . . . 

Sobat 

Khartum 

Assuan 


Lake Choga • . . . 
Choga • • • . • • 

Lake Albert .. .. 
Albert 

Gondokoro . . 

Sobat 

Khartnm . • • • 

Assnan 

Cairo 


2 
3 

. • 

6 
16 
21 
11 

6 


2 

. • 

3 

• . 

7 

• 

18 
28 
22 
12 


Ill 

80 

209 

9 

403 

885 

838 

1,804 

945 


Lake Albert . . . . 


Cairo 


60 


87 


4,875 



123 — 



Appendix D. 



DIBTAKOB FROM THB BEA TO OAIBO, OAIBO TO A88UAK, A88UAK TO KHABTCTU, 
KHABTUM TO OONDOKOBO AND GONDOKOBO TO THB BIPON FALLS, AND BAOK. 



Tablbs V AND VI. — Distances in kilometres from the Barrage to the sea dovm the 
Damteita and Rosetta branches^ and vice-versa^ measured on the steams 
track or Deep Channel in kilometres. 



Name of Plaoe. 



Distance 

from 
Barrage. 



Distance 
from 
Sea. 



Damietta Branch. 



Birshams 

Benha 

Mitbera 

Zifia 

Samanikd 

Mansnrah 

Sherbin 

Has el Khalig (Station). 
Mit Abu Ghaleb.. .. 

Faraskur 

Damietta 

Sea 



23 
51 
62 

88 
124 
142 
168 
182 
194 
203 
221 
236 



213 

185 

174 

148 

112 

94 

68 

54 

42 

33 

15 





Name of Place. 



Distance 

from 
Barrage. 



Distance 

from 

Sea, 



Rosetta Branch. 



Ashmun • • 
Geres 
Khatatbeh 
Gizai' 
Tenoub .. 
Kafr Zayat 
Kuddabah 
Shibrakhit 
Dessoiik . . 
Fuah . . 
Atf ^ . . . 
Rosetta .. 
Sea . . . . 



23 


213 


31 


205 


45 


191 


63 


173 


95 


141 


119 


117 


140 


96 


154 


82 


168 


68 


181 


55 


■184- 


52 


221 


15 


236 






— 124 — 



Appendix D (continued). 



Table VII. — Distances in kilometres from Barrage to Assuan and back 
in kilometres measured on the steamer track or Deep Channel. — Upper-Egypt. 



Name of Place. 



Barrage 

Kasr El Nil (Bridge)- Cairo. . . . 

Rodah gauge 

Badreahen 

Aiyat • 

Wastah 

Beni Suef 

Maghagha 

Minieh • 

Rodah 

Deriit Escape 

Manfalnt 

Afljat 

Sohag 

Girga 

Baliyana 

Dishna 

Kena 

Luxor 

Armant 

Esna 

Edfou 

GebelSilsila 

KomOmbo 

Assuan 



Distance 


Dlrtanoe 


from 


from 


Bwisge. 


Aaauao. 





968 


23 


945 


27 


941 


46 


922 


73 


895 


108 


860 


143 


825 


199 


769 


268 


700 


308 


660 


340 


628 


377 


591 


420 


548 


520 


448 


561 


407 


579 


389 


665 


303 


685 


283 


749 


219 


768 


200 


807 


161 


859 


109 


898 


70 


925 


43 


968 






— 125 — 



Appendix D (continued). 
Table VIII. — Distances in kilometres fron Assudn to Khartoum and back. 



Name of Place. 



Assnan (Shellal) 
Ealabsba • • • • 

Dekka 

Eorosko • • • • 

Der 

Ibrim 

Toski 

Abu Simbel 
Wadi Haifa . . 

Eaibar 

Hannek . . . . 
DoDgola • • . . 
Abu Hamed 

Berber 

Atbara 

Shendy . . . . 
Shabluka .. .. 
Khartoum •• .. 



Diitonoe 


Dtetenoe 


from 


trom 


Aasuan. 


Khartoum. 





1804 


57 


1747 


109 


1695 


187 


1617 


209 


1595 


229 


1575 


251 


1553 


283 


1521 


345 


1459 


663 


1141 


735 


1069 


795 


1009 


1255 


549 


1460 


344 


1484 


320 


1621 


183 


1700 


104 


1804 






— 126 — 



Appendix D (amtimted). 
Table IX. — Instances m kilametres fnmi Khartoxtm to Gondokoro and back. 



Nauie of Place. 



Khartx)uin • • 
Daem • . . . 
Abon Zeid . . 
Gebelain . . 
Eaka .. .. 
Eodok.. .. 
Tewfikieh .. 
Sobat .. .- 
Month of Zeraf 
Lake No. . . 
Hillet Nuer 
Sudd Block 15 
Ghiba Shambe 
Bor . . . . 
Lado . • . . 
Gondokoro . - 



OiBtance 


Distance 


from 


from 


Khartoum. 


Gondokoro. 





1723 


201 


1522 


336 


1387 


384 


1339 


639 


1084 


747 


976 


830 


893 


8;«? 


885 


886 


8:^7 


1>72 


751 


1177 


546 


1218 


505 


1352 


371 


1548 


175 


1711 


12 


1723 






— 127 — 



Appendix D (continued) . 



Table X. — Distances in kilometres from Gondokoro to liipon Falls anil back. 



Name of Place. 



Gondokoro . 



Port Berkeley 



Dufile 



Wadelai 



Lake Albert 



Murehison Falls 



Fowera 



Mruli 



Lake Ohoga 



Kakogi 



Ripon Falls 



DiBtance 


Distance 


from 


from 


Gondokoro 


Ripon Falls. 





803 


31 


772 


186 


617 


331 


472 


403 


400 


4M 


369 


501 


302 


611 


192 


691 


112 


739 


64 


803 






— 128 — 



Appendix D (continued). 
Tablb XL— Distances from Khartoum to Rosaires and back along the Blue Nde. 



Name of Place. 



Ehartonm 



E^mlin 



Ruf aa 



Abu-Haraz. 



Bahad mouth 
Wad-Medani 
Binder month 
Seimaar 
Eoirkoj 
Bosflires . . 



Distance 

from 

Oondokoro. 



98 
151 
188 
190 
198 
265 
343 
462 
615 



Distance 

from 
Khartoum. 



615 
517 
464 
427 
425 
417 
350 
272 
153 




./ 



— 129 — 



Appendix E (continued). 



Tablb XII (coniimied).— Details of observed discharges from Sir W. Garstin's 
report on the Basin of tite Upper Nile. 











Area 


Velodtj 


Discharge 


Biver. 


Locality. 


Oauge. 


Date. 


of 


metres 


m» 










Section. 


per second. 


per second. 


Albert Nilfl .. 


HilletNAr .• .. 




1' 


•9-03 


478-0 


0-78 


375-0 


M 


, " - ^ • 




13 


•4-03 


392-0 


0-88 


346-0 


M 


North of Hillet- 




1 


•4-01 


485-0 


0-54 


262-0 


» 


Niir 




2 


•9-02 


511-0 


0-65 


333-0 


5> 


South of Lake No 




14 


•4-00 


262-0 


0-84' 


219-0 


M 


99 • • 




14 


•4-03 


424-0 


0-71 


285-0 


n 


99 • • 




31 


•8-03 


441-0 


0-72 


318-0 


Babr ^ Gazal 


99 • • 

28 kil. from mouth 




22 
30 


•5-04 
•8-03 


52-0 


0-23 


302-0 
12-0 


» 


fo 




21 


•9-03 


104-0 


0-19 


20-0 


« 


33 „ 




2 


•4-01 


149-0 


0-18 


27-0 


15 


33 „ 




31' 


•8-02 


86-0 


0-17 


15-0 


>» 


50 „ 




15 


•4-03 


200-0 


0-20 


23-0 


Babr i^l Zcraf 


51 „ 

o „ 




1 
22 


•4-00 
•9-02 


161-0 
240-0 


0-21 
0-40 


34-0 
97-0 


>» 


}t » 




29' 


•8-03 


180-0 


0-61 


110-0 


I' 


19 




3 


•4-01 


138-0 


0-24 


33-0 


» 


^ " 




16- 


•4-03 


179-0 


0-30 


50-0 


» 


20 » 




22" 


•9-03 


232-0 


0-66 


158-0 


Albert ?file .. 


96 

Above Sobat 




25' 


3-00 


91-0 


0-35 


32-0 


n 


junction. 




30" 


8-02 


813-0 


0-41 


336-0 


n 


» • • 




22- 


9-02 


1054-0 


0-40 


419-0 


n 


« 




22' 


•9-03 


1034-0 


0-44 


450-0 


Sobat River . . 


1* • • 
25 kil. from mouth 


3-16 


16" 
26" 


4-03 
9-03 


710-0 
1030-0 


0-49 
0-87 


349-0 
895-0 


99 


!^ " 


2-70 


26 


•8-03 


• • 


• • 


769-0 


» 


fl " 


-10 


17 


•4-03 


414-0 


0-12 


45-0 


White ^ile .. 


45 

Tewfikia . . . . 


• • 


6 
6 


•4-01 
•4-01 


401-0 
1081-0 


0-22 
0-28 


87-0 
381-0 


n 


99 . . i . 


•24 


17 


•4-03 


1068-0 


0-35 


368-0 


w 


99 .... 


2-65 


26 


•8-03 


2174-0 


0-54 


1046-0 


99 


99 .... 


3-38 


26 


•9-03 


2332-0 


0-56 


1304-0 


Blue Wile. .. 


Outlet of 


• • 


25-9-02 


1983-0 


0-66 


1272-0 




Lake Tsana.. 


• • 


31-1-03 


65-0 


0-64 


41-8 



— 130 — 



Appendix E 



Tablb XII.- 'Details of observed discharges from Sir W. Garstins 
report on the Basin of the Upper Nile, 











Area 


Velocity 


Diiobarge 


River. 


Locality. 


Gnnge. 


Date. 


of 
Section. 


metres 
per tiecond. 


m> 
per neoond. 


Victoria Nile . 


Above Ripon Falls 


•51 


22-1-03 


2312-0 


0-237 


548-0 




Murchison Falls . 


• • 


20-3-03 


894-4 


0-65 


577*0 


Uganda 














Streams: 














Bnizi • • • • 


• • • • 


• • 


6-2^03 


9-0 


1-22 


11-0 


Nyam Gasha . 








• • 


16^2^03 


8-9 


0-55 


4-9 


Lnkokn • • • • 








• • 


24^2-03 


5-4 


0-53 


2-8 


Mbuku •• •• 








• • 


25-2-03 


6-1 


1-16 


7-1 


Hima • • . . 








• • 


25-2-03 


1-1 


0-70 


0-7 


Rnimi • • • • 








• • 


26-2-03 


5-8 


0-74 


4-3 


Mpanga • • • • 








• • 


26-2-03 


3-0 


0*88 


2*6 


Msisi 








• • 


9-3-03 


6^7 


0-40 


2-7 


Ngusi • • • • 








a , 


12-3-03 


12^5 


0-50 


6*2 


Ejigera • • • • 








, , 


26-2-03 


412^0 


0^35 


143-0 


Semliki . • • • 


Oatlet of 














Lake Edward.. 


, , 


18-2-03 


l.W^O 


0^70 


90-0 


9) 


Tnlet of 














Lake An)ert.. 


• • 


4.3.03 


121-0 


0-96 


116-0 


Albert Nile 














tributaries : 














Umi • • • • • 


• • • • 


.. 


22-3-03 


15-1 


1-20 


12-3 


Asna 


• • • 




• • 


28-3-03 


18-7 


0-58 


10*8 


Kit 


• • • 




• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 





Albert Nile .. 


Wadelai 




•52 


22-3-03 


770-9 


0-84 


646*0 


99 


Gondokoro 




•18 


28-3-01 


779-0 


0-73 


566*0 




99 




•84 


9-9*02 


1033-0 


0-93 


960-0 




99 




•50 


l'4-03 


615-0 


1-07 


641*0 




99 




2-33 


9-9-03 


1347-0 


1-37 


1847*0 




99 




•84 


14^5^04 


• • 


• • 


1138-0 


51 


Mongalla . 












99 


(north of Gondokoro. 


• • 


14^9^03 


1487-0 


1*44 


2046*0 




Bor. 

No'rth 






16-9^03 

12-5-04 

4-9-02 


770-0 
498-0 


1-14 

0-80 


888*0 


1» 




2*63 

• • 


813*0 




of aal'm-** 


398-0 


>» 




S 


hamba 


• • 


18-9-03 


669-0 


0*80 


532-0 



— 131 — 



Appendix F. 



Tablb XIII. — Observed discharges of the Victoria Nils referred to the 
Jinja gmtge on Lake Victoria. 

±©03 





Locality 
where taken. 


GAUaE AT JlKJA 




Date of 
Discharge. 


Day 
of discharge. 


10 days 

before 

discharge. 


15 days 

before 

discharge. 


in metres' 
per second. 


22 January 
20 March 


Ripon Falls . . 

Below the Mur- 
chison Falls. • 


•51 


'()6 


• • 

•70 


548 
577 



Tablb XIY.-- Observed discharges of the Albert Nile at Wadelai 
referred to the Wadelai gauge, 

±S03 



Date 
of discharge. 


Gauge. 


Discharge 
ill metres* 
|)er second. 


Remarks. 


22 March 


•52 


646 





— 132 — 

Appendix F (eontinued). 

Tablr XV. — Observed disekarffes of the Albert Nile referred to the Mongalla gauge. 

±903 








D»te. 


MoNOALLA QACOE (32 kilom. north of Gondokoro) 


Digdutrge 
m* per leoond. 


Locality. 


6 
days 
before. 


4 

days 

before. 


3 

days 
before. 


2 

day* 

before. 


1 

day 

before, 


day 
of. 


1 

day 
after. 


Gondokoro . . 


1 April. . . 






• . 






0-83 


0-83 


0) 693 




• . 


9 September 


2-73 


2-85 


2-90 


3-02 


3-16 


3-14 


3-08 


(»)1985 


Mongalla. .• 


32 


14 September 


3-14 


3-08 


2-90 


2-84 


2-82 


2-82 


2-82 


2046 


Derwish Dem . 


156 


16 September 


2-90 


2-84 


2-82 


2-82 


2'82 


2-84 


2-92 


888 


North of Gaba- 
Shamba.* 


415 


18 September 


2-82 


2-82 


2-82 


2-84 


2-92 


3-06 


3-12 


532 


HUletNur .. 


538 


1 September 


2-52 


2 -.52 


? 


? 


? 


2-52 


2-45 


375 


HilletNur •. 


542 


13 April. .. 


0-87 


0-89 


0-90 


0-90 


0-87 


0-88 


0-88 


331 


South of 

Lake No.. 


741 


14 April. . . 


0-89 


0-90 


0-90 


0-87 


0-88 


0-88 


0-89 


285 


Sonth of 
Lake No*. 


742 


31 August . . 


2-49 


2-52 


2-52 


? 


? 


? 


2-52 


318 



Gondokoro 
B6r.- .. 



South of 

Lake No*. 



1(55 



742 



14 May 

12 May . 

22 May . 



. • • 



Q) G41 -f 52 for Bide channel. 
(•) 1847 + 138 for side channel. 



±eo4k 



1-89 


1-89 


1-96 


2-03 


2*10 


2-03 


2-07 


1-89 


1-89 


1-89 


1-89 


1-96 


2-03 


2-io 


2-03 


2-03 


2-03 


2*07 


2-07 


2'17 


2*17 



1138 
813 

302 



— 133 — 



Appendix F (continued). 



Tablb XVI. — Observed discharges of the Bohr El Gazelle referred to the 
Tewfihia gauge on the White Nile. 





Gacgb 


Diaohargea 

in> 
per second. 




Date 
of discharge. 


Day. 


1 

day after. 


3 

dajB after. 


3 

days after. 


Bemarki. 


21 September 
30 Au^st . . 


3-31 
2-74 


3-33 
2-75 


3-35 
2-76 


3-36 
2-77 


20 
12 





Tablb XVII. — Observed discharges of the Bahr El Zeraf referred to the 
Tewfikia gauge on the White Nile. 

±©03 





Oauob 


Discharge 

m« 
per second. 




Date 
of discharge. 


1 

day before. 


Day. 


1 
day after. 


Remarks. 


16 April.. .. 


0-24 


0-24 


0-24 


50 




22 September . 


3-31 


3-33 


3-35 


158 




8 Maj . . 


0-25 


0-26 


0-26 


61 




29 August . . 


2-68 


2-70 


2*72 


110 


App. gauge 



23 May .. 



1-35 



1*38 



1-40 



124 



134 — 



Appendix F (continued). 



Table XVIII. — Observed discharges of the Albert Nile above the Sobat junction 

referred to the TewfUda gauge. 









iwvj;: 


3 






Gauoe 


Diaoharge 
per second. 




Date 
of discharge. 


1 
day before. 


day. 


1 

day after. 


16 April •. .. 
22 September. 


•24 
3-31 


•24 
3-33 


•24 
3-35 


349 
450 



Table XIX. — Observed discharges of the Sobat River referred 
to the Vulaib Ililla gauge. 

±S03 



17 April. • •• 


• • 


•10 


• • 


45 




26 August . . 


2*70 


2'71 


2-74 


769 




26 September. 


3-16 


3- 17 


3-19 


895 





Table XX. — Observed discharges of the White Nile just below the Sobat 
junction referred to the Texofikia gauge. 

±003 



17 April.. .. 


•24 


•24 


•24 


381 




26 August . . 


2*64 


2'65 


2-66 


1046 




26 September. 


3-37 


3-38 


3-40 


1304 





— 135 — 



Appendix F (continued). 

Table XXL— Observed discharges of the White Nile ai Duern referred to the 
Duem and Khartoum gauges. 









Khabtoum Qauqeb 








Duem Gauge 










Diflcharge 


DftiA 










cubic metres 


Ul^vO* 


Gauge. 


3 days 


2 daj-B 


day 


day of 


per Becond. 






before. 


before. 


before. 


discharge. 




1902 














May 13 •. •. 


•51 


—•06 


—•07 


—•04 


—•04 


347 


June 11 • . 


•95 


•76 


•75 


•77 


•84 


650 


Julys .. .. 


1^42 


1'70 


1-76 


1^85 


2^03 


788 


August 5.. .. 


2-20 


3^52 


3^62 


3-71 


3^79 


867 


September 2 .. 


3-48 


5^30 


5-30 


5-20 


5-20 


330 


October 1 


3-5() 


5-03 


5^06 


5-16 


5-14 


870 


October 28 . . 


2-50 


3-35 


S-30 


3-23 


3^16 


802 


December 1 .. 


2-00 


2^11 


2-10 


2-08 


2'06 


930 


December 29 .. 


2^04 


1^54 


1^50 


1^48 


1-45 


1518 


1903 














January 27 .. 


1.12 


0-90 


0^87 


0-84 


0-83 


663 


February 24 . . 


0.8<5 


0^36 


0^32 


0-29 


0-28 


462 


March 24 


0.46 


0^02 


0-01 


0-01 


0^02 


559 


April 21 .. .. 


0.38 


— 0^14 


—0-12 


-0-12 


— 0^16 


415 


May 19 . 




0.38 


—0-26 


—0-23 


—0-21 


—0-19 


447 


June 16 • 




1.09 


1^41 


1-56 


1-65 


1-75 


658 


July 1 • 




1.31 


1^61 


1-54 


1-54 


1^54 


884 


/ 14 .. 




1.71 


2^55 


2-58 


2^75 


2^80 


835 


August 4. 




2^4f) 


3^50 


3^80 


4^05 


4-40 


768 


„ 11. 




3^28 


4^95 


5-06 


5-06 


5^10 


579 


77 •^■^ 

„ 18. 




3^7(> 


5T)r) 


5^70 


5^80 


5^70 


534 


11 -^^ 
„ 23. 




4-08 


5-80 


5^90 


5-95 


6^00 


654 


„ 28. 




4-18 


6-03 


6-08 


6-00 


6-05 


710 


September 2 ., 


4':« 


6 •15 


(\"2S 


6-24 


6-30 


571 


7 .. 


4^43 


6^20 


6^20 


6-15 


6-12 


737 


12 ., 


4'4« 


6-24 


6^14 


6' 15 


6-05 


653 


18 ., 


4^40 


5^86 


5-95 


5-88 


5^88 


840 


24 .. 


4^28 


5^95 


6-00 


6^10 


6-10 


763 


October 7 


3^93 


5^57 


5'40 


5-32 


5-10 


1588 


November 3 . . 


3^11 


3^90 


3-85 


3^75 


3-65 


1563 


24 ., 


2-44 


2 •65 


2*63 


2^63 


2^60 


1665 


December 8 .. 


2-0« 


2-30 


2^28 


2^20 


2'15 


1462 


„ 22 • 


. 1-80 


1^90 


1-90 


1^88 


1-88 


1403 


1904 














January 6 


, vm 


1-78 


1-78 


1-78 


1^75 


1508 


„ 20 . 


. 1-54 


1-48 


1-48 


1-48 


1-55 


1466 



— 136 — 



Appendix F (f^ontinued). 

Tamm» XXII. - Ohicrvcd dw'harf/es of the Blue Nile at Khartoum referred 
to tlie Wad'AfeUani and Khartoum gauges. 

±eo2 



Diitn 


WAI) 


HKDANI (iAItMIW 


DiMcharge 






of 








Khartoum 




a 


1 


I)nt« 


m« 




BemarkB. 


DUithnrirct. 


dayii 
b«f(iro. 


<luy 
beforii. 


of 
dlsuhnrice. 


l>er second. 


gauge*. 




May . . . . 


'IVJ 


•.•w 


•37 


184 


— 0-05 




il\ •• • • • • 


•71 


•Gl 


•Cft 


194 


0-16 




i\ Juno.. .. 


i'Oi 


i-{):\ 


1-97 


604 


0*76 




|I0 „ .. .. 


2-II7 


a -27 


3-;w 


(59ft 


1-06 




il7 „ .. .. 


a-oi 


:»-8s> 


4 -21) 


837 


1-30 




4 July .. .. 


3 '80 


a -70 


3-80 


1032 


1-75 




j» 


A'M 


4-a8 


4-48 


1453 


2-07 




IN «• • 1 • • 


4*80 


ft- 10 


5-20 


1(512 


2-3;^ 




W «i • • • • 


ft '70 


ftM>(5 


ft-7t; 


1885 


2-64 




1 AH>;iiMt .. 


7MH5 


7-28 


7-5(5 


:M20 


3-34 




H ., 


8T)« 


8-7(5 


8-8(5 


4880 


4-20 




lA „ 


9'U 


9*02 


8- 9(5 


4720 


4-50 




w „ 


10*(W 


10*(H) 


9 -(5(5 


5540 


4-93 




W „ 


10-4rt 


10-. W 


10-32 


7180 


ft-ai 




«l So|)toml)«>r. 


10'4i 


10-. W 


lO-.JO 


(5580 


5-27 




li « 


10*40 


10-28 


10- (50 


5800 


5-a5 




U) « 


10* ai 


10-U) 


lO-.lO 


57(50 


5-30 




Ut» 


lO'lW 


10-10 


9-lH» 


48(50 


5-10 




S tVu>lH>r ,. 


»'iU 


9-S8 


9-70 


4880 


5-03 




u> „ 


8*40 


8-2«> 


8-00 


3250 


3-45 




17 „ 


7-:J8 


7-48 


7-40 


24(50 


3-73 




W „ 


6«m 


6-88 


(5-78 


21X30 


, 3-40 




a» 


6'1,>< 


6-14 


(5-(U 


1244 


3-(X> 




7 Nv>vt»mlM!>r. 


5-t?tJ 


ft-rA> 


5-:»o 


1272 


2-77 




u „ 


5' 10 


5-tV. 


:>-(n> 


UVtt 


2-48 


1 


il „ 


4-74 


4-74 4-70 


8»»2 


2*2.3 




3v^ « 


4':h> 


4-:v4 4-4<; 


787 


i-n 




5 l\\HN«Wr . 


4*iV< 


4'iU 4-t*» 


t5.->4 


1*94 




w « 


3-7;{ 


a- 71 ■ a-«v. 


4m5 


l*8i> 




W „ 


3'*;i 


a-;i2 . :{-2»; 


47b 


1*58 








±903 


\ 




3 »U«iurv ,, 


1 2*i»«> 


1 2-SS . 2.S4 


34S 


1*39 




5> ,. ., 


1 iv'vi 


1 2-'"'> 2-:>.< 


2:«> 


1*22 




»«5 V. 


• i-tN 


2-4< 2-44 


24< 


1*«\» 




•\' _- 


, ivi4 


' 2*.!^ 2-.i» 


2'«^ 


0-94 




t» Ko" ru.trx .. 


' iv»: 


2*' ^4 2-' 4 


2i^ 


O'-i^ 




sv* .. ■ ., 


l-N.: 


r^l I-'-4 


"i 


o-.y 


1 


|J M-vvh .. 


I-.;. 


•.•••'' I'."-'* 


? 2 


l^-'.N 


H 




I- - 


I- -t I'M 


i*'! 


ifiki 


J Avr' » .. 


l*i4 


\ ' :\' 


r2» 


l.^ 


•>li 


1 



- 137 -^ 

Appendix F (continued). 

Table XXII (continned). — Observed discharges of the Blue Nile at Khartoum 
referred to the WadrMedani and Khartoum gauges. 

±eo3 



Dato 


WADI 


MVDANI OAUaiES 


DiBcharge 
















TT hArt/^iiTT 




of 


2 


1 


Date 


m» 


l\ IIHI vVUJJ 


Bemarki. 


Diecharge. 


days 
before. 


day 
before. 


of 
discharge. 


peraeoond. 


gauges. 




17 April. .. 


1-08 


1-04 


1-04 


154 


0-16 




IMay.. .. 


. 0-98 


0-98 


0-96 


121 


0-16. 


_ ., . 


8 , 


0-88 


0-88 


0-90 


Nil 


0-23 




15 „ .. .. 


0-88 


0-92 


0-98 


» 


0-26 




22 „ .. .. 


1-40 


1-66 


1-76 


9) 


0-09 




28 „ .. .. 


2*74 


1-51 


3'43 


374 


0-53 




6 June.. .. 


4-05 


3-61 


3-65 


970 


1-40 




19 „ .. .. 


4-70 


4-62 


4' 52 


1500 


1-90 




26 ,, .. .. 
3 July.. .. 


4-25 


4-51 


4-31 


1089 


1-58 




4-71 


5-27 


5'61 


1314 


■ 1-78 




10 , 


6-45 


6-55 


6-67 


1952 


2-48 




17 „ .. .. 


6-74 


6-57 


6-91 


2267 


2-75 




24 , 


7-97 


7-81 


7-87 


3183 


3-40 




31 „ .. .. 


7*77 


7-67 


7-70 


2870 


3-45 


, 


5 Aufrnst .. 


9-81 


10-11 


10-11 


7584 


4-60 




10 „ 


10- 15- 


9-99 


9*89 


7100 


• 5-06 




u „ .. 


10-59 


10-71 


10-57 


9340 


5-65 


• 


21 „ .. 


10-49 


10-73 


10-71 


9519 


• 5-90 




28 „ 


10-47 


10-41 


10-61 


9544 


? 




4 September. 


10-68 


10-44 


10-40 


8474 


6-20 




11 „ 


10-74 


10-52 


10-46 


8385 


6-15 




18 „ .. 


9-94 


9-92 


9-96 


7070 


5-88 




25 „ .. 


10-52 


10-46 


10-32 


8965 


6-08 




2 October . . 


9-22 


9-48 


9-36 


6581 


5-53 




9 „ .. 


9-14 


9-04 


8-64 


5749 


5-15 




16 „ .. 


7-97 


7-94 


8*07 


3812 


4-45 




23 „ .. 


8-90 


8-64 


8-54 


4198 


4-56 




30 „ .. 


7-53 


7-33 


7-29 


2893 


• 4-00 




6 November. 


6-86 


6-68 


6-32 


2275 


3-50 




13 „ .. 


6-00 


5-90 


5' 70 


1790 


3-10 




20 „ .. 


5-71 


5-65 


5-55 


1456 


2-65 




4 December . 


4-90 


4-88 


4-84 


1102 


• 2-35 


' 


18 „ 


4-36 


4-30 


4-28 


789 


1-90 




25 „ .. 


3-90 


3-88 
±3 


3-84 


722 


• 1-88 




1 January .. 


3-60 


3-66 


3-64 


604 


1-80 




15 „ 


3-40 


3-38 


3-36 


488 


1-59 





— 138 — 



Appendix F (eoniinued). 



Tablb XXIII. — Observed discharges of the Atbara referred 
to the Khasm El Girba gauge. 

±eo3 



Date of 


QxvawB 


Oitchaige 

m* 

per 

Moond. 




DiflehArge. 


6 

d»y« 

before. 


4 

dajn 

before. 


3 

dayi 

b(4ore. 


2 

days 

before. 


1 

d.7 
before. 


Date 

of 

diacharge. 


BniAuni 


16 July.. .. 


2-65 


2*31 


2-10 


2-10 


2-65 


2-28 


381 




^O f ) • • . • 


2-37 


2-55 


2-74 


2-83 


2*70 


2-70 


538 




Ai 9) • . • • 


2*70 


2-70 


3-00 


2-62 


2-53 


2-60 


780 




2 Angnst • . 


2-76 


2-80 


3-29 


3-54 


4-21 


4-00 


758 




5 „ 


3'54 


4-21 


4-00 


3-56 


3-25 


3-35 


1448 




14 „ .. 


3-29 


3-72 


4.61 


4-37 


4-53 


4-60 


2318 




15 „ .. 


3-72 


4-61 


4*37 


4-53 


4-60 


4*85 


2931 




27 „ .. 


5-12 


4*82 


4-54 


4-35 


4-20 


4*80 


2632 




30 „ .. 


4-35 


4*20 


4-80 


4*55 


4-55 


4-75 


3088 




5 September. 


4-45 


4-52 


4-52 


4-60 


4-70 


4-55 


2822 




12 „ 


4-58 


4-50 


4-15 


4-30 


3-89 


3-95 


2091 




18 „ 


3-80 


3-84 


3-71 


3-88 


4-36 


4-20 


1672 




25 „ 


4*12 


3-80 


4-45 


3-30 


3-25 


3-10 


1267 




28 „ 


3-30 


3-25 


3-10 


2-89 


3-42 


3-10 


902 




2 October .. 


3-42 


3-10 


3-13 


3-05 


2-88 


2-78 


925 




4 „ . • 


3-13 


3-05 


2-88 


2*78 


2*78 


2-90 


754 




5 „ •• 


3*05 


2-88 


2*78 


2*78 


2*90 


2-75 


703 





±S02 



Table XXb, 1904. 



Month. 



Victoria Ni for: 
Blue 
d 

Ripon Fallrivere. 



at 



January . • 
February . 
March • . 
April 
May • 
June. 

July . . . 
August . . 
September 
October . 
N ovember 
December 

Year . 



510 W 

510 X) 

500 10 

5;w ^0 

560 JO 

550 50 



530 W 
520 30 
510 30 
41K) 
500 
490 00 



BO 
50 



520 pO 



^ S 






II II 



1100 
720 
600 
530 
510 
550 



1100 
3600 
6600 
4950 
2400 
1700 



2030 



Rosetta 
braoch. 



1000 

290 

40 










800 
2600 
2500 
1400 
1600 



850 



Damietta 
branch. 



20 

40 

40 











400 

1400 

1300 

700 

140 



340 



±eo3 



=t 



January . . 
February . 
March . . 
April 

May . .. 
June . 

July . 
August .. 
September 
October . . 
November 
December 

Year . 



530 DO 

610 ^0 

630 po 

650 AO 

740 X) 

800 (k) 



840 K) 

790 tx) 

730 p() 

770 no 



810 
810 



IK) 
53 



730 i;o 



Blue Nile water flowing up the Whiti 



1300 
880 
620 
480 
440 
630 



1400 
5700 
8C)00 
6300 
3400 
2000 



2650 



1300 

500 

100 










1500 
3300 
3500 
2500 
1100 



1150 



20 

20 

30 









150 

300 

2000 

2200 

1600 

800 

590 



TABfeattow* in 1902, 1903, 1904. 



±904 



Month. 



January . . 
February . 
March . . 
April 
May . . . 
June. 

July . . . 
August .. 
September 
October . . 
November 
December 

Year . . . 



Total of: 
White, Blue 

and 
Atbara rivere. 



1700 

1100 

730 

700 

800 

1050 



1 J 

ilii. 

** 'C £ s 

* a * 2 



1400 

1300 

850 

G50 

6(X) 
950 



1100 
59(X) 



Boseita 
branch. 



1000 

850 

110 







30 

2000 



Daniietta 
branch. 



580 

110 

250 

80 

10 

30 



80 
1000 



-+■ 



— HI — 



Appendix H 



Table XXV. — Minimum and Maximum Discharges of the Nile and its 
tributaries in 1902 and 1903. 



±eo2 



Nftme of Biver. 




Locality. 


Minimum Summbb 
dischaboe m* peb 8bc0nd 


Maximum Flood 
dibohaboe m* peb bboovd 




Date. 


Discharge. 


Date. 


Diaoharge. 


Victoria Nile 
Albert Nile 

Sobat". . . , 
White Nile 

Blue^ile.. '. 
Atbara. . . 
NiIa • • • • 




Ripon Falls . . 
Wadelai. .. 
Gondokoro .. 
Above Sobat. 
Mouth . . 
Tewfikieh . . 
Duem . . . . 
Khartoum . . 
Mouth .. .. 
Wadi Haifa.. 
Assuan . . . • 


December. 
April 5th 
April 15th 

. . • 

... 
April. 
M!ay, 11th 
April 15th 

... 
June 2nd 

• . • 


480 
530 
540 

. • 

«pp:340 
340 
180 

490 

. . 


May. 
Dec. 10th 
Aug. 24th 
. . • 

• • • 

Dec,*29th 
Aug. 29th 
Sept. .Sth 

Sep't'lTth 


580 

760 

1360 

• . 

• . 

1500 
7200 
2020 






7000 



Victoria Nile 
Albert Nile 

Sobat • . . 
Whit« Nile 

Blue Nile. . 
Atbara 
Nile.. .. 



Ripon Falls 
Wadelai . 
Gondokoro 
Above Sobat 
Mouth • . 
Tewfikieh 
Duem . • 
Khartoum 
Mouth .. 
Wadi Haifa 
Assuan . • 



±S03 

January. 
April 5th 
April 10th 
April 
April 15th 
April 
May 9th 
May 5th 

May 21st 



490 
630 
680 
430 
40 
380 
400 
100 

420 



July. 

December. 
Sept. 23rd 

Sept.' i5th 
Dec. 15th 
Nov. 15th 
Aug. 28th 
Aug. 30th 

Sept' i2th 



830 
1070 
2600 

430 
1040 
1470 
1670 
9600 
3100 

9000 



- 142 — 




Appendix I. 



Tablb XXVI. — Table of mean monthly Discharges at Khartoum^ Asstidn and 
Cairoy for the maanmum^ minimum and mean years : 





1877-78 

MiNiiinM Yeas 


1878-79 
Maximum Ybab 


Hkax 


r OF ao Ybabs 


Month 


Blue 
Nile at 
Khsr- 
toum. 


ABBuAn. 


Cairo. 


Blue 
Nile at 
Eliar- 
toum. 


Abbu&d. 


Cairo. 


Blue 
Nile at 
Khar- 
toum. 


AaauAn. 


Cairo. 


June . . 


1000 


800 


600 


1000 


500 


250 


1000 


750 


500 


July . . . . 


2800 


2400 


1100 


3500 


2000 


900 


2800 


2200 


1100 


August . . . 


5300 


5600 


3900 


8200 


7900 


5200 


7000 


7900 


5300 


September . , 


4700 


5900 


4400 


12500 


12100 


8600 


8500 


9200 


7200 


October 


2500 


4000 


3900 


8000 


9300 


10300 


4500 


6000 


6900 


November . . 




2400 


2550 




4700 


6500 




3300 


3700 


December •. 




1500 


1600 




3200 


3600 




2200 


2300 


January 




1200 


1300 




2400 


2600 




1600 


1600 


February . . 




800 


800 




2100 


2100 




1200 


1200 


March • . • . 




600 


550 




1900 


1900 




850 


800 


April .. .. 




500 


400 




1600 


1600 




700 


620 


May . . . , 




400 


300 




1500 


1500 




600 


520 


flAoAn * • • ■ 




2175 


1783 


• • 


4100 


3754 


• • 


3041 


2645 












r 



Note.- The very high discharges at Assu&n and Cairo in April and May 1879 ; the minimum 
discharge of that year was about 1500 cubic metres per second. There has never been any 
discharge like that since. 



-143 — 



Appendix J. 

DI80HABOB TABLX8 OF THK DIFFBBBMT OAUGBS OB THE KILB AlTD ITS TBIB0TAIBS8. 



Table XXVII. —Discharges table of the Victoria Nile at the Ripon Falls. 



Chkuge. 



0-0 
•1 
•2 
•3 
•4 
•5 



•6 
•7 
•8 
•9 
1-0 

•1 
•2 
•3 
•4 
•5 



Discharge 
m* per second. 



380 
410 
450 
480 
520 
550 



580 
620 
660 
700 
740 

780 
820 
860 
900 
950 



Remarka. 



This disohar^ table is the mean of two alternative 
tables ; one assuming that the width of the sill 
of the Ripon Falls was 127 metres as stated by- 
Sir William Garstin, the other assuming that 
only half this width was the workingsill, the rest 
being more or less shallow water. The constant 
has Deen taken as '57. Sir William Garstin 
makes the width of the sill 70+40 + 13 = 127 
metres, while Chavanne gives it as 82 + 14+ 55 
+22 = 173 metres. 

The wider the sill, the quicker is the rise of 
discharge from the measured discharge at the 
gauge of '51. 



•6 
•7 
•8 
•9 
2-0 



990 
1040 
1090 
1140 
1190 



— 144 — 



Appendix J (continued). 



Table XXYIU.— Discharge table of the AlbeH Nile at Wadelal. 





Discharge 




Discharge 




Discharge 


Oftuge. 


cubic metres 


Gauge. 


cubic metres 


Gauge. 


cubic metres 




per second. 




per second. 




per second. 


0-0 


520 


1-0 


780 


2-0 


1090 


•1 


544 


•1 


810 


•1 


1104 


•2 


568 


•2 


840 


•2 


1118 


•3 


592 


•3 


870 


•3 


1132 


•4 


616 


•4 


900 


•4 


1146 


•5 


640 


•5 


930 


•5 


1160 


•6 


668 


•6 


962 


• • 


• • 


•7 


696 


•7 


994 


• • 


• • 


•8 


724 


•8 


1026 


• • 


• • 


•9 


752 


•9 


1058 


• • 


• • 



Tablb XXIX. — Discharge Table of the Albert Nile at the Gondokoro gavge 



Gauge. 


Discharge m' per 
second. 


Reinarki). 


0-0 
•2 
•4 
•6 
•8 

1-0 


550 
600 
660 
740 
820 
900 


There is a scour of a metre and upwards at 
this gauge site during a high flood. The pit is 
apparently filled with sand during a low nood. 


•2 
•4 

•6 

•8 

2*0 


1060 
1220 
1380 
1540 
1700 




•2 
•4 

•6 

•8 

3-0 


1900 
2100 
2300 
2500 
2700 





— 145 — 

Appendix J. (continued). 

Table XXX. — Discharge table of the Albert Nile at the Mongolia gauge, 
32 kilometres north of Gondokoro. 



Gauge. 


Discharge 

cubic metres 

per second. 


Gauge. 


Discharge 

cubic metres 

per second. 


Remarks. 


0-0 

•2 
•4 
•6 

•8 


500 
540 
580 
620 
660 


2-0 
•2 
•4 

•6 

•8 


1100 
1300 
1500 
1700 
1900 


This is a better site than Gon- 
dokoro. 


1-0 
•2 
•4 
•6 

•8 


700 
780 
860 
940 
1020 


3-0 
•2 
•4 
•6 

• • 


2100 
2300 
2500 
2700 

• • 





Table XXXI.— Discharge table 


of the Sobat river at Dulab Hilla. 


Gauge. 


Discharge 

inm< 

per second. 


Gauge. 


Discliarge 

inm> 

per second. 


Gauge. 


Discharge 

in m' 

per second. 


Gauge. 


Discharge 

in m* 

per second. 


0-0 


30 


1-0 


170 


2-0 


410 


3-0 


860 


•2 


58 


•2 


218 


•2 


500 


•2 


950 


•4 


86 


•4 


266 


•4 


590 


•4 


1040 


•6 


112 


•6 


314 


•6 


680 


•6 


1130 


•8 


142 


•8 


362 


•8 


790 


•8 


1220 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


4-0 


1310 



This gauge is in backwater when the north end of the Sudd region is flooded. 



146 — 



Appendix J {continued). 



Table XXXII. — Discharge Table of the White Nile at Tewfikieh dovmstream 
of Sohat junction referred to Tewfikia Gauge, 





Discharge 




Discharge 




Discharge 


Oauge. 


in m* 


Gauge. 


Id m' 


Oauge. 


Inm' 




per Moond. 




per second. 




per second. 


— 1-0 


150 


• • 


• • • 


• • 


• • • 


00 


330 


2-0 


840 


4-0 


1670 


•2 


376 


•2 


906 


•2 


1770 


•4 


422 


•4 


972 


•4 


1870 


•6 


468 


•6 


1038 


•6 


1970 


•8 


514 


•8 


1104 


•8 


2070 


1-0 


560 


3-0 


1170 


5-0 


2170 


•2 


616 


•2 


1270 


• • 


• • • 


•4 


672 


•4 


1370 


, , 


• • • 


•6 


728 


•6 


1470 


• • 


• • • 


•8 


784 


•8 


1570 


. • 


• ■ • 



Table XXXIU.— Discharge Table of the White Nile at Duem in Winter 
and Summer when the Blue Nile is low. 





Ditoharge 




Chuige. 


in m» 
per Mcond. 


Remarks. 


0-0 


330 


This gauge is in backwater when the Blue Nile is 
high. 


•1 


354 


•2 


370 




•3 


402 




•4 


426 




•5 


450 




•6 


480 




^7 


515 




•8 


555 




'9 


600 




1-0 


650 





This table is only very approximative. 



— 147 — 



Appendix J. (continued). 
Tablb XXXIY.— Discharge table of the Blue Nile at Wad Medani. 





DiaOHABOB 
INM'PEBSBOOin) 


i 


DlSOHABOE 
niM'PBBBBCOND 


1 


DlSOHABOE 
niM'PEBSEOOIlD 


1 


DlBOHABGE 
JNM'FXBSBOOND 


^ 


IHrer 
rising. 


Biver 
Falling 

and 
Statio- 
nary. 


Biver 
rising. 


Biver 
Falling 

and 
Statio- 
nary. 


Biver 
rising. 


Biver 
FaUing 

and 
Statio- 
nary. 


Biver 
rising. 


Biver 
FaUing 

and 
Statio- 
nary. 


O'O 


50 


50 


3-0 


650 


420 


6-0 


2150 


1500 


9-0 


5500 


4500 


•2 


80 


64 


•2 


720 


466 


•2 


2320 


1620 


•2 


5900 


4840 


•4 


110 


78 


•4 


790 


512 


•4 


2490 


1740 


•4 


6300 


5180 


•6 


140 


92 


•6 


860 


558 


•6 


2660 


1860 


•6 


6700 


5520 


•8 


170 


106 


•8 


930 


604 


♦8 


2830 


1980 


•8 


7100 


5860 


1-0 


200 


120 


4.0 


1000 


650 


7-0 


3000 


2100 


10*0 


7500 


6200 


•2 


240 


146 


•2 


1100 


720 


•2 


3200 


2340 


•2 


8000 


6580 


•4 


280 


172 


♦4 


1200 


790 


•4 


3400 


2580 


•4 


8500 


6960 


•6 


320 


198 


•6 


1300 


860 


•6 


3600 


2820 


•6 


9000 


7340 


•8 


360 


224 


•8 


1400 


930 


•8 


3800 


3060 


•8 


9500 


7720 


2*0 


400 


250 


5-0 


1500 


1000 


8-0 


4000 


3300 


11-0 


10000 


8100 


•2 


450 


284 


•2 


1630 


1100 


•2 


4300 


3540 


•2 


10600 


8540 


•4 


500 


318 


•4 


1760 


1200 


•4 


4600 


3780 


•4 


11200 


8980 


•6 


550 


352 


•6 


1890 


1300 


•6 


4900 


4020 


•6 


11800 


9420 


•8 

• • 


600 

• • 


386 

• • 


•8 

• • 


2020 

• • 


1400 

• • 


•8 

• • 


5200 

• • 


4260 

• • 


•8 
12-0 


12400 
13000 


9860 
10300 



(1) These discharges include the Bahad river. They represent the discharges below the Bahad 
river junction referred to the Wad Medani gauge. 

(2) During a high flood the river scours, and it silts during a low flood ; consequently for 
exact discharges below 5 metres^ the section of the river should be taken annually in December. 

10 



— 148 — 



Appendix J. (continiLed). 



Table XXXY.— Discharge Table of the Blue Nile at the Khartoum Gauge. 







RiVEK FALLINO 






RlYEB FALLINO 




BiTBB BI8INO 


ADD StATIONABT 


Gauge. 


River bibd^o 


A3JD STATIONABT 


Gauge. 












Discharge in m* 


DiBcharge in m' 




Discharge in m* 


Discharge in m* 




per second. 


per second. 




per second. 


per second. 


- '2 


100 


100 


• • 


• • • 


• • • 


+0-0 


175 


120 


4-0 


4500 


2800 


•2 


260 


145 


•2 


4980 


3180 


•4 


360 


170 


•4 


5460 


3560 


•6 


470 


195 


•6 


5940 


3940 


•8 


580 


220 


•8 


6420 


4320 


1*0 


700 


250 


5-0 


6900 


4700 


•2 


8()0 


UO 


•2 


7560 


5220 


•4 


1020 


4;w 


•4 


8220 


5740 


•6 


1180 


520 


•6 


8880 


6260 


•8 


IM) 


610 


•8 


9540 


6780 


2-0 


im) 


700 


6*0 


10200 


7300 


•2 


1720 


880 


•2 


11000 


7940 


•4 


1940 


1060 


•4 


11800 


8580 


•6 


21W) 


1240 


•6 


12600 


9220 


•8 


2380 


1420 


•8 


13400 


9860 


3-0 


2600 


1600 


7-0 


14200 


10500 


•2 


2980 


1840 


•2 


• • • 


11140 


•4 


3;m) 


2080 


•4 


• • • 


11780 


•6 


3740 


2320 


•6 


• • • 


12420 


•8 


4120 


2560 


• • 


• • • 


• • • 



This gauge is in backwater when the White Nile is discharging more than the Blue Nile. 



— 149 — 



Appendix J. (continved). 



Table XXXVI. — Discharge Table of the Athara river referred to tJie 
Khasm el Girba Gauge. 



Qtatgo. 


Discharge. 


Gauge. 


Discharge. 


Oauge. 


Diacliarge. 


0-0 


0.0 


2-0 


350 


4-0 


1780 


•2 


20 


•2 


444 


•2 


2078 


•4 


40 


•4 


538 


•4 


2376 


•6 


60 


•6 


632 


•6 


2674 


•8 


80 


•8 


726 


•8 


2972 


1-0 


100 


3-0 


820 


5-0 


3270 


•2 


150 


•2 


1012 


•2 


3")96 


•4 


200 


•4 


1204 


•4 


3922 


•6 


250 


•6 


13% 


• 

•6 


4248 


•8 


300 


•8 


1588 


•8 


4574 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


6-0 


4900 



— 150 — 



Appendix J. (eontinved). 
Table XXXVII. — Discharge tMe far the Asmdn^ Assiut and Cairo Gatiges. 



The gauges are in metres and are referred to mean low-water level as zero. 
The zero is : 

at Assuan H. L. 85*00 

atAssiat „ 45*55 

at Cairo „ 12*25 

N.B. — ^At Asslut E. L. 45'55, according to the reservoir levels, is B. L. 45*05 according 
to the 4th Circle levels. 

(The discharges are in cubic metres per second.) 

This discharge table may be used approximately for any gauge on the Nile 
north of Assuan with its zero at mean low-water level ; adding '5 to the gauge 
in Kena Province, and deducting '5 from the gauge in Minieh and Beni-Suef. 

If the river is rising, take the discharge corresponding to the highe/ gauge ; 
if falling or stationary to the lower one. 



Onuge. 


Discharge. 


Gauge. 


Discharge. 


Gauge. 


Discharge. 


Gauge. 


Discharge. 


—1-0 


360 


2-0 


1510 


5-0 


4380 


8-0 


9800 


— -8 


40C 


•2 


1652 


•2 


4674 


•2 


10300 


— -6 


452 


•4 


1794 


•4 


4968 


•4 


10900 


— -4 


498 


•6 


1936 


•6 


5262 


•6 


11500 


— -2 


544 


•8 


2078 


•8 


5556 


•8 


12100 


0-0 


590 


3-0 


2220 


6-0 


5850 


9-0 


12800 


•2 


CC8 


•2 


2408 


•2 


6150 


•2 


13600 


•4 


746 


•4 


2596 


•4 


6450 






•c 


824 


•6 


2784 


•6 


6800 






•8 


902 


•8 


2972 


•8 


7200 






1-0 


980 


4-0 


3160 


7-0 


7600 




•2 


ias6 


•2 


3404 


•2 


8000 






•4 


1192 


•4 


3648 


•4 


8400 






•c 


1298 


•6 


3892 


•6 


8800 






•8 


1404 


•8 


4136 


•8 


9300 







— 151 — 
Appendix J. (continued). 

Table XXXVIIL 

Discharge Table of tho Wadv Haifa Gauge, for use at Assuan when the 
Assuan Dam is being regulated on, and consec^uently the Assuan Gauge no 
longer represents the normal discharge of the Nile. At this stage of the river 
it mav be assumed that the water travels normally between Wady Haifa and 
Assuan is 3 or 4 days. 





Discharge 


4 


Discharge 


Gauge. 


cubic metres 


Gauge. 


cubic metreB 




per second. 




per second. 


0-8 


370 


• • 


• • 


1^0 


440 


3-2 


1800 


•2 


516 


•4 


1990 


•4 


592 


•6 


2180 


•6 
•8 


688 
804 


•8 


2370 


4^0 


2560 






2^0 


920 


•2 


2802 


•2 


1048 


•4 


3044 


•4 


1176 


•6 


3286 


•6 


1314 


•8 


3528 


•8 


1462 


5^0 


3770 


3^0 


1610 


• • 


• • 



Tablr XXXIX. — Discharge of the Rosetta Branch of the Nile referred 
to the Delta Barrage north of Cairo. 

±sso 



Gauge. 


Discliarge 
m' per second, 


Gauge. 


Discharge 
m* per second. 


Gauge. 


Discharge 
m' per second. 


0-00 
•25 
•50 
•75 




50 

100 

150 


3^00 
•25 
•50 

•75 


11.50 
1312 
1475 
1638 


6-00 
•25 
•50 

•75 


3300 
3525 
3750 
3975 


roo 

•25 

•50 
•75 


200 
2«7 
375 
463 


4^00 
•25 
•50 
•75 


1800 
1975 
2150 
2325 


7^00 
•25 
•50 
•75 


4200 
4450 
4700 
49.50 


2^00 
•25 
•50 
•75 


550 

700 

850 

1000 


5^00 
•25 
•50 
•75 


2500 
2700 
2900 
3100 


8-00 
•25 
•50 
•75 


5200 
5475 
5750 




9^00 


6300 



Zero of the gauge B.L. 10*00 metres above mean sei^. 



— 152 — 



Appendix J. (continued). 



Table XL. — Discluirge of the Damietia Branch of the Nile referred to the 
Delta Barrage north of Cairo. 



±8@0 



Gauge. 


Discharge 
m* per seoond. 


Gauge. 


Diicharge 
m' per aeooDd. 


Gauge. 


Dbchwge 
m* per aecond. 


©•00 
•25 
•50 
•75 



20 
40 
60 


3-00 
•25 
•50 
•75 


450 
537 
625 
712 


6^00 

•25 

•50 
•75 


1900 
2075 
2250 
2425 


l^OO 
•25 
•50 
•75 


80 
110 
140 
170 


4^00 
•25 
•50 
•75 


800 
925 

law 

1175 


7^00 
•25 
•50 
•75 


2600 
2800 
3000 
3200 


2^00 
•25 
•50 
•75 


200 
262 
325 
388 


5*00 
•25 
•50 
•75 


1300 
1450 
1600 
1750 


8-00 
•25 
•50 
•75 


3400 
3625 
3850 
4075 










9^00 


4300 



NoTC^Zero oHhe gauge R. L. 10*00 metres above mean sea. 



— 153 — 
Appendix K. 

TABLES GIVING DETAILED INFOBMATION ABOUT THE »ILE BETWEEN ASSTJIn AND CAIRO. 



Table XHl.'^Date of Heights of Minimum gauges in summer 
and Maximum gauges in flood at Assuan, 





Minimum summeb 


Maximum flood 


I ear. 


Date. 


Gauges. 


Date. 


Gauge. 


1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 


5 June 

30 May 

23 May 

15 June 

27 May 

23 June 

23 May 

9 June 

14 May 

23 June 

22 June 

27 May 

21 June 

3 June 

8 May 

8 June 

24 June 

8 June 

19 May 

18 June 

18 June 

16 June 

23 June 

13 June 

31 May 

23 June 

1 June 

15 May 

10 May 

12 May 

16 April 

5 June 


- 0-37 

- 0-64 

- 0-17 
+ 0-13 
+ 0-10 

- 0-71 
+ 1-88 
+ 0-82 
+ 0-00 

- 0-55 
+ 0-04 
+ 0-37 

- 0-44 

- 0-06 

- 0-03 

- 0-08 

- 0-60 

- 0-60 

- 0-21 

- 0-64 
+ 0-35 
+ 0-06 
+ 0-78 
+ 0-49 
+ 0-62 

- 0-25 
+ 0-15 

- 0-93 

- 0-46 

- 0-48 

- 0-68 

- 0-20 


1 September . 

6 September . 
11 September . 

7 September . 
20 August.. .. 

1 October. 

13 September . . 
4 September . ■ 
4 September . . 

28 August.. 

17 September . . 
1 September . . 

28 August.. .. 
22 September.. 

1 September . , 
24 August.. .. 

2 September.. 

2 September . . 
27 September . . 
20 September . . 

14 September . . 

18 September . . 
10 September . . 

3 September . . 
1 September . . 

29 August.. . 

4 September . 

19 August.. . 
6 September . 

17 September . 
27 August.. . 
13 August.. 




. 7*66 
8-97 
8-36 
8-68 
6*40 
9-15 
8-59 
7*82 
8-14 
8-00 
8-18 
7-73 
8-05 
8-04 
8-81 
7-08 
8-36 
8-72 
7-84 
8-88 
7-75 
8-61 
8-68 
8-63 
7-80 
8-63 

. 6-67 
7*91 

. 7-82 

. 6-72 
7-93 

. 6-97 



Zero is R. L. 85 '00 metres or mean low water level. 



— 154 — 



Appondix K. (eontinued). 



Tablb XLTI. — Table giving areas o/crott tectiont of the Nile, 
from Aini&n to Cairo. 



liocallty. 



Assa&n to Bam&di .... 

Batn&di to Esna 

Esna to Kena' 

Eena to SoMg 

Soh&g to Assiont 

Assioat to Minia 

Minia to Beni-Su6f . . . . . . 

Beni-Sudf to Eoshesha . . 

Koshesha to Cairo 

Cairo to the Barrage . . . . 



Length 

in 

Ulometiw. 



Assa&n to Assioat. . . 
Assioat to Koshesha. 
Eoshesha to Cairo . . 



Assa&n to Cairo. 



81 

76 

115 

158 

98 

138 

117 

34 

81 

24 



528 

289 

81 



MEAN ABKA.IN BQUABB HBTBB8 



Bdow 
aero 



898 



1024 

674 

852 

973 

1037 

899 

915 

665 

1031 

1402 



Below 

6 
metres. 



920 

870 

1030 



910 



4930 
4554 
4476 
4718 
5220 
5149 
5035 
5040 
5364 
5414 



Below 

7 
metres. 



4760 
5080 
5360 



5808 
5461 
5336 
5600 
6305 
6205 
6007 
6080 
6388 
6628 



Below 

8 
metres. 



4930 



5680 
6100 
6380 



6754 
6398 
6221 
6535 
7705 
7783 
7315 
7532 
7813 
8346 



Below 

8.6 
metres. 



6690 
7550 
7810 



7337 
6966 
6726 
7121 
8683 
8845 
8196 
8379 
8648 
9258 



Below / 

9 
metres. 



■\ 



7310 
8510 
8640 



7993 
7695 
7363 
7873 
9749 
9937 
9140 
9247 
9495 
10184 



5890 



7080 



7830 



9520 
9490 



8690 



— 155 — 



Appendix K (continued). 



Table XLIIL— TaJfe of the cubic contents of the trough of the Nile 
from Assudn to Cairo in millions of cubic metres. 







OOMTKirrB IN MILLIOKS 
OF CUBIC MBTBB8 


OONTENTS nr MILLIONS 
OF CUBIC METBEg 


Locality. 


Below 
nro. 


From 
uro 
to 
t.O 


From 
9.0 
to 
7.0 


7.0 
to 
t.O 


8.0 
to 
8.B 


8 » 
to 

».0 


Below 

MTO. 


Below 
6.0 


Below 
7.0 


Below 
8.0 


Below 
8.8 


Below 
«.0 


Assuan to Ramadi • • 


81 


83 


316 


711 


77 


47 


53 


83 


399 


470 


547 


594 


647 


Ilamadi to Esna. •• 


76 


51 


295 


69 


71 


43 


56 


51 


346 


415 


486 


529 


585 


Esna to Kena • • • • 


115 


98 


417 


99 


102 


58 


73 


98 


514 


614 


715 


773 


847 


Kena to Sohag.. •• 


128 


154 


592 


139 


148 


83 


119 


154 


745 


885 


1032 


1125 


1244 


Sohag to Assiout • . 


98 


102 


410 


106 


137 


96 


104 


102 


512 


618 


755 


851 


955 


Assiout to Minieh . . 


138 


124 


586 


146 


218 


147 


151 


124 


710 


856 


1074 


1220 


1371 


Minieh to Beni Su6f • 


117 


107 


482 


114 


153 


103 


110 


107 


589 


703 


856 


859 


1069 


Beni Su6f to Kushesha 


34 


23 


149 


35 


49 


29 


29 


23 


171 


207 


256 


285 


314 


Kushesha to Cairo . . 


81 


84 


351 


83 


115 


68 


69 


84 


434 


517. 


633 


700 


769 


Cairo to the Barrage. 


28 


34 


96 


29 


41 


22 


22 


34 


130 


159 


200 


222 


244 


Assuan to Assiout . . 


528 


487 


2030 


484 


534 


327 


405 


487 


2517 


3001 


3535 


3862 


4267 


Assiout to Kushesha. 


289 


254 


1217 


295 


420 


278 


291 


254 


1471 


1766 


2186 


2464 


2755 


Kushesha to Cairo . . 


81 


84 


351 


83 


115 


68 


69 


84 


435 


518 


633 


701 


770 


Assuan to Cairo. .. 


898 


825 


a598 


862 


1069 


673 


765 


825 


4423 


5285 


6354 


7027 


7792 



156 — 



Appendix K. (continued). 
Table XLIV. — Widths of water surface from Assudn to Cairo. 



Vvfixn 


To. 


Mean width op watbb subfacb 







6-0 


7-0 


8*0 


8-5 


9-0 


Assa&n . . . . 
Ramadi . . . . 

Esna 

Kena 

Sohag 

Assiout . . . . 

Minieh 

Beni Su6f . . . . 
Knshesha .. .. 
Cairo 


Ramadi .. .. 

Esna 

Kena . . . . 
Sohag . . . . 
Assiout .. .. 
Minieh . . . . 
Beni SnSf . . . 
Kushesha . . . 
Cairo . . . . 
Barrage .. .. 


400 
340 
350 
380 
400 
390 
490 
500 
450 
440 


840 
850 
820 
870 

1000 
970 
960 

1000 
9(50 
940 


880 

890 

850 

890 

1170 

1180 

1300 

1390 

1100 

1460 


1030 
1030 
940 
1000 
1720 
1890 
1550 
1690 
1570 
1840 


1270 
1260 
1120 
1300 
2080 
2060 
1800 
1720 
1700 
1860 


1400 
1620 
1400 
1560 
2170 
2080 
1840 
1730 
1700 
1890 


Assn&n 

Assiout . . . . 
Kushesha .. .. 


Assiout .. .. 
Kushesha 
Cairo . . . . 


370 
460 
450 


880 
980 
960 


940 
1290 
1100 


1140 
1710 
1570 


1410 
1860 
1700 


1630 
1880 
1700 


Assnan . . . . 


Cairo . . . . 


430 


940 


1110 


1470 


1660 


1740 



Area of water surface in millions of square metres. 



Assuan • • • • 


Assiout • • • • 


200 


470 


500 


600. 


740 


860 


Assiout • • • . 


Cairo • • • • 


130 


280 


370 


490 


540 


540 


Assuan 


Cairo . • • • 


400 


840 


1000 


1320 


1490 


1560 



— 157 — 



Appendix K^ (continued). 
Table XLV. — Slope of tcater surface in the Nile. Assudn to Cairo. 



From. 


To. 


Distance 
in kiiometres 

down 
tlie centre line 
of the flood. 


Distance 
in Icilometree 

Down 

tlie summer 

channel. 


Slope 
in flood. 


Slope 
in summer. 


Assnan . . . . 
Silsila . . . . 
Easr-es-Saad .. 
Khazindaria . . 
Assiont • • . . 
Beni Mazar . . 
Ashmant • • • • 
Cairo 


Silsila . . . . 
Kasr-es-Saad . 
Khazindaria. • 
Assiont . . . . 
Beni Mazar . . 
Ashmant. . . 
Cairo . . . . 
Barrage.. .. 


70 
250 
150 

60 
180 

90 
100 

23 


72 
258 
159 

63 
196 

94 
106 

25 


1 

11500 

I 

14800 

1 
12300 

1 
11800 

1 

11000 

1 

11000 

1 

11600 

1 

10800 


1 

12600 

1 

14800 

1 

13400 

1 
14500 

1 

11800 

1 

11400 

1 
12300 

1 

20000 


Assnan . . . . 


Cairo . . . . 


900 


948 


1 
12200 


1 

13000 



— 158 — 



Appendix K. (continued). 
Table XLVI. — i/ean lo^o water level of the Nile — Asmdn to Cairo. 



Distance 
from AssuAn 
along centre 

of flood. 




70 
106 
157 
194 
213 
272 
320 
328 
333 
365 
373 
390 
429 
470 
505 
530 
598 
627 
666 
710 

• • 

800 



898 
900 



Name of Locality. 



Assaan • • • • % « 
Gebel Silsila • • . 

Edfu 

Esna 

Armant 

Luxor 

Kena 

Kasr-6»-Saad 

Heu 

Naga Hamadi • . 
AbuShusha*. .. 
Balyana • • • . 

Girga 

Sohag 

Khazindaria.. •• 
Aboutig Escape • . 
Assiont (*) • • 
Dernt Escape • . 

Roda 

Minia 

Beni Mazar • • • . 
Beni Su6f (*) • . 
Ashmant • • • < 
Kushesha Escape 

El-Ay&t 

Cairo gauge. • • < 
Cairo 



R.L. 
According 
to reservoir 

levels. 



85*0 

79-3 

76'7 

73-1 

70-1 

69-0 

65-3 

61-7 

61'2 

61 '0 

58-6 

58-3 

56-9 

53-8 

49-9 

47-7 

45 '55 

39-1 

36*3 

32-6 

28-9 

22'] 

20'5 

18'9 

15-8 

12-10 

12-00 



R.L. 

According 

to inspecton 

of 

irrigation. 



85-0 

79-4 

77-0 

72-6 

69-6 

68-5 

64-8 

61-2 

60-7 

60-5 

58-1 

57-8 

56-5 

53-2 

49-4 

47-1 

45-05 

38-5 

35-7 

32-0 

• • 

21-8 

20-2 

18-6 

15-5 

12-25 

12-1 



Distance 
from AssuAn 
along summer 

channel. 




72 



330 



489 

• • 

552 

748 

• • 

842 



948 



(*) Downstream of (he Assiout weir. 

(*) The Beni Su§f gauge is unreliable in summer as it is on a branch of the river which ip 
dammed by the villagers. 



~ 159 — 

Appendix K. (jMmtinued). 
Table XL VII. — Discharge table of tlie Upper Egypt ccmaU, 



A low Nile flood is 6*4 metres | 

A mean Nile flood is 7*5 ,, ^at Assnan. 

A high Nile flood is 8-3 „ J 

The discharges of the Upper Eg3rpt canals corresponding to the Assnan gauges 
are appoximately as follows:— 



Assnan. . 



6-0 


1300 


•1 


1370 


•2 


1440 


•3 


1510 


•4 


1580— liow Nile flood. 


•5 


1G50 


•6 


1620 


•7 


1790 


•8 


1860 


•9 


1930 


7-0 


2000 


•J 


2070 


•2 


2140 


•3 


2210 


•4 


2280 


•5 


2350— Mean Nile flood. 


•6 


2420 


•7 


2490 


•8 


2560 


•9 


2630 


8-0 


2700 


•1 


2770 


•2 


2840 


•3 


2910— High Nile flood. 


•4 


2980 


•5 


3050 


•6 


3120 


•7 


3190 


•8 


3260 


•9 


3330 


9-0 


3400 



R. L. of zero in R. L. 85*00 metres. 



— 160 — 

Appendix K (continued). 
Table XLVII. — Canal discharges bettceen Assuan and Assiut. 



DIBCHARGBS OF THE CANALS IN 


UPPBB EOYFT IN 


1892. 










AUGUST 


BEPTEMBBB 


Name of Canal. 


15 


20 


25 


31 


5 

82 
16 
42 
52 
44 
62 
65 
64 

1.38 
77 
96 

492 
77 
49 

640 
24 
30 


10 


15 


20 


25 


30 


Rftmadi «•••••••••••• 


55 
8 
25 
12 
10 
28 
26 
35 
49 
24 
54 

380 
44 
25 

460 

6 

10 


66 
9 
29 
26 
19 
36 
35 
41 
62 
30 
59 

386 
45 
24 

440 

6 

15 


80 
12 
37 
44 
37 
53 
56 
58 

104 
64 
84 

470 
66 
39 

540 
14 
20 


76 
13 
39 
49 
42 
59 
62 
61 

133 
76 
95 

485 
75 
47 

600 
20 
30 


85 
18 
43 
55 
58 
67 
70 
70 

150 
90 

120 

520 
82 
45 

700 
24 
30 


89 
20 
45 
50 
60 
70 
74 
73 

150 
90 

120 

500 
85 
40 

740 
24 
20 


91 




TJin-Acls ••■•••••••••••••• 




Msdn 




Fadilia 




Toukh 




Rannan •• •• 




T)nTni*a.ni& .••.•••..••••••• 




RA^iHwAniA .........•.•••« 




K.asra ••••••••••••••••••• 




Zarzria •••«*t*««t«»»t»»-^ 




GrirfiAwia •••••••••••••••• 




Sobairia •• •••• 




Tahta 




Shatura •• • •••• 




Thrfthimia ................ 




Waladia 




Minor (Canals ......••..•. 








Total left bank 


1250 

6 
5 

30 
46 
5 
19 
12 
10 
15 
10 
35 
63 

as 

6 
4 


1320 


1790 


1980 


2060 


2250 


2270 








Kilibitt 


11 

5 

36 

55 

6 

.30 

19 

15 

22 

15 

35 

62 

41 

7 

8 


17 
18 
62 
98 
10 
58 
41 
20 
38 
20 
55 
86 
58 
8 
12 

600 


20 
22 
69 
108 
11 
64 
48 
25 
41 
25 
60 
96 
67 
10 
15 

680 
2660 


24 
26 
77 
116 
12 
68 
52 
25 
44 
25 
63 
98 
71 
10 
15 


28 
.30 
85 

120 
12 
70 
60 
25 
51 
25 
70 

110 
80 
12 
15 


32 
32 
90 
125 
12 
72 
60 
25 
56 
25 
70 
95 
85 
12 
15 








Maala 




Bavadia • ••••••• 




Shanhuria •••• 




Shekha 




Gilasi 




Samatha ••••• •••••• 




Tarif 




Hawis ••••••• ••••••• 




Ahaiwia ••••••••• •• 




Isaiwia •••••••••••• • 




Khizindaria 




Maanah •••••••••••• 




Sant 




Minor Canals .....•• 








Total right bank .... 


300 
1550 


370 


730 
2790 


800 
3050 


810 
3080 






Total both banks. . . . 


1690 


2390 







— 161 - 

Appendix K (continued). 
Table XL VIII (continued). — Caned discharges between Assiaut and Cairo. 



DiaCHARQES OF THE 0AVAL8 IS UPPER EGYPT IK 1892. 



Name of Canal. 


AUGUST 


SEPTEMBBB 


15 

13 
53 
18 

9 

12 
15 
70 
11 
40 
13 

2 


20 

16 
38 
10 

5 

8 
15 
70 

7 
38 
12 

2 


25 


31 


5 


10 


15 


20 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


25 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


30 


Beni-Husain •••••••••••••• 


20 
60 
20 
10 
14 
22 
70 
16 
70 
14 
4 

320 


30 
80 
37 
20 
27 
40 
70 
27 
95 
19 
4 

450 


35 

85 
38 
20 
28 
45 
70 
28 
100 
20 
4 

480 


40 
93 
40 
20 
33 
45 
70 
33 
100 
19 
4 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 
■ • 

• • 




Abu-Bakra 




Sultani ••••••• • 




Nina •••• ••••• 




Bahabshin 




Masniina ................. 




ICusheha .• 




Zawia ••••••••••••••••••• 




Girza 




Zumr 




Minor Canals • ..•.••• 








Total left bank 


260 


220 


500 

18 
46 
14 


• • 


• • 


• • 


Aly Bey 


14 

19 

7 

40 


13 
14 

6 

30 


28 
25 
12 

70 
390 


33 
35 
12 


20 
40 
14 


• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• » 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 




Khassab 




Minor Canals 








Total right bank.... 


80 
530 


80 
560 


80 


• • 


• • 


• • 


Total both banks. . . . 


300 


250 


580 


• • 


• • 


• • 


' • • 



Canal discluirges between Assuan and Cairo. 



Left bank ••• • • 


1510 
340 

1850 

6.7 
6.1 
5.8 


1540 
400 


2110 
670 


2430 
760 

3190 


2540 
810 

3390 


2750 
880 

3630 

8.8 
7.7 
7.2 


• • 

• • 

• • 

8.7 
8.1 
7.7 


• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 




Rifirht bank 


• • 






Total 


1940 

7.4 
5.9 
5.5 


2780 


• • 


• • 


• • 


Assuan gauge 

As^^iout gauge 

Cairo gauge 


8.3 
6.8 
5.8 


8.3 
7.2 
6.7 


8.6 
7.4 
7.0 


• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 



— 162 — 

Appendix K (continued). 
Table XLIX. — Canal discharges between Assuan and Assitd. 









DI80HASOEE 


1 OF THB 0AHAL8 


IK UPPBB KOTPT IW 189J 


1. 












AUGUST 


8EPTEHBEB 


OOTOBKB 


Kame ol txuisl. 


15 

50 

.10 

.28 

17 

19 

20 

33 

45 

70 

38 

55 

390 

45 

.20 

520 

10 

10 

1380 

11 
11 
36 
56 
6 

24 
17 
12 
24 
15 
30 
60 
20 
6 
4 

340 

1720 


20 


25 


31 

56 
12 
33 
26 
27 
28 
43 
55 
79 
46 
58 

390 
46 
25 

560 
12 
20 

1510 

14 
12 
46 
63 

8 

32 
25 
15 
29 
16 
37 
66 
32 

8 
10 

410 

1920 


6 

55 
13 
31 
22 
21 
25 
39 
50 
72 
45 
56 

350 
44 
22 

540 
11 
20 

1420 

14 
13 
40 
62 

6 

29 
22 
14 
27 
12 
37 
60 
29 

7 
10 

390 

1810 


10 


15 


20 

61 
15 
33 
24 
22 
27 
43 
60 
82 
46 
57 

390 
44 
25 

580 
12 
20 

1540 

16 
16 
44 
50 

5 

31 
25 
16 
27 

7 
40 
65 
34 

7 
10 

390 

1930 


25 

64 
15 
34 
22 
27 
30 
46 
65 
87 
52 
62 

430 
52 
29 

600 

12 

- 20 


30 

61 
15 
33 
20 
26 
28 
44 
60 
82 
46 
57 

410 
47 
28 

600 
12 
20 


5 


10 


15 


20 


25 


Bamadi . 
Um-Ads . 
Asfun . . 
Fadilia. .. 
Toukh . . 
Bannan .. 
Dumrania. 
Rashwania 
Kasra . .. 
Zarzuria .. 
Q«rgawia . 
Sohagia . 
Tahta . . . 
Shatura ... 
Ibrahimia . 
Waladia . 
Minor Cana 


is-!! 


56 
12 
33 
24 
24 
26 
39 
52 
72 
44 
55 
380 
46 
.23 
520 
11 
15 

1430 

13 
12 
44 
64 

7 
32 
24 
14 
27 
16 
37 
62 
30 

6 
■'7 


58 
12 
34 
26 
26 
29 
44 
60 
82 
47 
59 

400 
47 
26 

560 
12 
20 

1550 

15 
13 
48 
69 

9 
34 
27 
16 
29 
16 
40 
67 
32 

9 
10 


60 
14 
33 
24 
24 
25 
41 
53 
76 
47 
56 

360 
45 
17 

540 
11 
20 

1440 

15 
14 
45 
64 

6 

30 
24 
15 
27 
12 
39 
60 
32 

7 
10 

400 

1840 


64 
15 
35 
29 
24 
30 
46 
68 
87 
52 
62 

420 
51 
28 

600 
11 
20 

1640 

17 
16 
52 
70 

4 
35 
28 
17 
29 
10 
40 
66 
33 

7 
10 

430 

2070 






Total left bank.. 


1650 


1590 








Kilibia. . 
Maala . . 
Bayadia . 
Shanhuria. 
Shekhia . 
Gilasi.. . 
Samatha . 
Tarif .. . 
Hawis . . 
Ahaiwia . 
Isawia . . . 
Ehazindarii 
Maanah • 
Sant ..... 
Minor Gaiii 


ds'I. 


16 
16 
42 
40 

6 
34 
27 
17 
25 

4 
43 
55 
24 

7 
10 

370 


16 
16 
30 
30 

6 
33 
26 
16 
16 

4 
.40 
50 
24 

7 
10 

320 








Total right bank. 


400 
1830 


430 
1980 








Total both banks. 


2020 


1910 











— 163 — 

Appendix K (amtinued). 
Table XLIX (continued^. — Canal discharges between Assiout and Cairo. 









DISCHABGES OF THB OAKAU 


IN UPPEB SaTPT IN 1893. 










Name of Canal. 


AUGUST 


SEFTEHBEB 


OOTOBEB 


IS 

17 
63 
17 

9 
11 
21 
70 
11 
50 
10 

2 

280 

16 

20 

6 

40 

320 


20 

18 
50 
16 

8 

9 

20 
70 

8 
45 
10 

2 

260 

20 

20 

6 

50 

310 


25 

19 
63 
17 

9 
11 
20 
50 
13 
50 
10 

2 

260 


31 

20 
64 
17 
10 
12 
20 
30 
12 
55 
10 
2 

250 


5 

14 

60 

16 

10 

12 

24 



13 

60 

6 

2 


10 

12 
58 
15 

9 

10 
23 


12 
60 

6 

2 


15 


20 


25 


30 


5 

• ■ 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


10 


15 


20 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


25 


Beni Husaii 
Abu-Bakra , 
Sultani 
Nina • • • i 


1 .. 


16 
68 
17 

9 

12 
28 


13 
50 

7 

2 

220 


17 
65 
17 

9 
11 
29 


15 
50 
12 

2 

220 


17 
64 
17 

9 

13 
30 


16 
40 
14 

2 

220 


17 
64 
17 

9 
14 
30 


17 
30 
15 

2 

220 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• ■ 


Bahabshin. 
Magnuna • . 
Kush&ska.. 
Zawia • . • 




■ ■ 

• • 

• • 


Grirza ■ . . 






Zumr • • • * 






Minor Canals . . 


• • 


Total left bank. . 


220 

15 
19 

7 


210 

12 
15 

7 

30 
240 


• • 


AH bey . . . . 
Khassab . . 
Minor Canuls . . 


27 

20 

6 

50 

310 


28 

22 

6 


15 

19 

7 

40 


17 
15 

7 

40 


20 
15 

7 

40 
260 


20 

18 

7 

50 
270 


• • 

• • 

• • 


Total right bank. 


60 
310 


40 
260 


• • 


Total both l)a 


knks. 


260 


260 


• • 



Canal discharges between Assuan and Cairo. 



Left bank.. 
Right bank. 

Total. 



16<)0 
380 

2040 



1690 
450 

2140 



1810 
480 

2290 



1760 
470 

2230 



1640 
430 

2070 



1650 
430 

2080 



1960 
470 

2330 



1760 
430 

2190 



1870 
410 

2280 



1810 
370 

2180 



Assuan gauge 
Assiout gauge 
Cairo gauge 



7.0 
6.2 
5.8 



7.3 
6.2 
5.6 



7.4 
6.4 
5.9 



7.3 
6.3 
6.0 



7.2 
6.2 
6.0 



7.5 
6.3 

5.8 



7.6 
6.5 
6.0 



7.4 

6.5 
6.0 



7.1 
6.6 
6.1 



7.3 
6.6 
6.3 



7.1 
6.4 
6.2 



7.3 
6.5 
6.1 



6.9 
6.7 
6.4 



6.3 
6.7 
6.5 



6.0 

• • 

2.7 



11 



— ir,4 — 



Appendix K. {continued). 



Table L. — Calculated Cairo gauges corresponding to Assucin gauges if basin 
irrigation were to be clianged into perennial irrigation. 



±374=. 



Date at Assufiu. 


Qauges 

at 
AMufin. 


Discharges 

at 

A88u£d. 


Water 

oonsumption 

AsBu^n 

to Cairo 


Trough 
of Nile 
Assufin 
to Cairo. 


Discharge 

at 

Cairo. 


Gauges 

at 
Cairo. 


Date at Cairo. 


August .. 


5 


6-9 


7600 


-1020 


-1000 


5580 


5-8 


JOth August. 


» 


10 


7-4 


8600 


do 


do 


6580 


6-4 


15th 


» 


15 


8-5 


11500 


do 


do 


9480 


7-8 


20th 


j» 


20 


8-6 


11800 


do 


do 


9780 


7-9 


25th „ 


>» 


25 
31 


8-7 
8-7 


12100 
12100 


do 
do 


do 
do 


10080 


8-1 


31st „ 


« 


10080 
10780 


8-2 
8-3 


5th September. 


September 


5 


9-0 


12800 


do 


do 


lOth 


j> 


10 


8-8 


11800 


do 





10780 


8-4 


15th „ 


n 


15 


8-7 


11500 


do 


+500 


10980 


8-5 


20th 


n 


20 


8-4 


10600 


do 


do 


10080 


8-2 


25th 


)? 


25 
30 


8-4 
8-2 


10600 
10050 


do 
do 


do 
do 


10080 


8-2 


30th 


n 


9430 
8780 


7*9 
7-6 


5th October. 


October .. 


5 


7-9 


9;K)0 


do 


do 


10th „ 


J? 


10 


7-6 


8600 


do 


+ 700 


8280 


7*4 


15th „ 


« 


15 


7*2 


7800 


do 


do 


7480 


7-0 


20th „ 


)? 


20 


6-G 


6600 


do 


do 


6280 


6-3 


25th 


« 


25 
31 


6-2 

5-6 


6000 
5100 


do 
do 


do 
do 


5680 


5-9 


31st „ 


n 


4780 
4780 


5-3 
4-3 


.5th November. 


Novembe. 


5 


5-2 


4500 


do 


do 


10th 



— 165 — 



Appendix K. {cmitinued). 



Table LI. — Calculated Cairo gauges corretponding to Assucin gauges if basin 
irrigation were to he cluxnged into perennial irrigation. 



±877 



DateatAssuAn. 


Gauges 

at 
Assu&n. 


Discharges 

at 

Assu&D. 


Water 

consumption 

Assu&n 

to Cairo. 


Trough 
of Nile 
AmuAd 
to Cairo. 


Discharges 

at 

Cairo. 


Qauges 

at 
Cairo. 


Date at Cairo. 


August .. 5 


4-8 


4200 


- 800 


-300 


3100 


3-9 


10th August. 


„ 10 


5-4 


5100 


-1020 


do 


3780 


4-6 


15th „ 


15 


5-8 


5700 


do 


do 


4380 


5-0 


20th 


„ 20 


6-4 


6500 


do 


do 


5180 


5-5 


25th 


„ 25 


6-1 
6-2 


5800 
6000 


do 
do 


do 
do 


4480 


5-1 


3l8t „ 


„ 31 


4680 
4880 


5-2 
5-3 


5th Septembe... 


September 5 


6-3 


6200 


do 


do 


10th „ 


„ 10 


6-1 


5800 


do 


+ 200 


4980 


5-5 


15th „ 


» 15 


6-1 


5700 


do 


do 


4880 


5-4 


20th 


„ 20 


6-0 


5700 


do 


do 


4880 


5-4 


25th 


„ 25 


6-3 
6-1 


6200 
5800 


do 
do 


do 
do 


5380 


5-6 


30th „ 


„ 30 


4980 
4280 


5-4 
5-0 


5th October. 


October . . 5 


5-6 


5100 


do 


do 


10th 


„ 10 


5-2 


4500 


do 


do 


3680 


4-6 


15th 


„ 15 


4-9 


4200 


-950 


do 


3450 


4-4 


20th 


„ 20 


4-6 


3800 


-900 


do 


3100 


4-0 


25th 


„ 25 


4-5 
4-0 


3600 
3100 


-850 
-800 


do 
do 


2950 


3-9 


3l8t 


„ 31 


2500 
2300 


3.5 
3-3 


5 November. 


Noveml)er 5 


3-7 


2800 


-700 


do 


10th „ 



— 166 — 



Appendix K. (eantm 



Table lAh^^Calculated Cairo gauges corresponding to Assudn gauges if basin 
irrigation were to be changed into perennial irrigation. 



±878 



Sate at AasuAn. 


Oauges 

at 
AMttftn 


Discharges 

at 

AssuAn. 


Angnst . . 


5 


5-6 


5400 


» 


10 


5-3 


6500 


» 


15 


7-2 


8200 


n 


20 


7-5 


8600 


n 


25 


8-1 


10000 


» 


31 


7-6 


8800 


September 


5 


8-1 


10300 


5J 


10 


8-5 


11500 


» 


15 


8-9 


12800 


» 


20 


8-9 


12500 


» 


25 


9-0 


12800 


») 


30 


9-1 


13200 


October.. 


5 


8-9 


12100 


99 


10 


8-5 


10900 


« 


15 


7-9 


9300 


» 


20 


7-6 


8600 


» 


25 


7-4 


8200 


II 


31 


6-8 


7000 


November 


5 


6-3 


6200 



Water 

oonsumption 

AsBuiln 

to Cairo. 



-1020 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 



do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 



do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 

do 



Trough 
of Nile 
Aasulb 
to Cairo. 



-800 

do 

do 

do 

do 
+800 



-600 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 



+400 
+800 
do 
do 
do 
do 

do 



Discharge! 

at 

Cairo. 



3580 
4680 
6380 
6780 
__8180 
8580 

8580 

9880 

11180 

10880 

11180 



11580 

11480 

10680 

9080 

8380 

7980 



6780 



5980 



Gauges 

at 
Cairo. 



4-4 
5-2 
6-3 
6-5 
7-3 



7*5 

7-5 
8-0 
8-5 
8-4 
8-5 



8-6 

8-6 
8-4 
8-0 
7-4 
7-2 



6-6 



6-1 



Date at Cairo. 



10th Angnst 
15th 

20th „ 
25th 

3l8t 



5th September. 

10th „ 

15th 

20th 

25th 

30th 



n 
I* 
i» 



5th October. 

10th 
15th 
20th 
25th 
31st 



99 

W 



5th November. 



10th 



— 167 — 



3 

M Q 

i5 



^ M 

H 

O 

a 



i 



§ 



•UTOK 



'tuuuzimpi 



*aininix«|^ 



*a«8]^ 



•ainm]xi}]i| 



*ninai|Z«]^ 



•UTOH 



*canai}0||f 



*iQnm)x«j{ 



-avail 



•mnmraTK 



'oinaxizvji 



'amn 



*nrain{ai|| 



* amaxixvn 



'uven 



*aiQiaia|]f 



'lainnixvii 



*a«8p[ 



'tnnaiinii^ 



*nininpni}| 



5 

a 
o 



• ••••••••••a 

OOOOQi-liH^^OOf-lrH 

Cij CQ CQ ^ iO "O ^ ^< Cf3 C«j Cij Ctj 

oooooooooooo 

CQ Cf3 CQ CQ ^1 ^T ^ CQ CQ CQ CQ (3^ 

OOOOOOOOOOOO 

OCCi-H^O«^^0»Oi-lO»HC0 
"cj^ ^1 ^< ^^ CO ^C^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^i^ '^ "'J^ 

oooooooooooo 

• •••••••••f« 

o o o o o o o oo o o o 

<NCC'«rM<oot>»^'<rO>lcoc<iCQ 

OOOOOOOOOOOO 
i-tooooCiOCOto-^T-tTH^Ocq 

OOOOOOOOOOOO 

CQ CQ CQ ^ ^ ^ ^ "TT CO C^ t-H ^ 
OOOOO OOOOOOO 
:3! £2 £9 22 ^ ^ ^~?S Q t^ '-' ^ 

CQ CQ CQ CO ^ ^ ^ "^ CO ^H tH fH 

• ••••••••••• 

OOOOOOOOOOOO 
^COCOQQOOt^^^COQOQQ 

OOOOOOOOOOOO 

Ot*»O'^'^C0'-0'^0C00iO»O 
OiOOOOOOOiOiXJCO'^COCOCO 

• ••••••••••• 

OOOOOOOOOOOO 

Ci ^ CO CC »0 ->C Ci -^ CO CO ?C CO 
OOOCoCCCOCOCt^uO'^COCOfO 

• •••■••••••a 

OOOOOOOOOOOO 

lO 1— I c; -^ »o c^ ^ »'0 to CO o 3C 
OicriocciOOOioc'C'TtHcoco 

OOOO^iHOOOOOO 
o o cs <^ »^ »o »o »«^ 

• • • "OO^O^O^O^CiC^Ci 

'^ooooooo 

CO 1-H 1— I QO 

• • • • • • • •O-Ci Ci Ci 

oooo 

• •••••• • oa cj o^ o 

oooo 

§§^^ : • :||Ji| 






'^2 



CO 

o 



o 
o 



a 



— 168 — 



Appendix L. (continued). 









Table LIV.— 


Wadelai gauge* 


. 










Year. 


Date. 


1 

. a 

• • 

• • 

. a 

0-58 
0-55 
0-53 
0-43 

0-38 
0-3G 
0-32 

0-44 

0-76 
0-76 
0-76 
0-74 

0*74 
0-74 
0-76 

0-75 

1-90 
1-90 
1-90 
1-90 

1-90 
1-90 
1-90 

1-90 


1 

a . 
. • 

. . 
a a 

0-30 
0-32 
0*27 
0-22 

0-25 
0-28 

a a 

0-26 

0-(!9 
0'()9 
0M)7 
0-()l 

0M)3 
0-61 

. . 

0-64 

1-90 
1-90 
1-87 
1-78 

1*73 
1-74 

. . 

1-80 


i 
1 

a a 

a a 
a a 

a a 
a a 
a a 

a a 

0-25 
0-28 
0-25 
0-18 

0-20 
0-20 
0-13 

0.20 

0-58 
0-61 
0-57 
0-56 

0-55 
0-53 
0-53 

0-56 


1 

a a 

a a 

a a 
a a 
a a 

a a 

0-13 
0-09 
0-09 
0-08 

0-10 
0-11 
0-10 

0-09 

0-53 
0-51 
0-53 
0-46 

0-51 
0-48 
0-53 

0-50 


1 

a a 

a a 
a a 

• a 

0-10 
0-13 
0'14 
0-lG 

0-25 
0-23 
0-18 

0-17 

0-53 
0-56 
0-56 
0-58 

0-66 
0-61 
0-61 

0-59 

a a 
a a 

a • 


1 

•-9 

a a 
a a 
• a 
a a 


'3 

a a 
a a 


1 

a a 
a a 
a a 


1 


• • 

• ■ 
« • 

a • 

a k 
a • 
a « 


1 

• • 

0-69 
0*69 

0-67 
0-75 
0-74 

0-72 


1 


1901 


1 

5 

10 
15 


0-74 
0-66 
0-66 
0-64 




20 
25 
30 


a . 
a . 
• • 

a • 

0-15 
0-15 

0-io 

0-08 
0-13 
0-10 

0-12 

0-56 
0-61 
0-76 
0-79 

0-79 
0-81 
1-00 

0-77 

1-74 

a a 
a a 
a a 

a a 
a a 
a a 

a a 


a a 
a a 
a a 

a a 

0-10 
O'll 
0-08 
0-18 

0-27 
0-20 
0-19 

0-15 

1-02 
0-84 
0-89 
0-84 

0-89 
1*12 
1-07 

0-95 

a a 

a a 
a a 
a a 

a a 


a a 
a a 

0-20 
0'19 
0-25 
0-18 

0-20 

0-28 

0-24 

1*07 
1-12 
1-07 
1-17 


• . 
a . 
. a 


0-62 
0-58 
0-58 




Mean . . 


• • 

0.29 
0.43 
0.51 
0.33 

0-33 
0-30 
0-33 

0*37 

1-07 
1-07 
1-12 
1-37 


a • 


0-63 


1902 


1 
5 

10 
15 


0-33 
0-41 
0-38 
0-52 

0-66 
0-51 
0-65 

0-49 

1*60 
1-00 
1-60 
1-60 

1-57 
1-65 
1-68 

1-63 

a a 
a a 

a a 


0'71 
0-71 
O'Cl 
0-81 

0-86 
0-75 
0*86 

0-76 


0-86 
0-89 
0-91 
0-86 




20 
25 
30 


0-85 
0-82 
0-76 




Mean .. 


0-85 


1903 


1 

5 

10 

15 


1-70 
1-70 
1-83 
1-83 

1-88 
1-90 
1-93 

1*84 


1-93 
1-93 
1-93 
1-93 




20 
25 
30 


1-14 
1-12 
1-07 

1-12 

a a 
a a 

a a 
a a 

a a 


1-45 

1-52 
1-60 

1*32 

a a 

a a 

a a 
a a 
a a 

a a 


1-93 
1-90 
1*90 




Mean . . 


1-92 


1904 


1 
5 

10 
15 


1-70 
1-73 
1-69 
1'68 

1-68 
1-68 
1-71 

1-69 


1-70 
1-70 
1-70 
1-71 

1-71 
1*74 
1-74 

1-71 


a a 
a a 
a a 

a a 
a a 
a a 

a a 


a a 
a a 
a a 




20 
25 
30 


a a 
a a 




Mean.. 


a • 



— 169 — 

Appendix L. {continued). 
Tablb LV. — Gondokoro gaitges. 



±@o± 



Date. 


Month. 


Date. 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

IG 

17 

18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 

27 
28 
29 
30 

31 

Mean 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


8ei)tpmber. 


Date. 

1 
5 

10 
15 
20 

25 
30 

Mean 

1 

5 

10 
15 
20 
25 

30 

Mean 

1 
5 

10 
15 
20 
25 
30 

Mean 


Month. 


1 
5 

10 
15 
20 


Jan. 

•22 

•20 
•18 
•17 
•12 

•12 
•12 

•15 

"Feb. 
•12 

•12 
•12 
•11 
•10 
•10 

•09 


0^34 
0^34 
0^38 
0-40 
0-71 


0^44 
0^42 
0-43 
0-43 
0^45 


0^33 
©•33 
0^32 
0^33 
0^33 


0^34 
0^34 
0^35 
0^34 
0-43 


0-63 
0-63 
©•64 
©•63 
0^63 

0-69 
0^63 

0^67 

0^67 
0-67 


Oct. 

0^41 
0^39 
0-51 
©•60 
0^71 


25 
30 


0^56 
0-52 

0^46 

0-42 
0^42 


0^43 
0-41 

0-41 

0-41 
0-41 


0-60 
0^47 

0^37 

0^59 
0-39 


0-.54 
0^44 

0^47 

0-64 
0-63 


0-67 
0-69 


Meu 


©•GO 


1 


Nov. 
0-64 


5 

10 
15 
20 
25 


0^42 
0-56 
0^38 
©•38 
0^40 


0-41 
0^41 
0^40 
0^40 
0^40 


©•a5 

0^34 
0^34 
0^56 
0^52 


0-62 
0-46 
0-41 
0-48 
0^46 


0-65 
0-66 
0-63 
0-63 
0-.56 


0-67 
©•64 
©•49 
0-57 
©•59 


28 


©•3(; 

0^34 

0-36 
0-34 
0^34 


0^40 

0-40 

0^40 
0^40 
0^40 


0-56 

©•61 

0^43 
©•.% 
0^35 


0^48 

1^09 

1-09 
0-G2 
0-46 


0-47 

0^43 

0^41 
0-39 
©•36 

. 0^43 
0^45 
0-49 
0^45 
0^45 


©•GO 


Mean 


•11 


©•Gl 


I 
5 


March 
•11 
•10 

♦10 
•12 
•26 
•22 
•27 


Dec. 

©•Gl 
©•59 


10 
15 
20 
25 
30 


0-3G 
0-4«) 
0^40 
0^40 
0^42 


0-40 
0-40 
0-40 
0^40 
0^36 


©•36 
0^34 
0-34 
0^35 
0^34 


0-44 
0-72 
0-52 
0-54 
0-43 


©•,57 
©•53 
©•49 
©•47 
©•45 


Mean 


•18 


0^52 

0^42 
0^4(> 
0-46 
0^46 


0-42 

0-54 
0-40 
0-34 

o^;« 


0^36 

0^35 
0^35 
0^35 
0-35 

0^35 


1^24 

©•67 
0-66 
©•62 

• • 


0-43 

0-41 
0^39 
0^41 
0^41 


0-52 


1 

5 

10 


April 
0^08 
0^08 
0^14 

0^32 

0-44 

0^42 
0^30 




15 


0^46 


• • 


• • 


• • 

0-53 




20 


0-43 


0^40 


0-40 


0-.57 




25 
30 














Meu 


0^25 





— 170 — 

Appendix L. {eontimie(r), 
Tablk LV. (Gontinxiad).—Gondokoro gauges. 



±&oz 



Dato. 


Month. 


Sate. 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


Date. 

1 

5 
10 
15 
20 

25 
30 

Mean 

1 

5 

10 
15 
20 
25 

30 

Mean 

1 
5 

10 
15 
20 
25 
30 

Mean 


Month. 


1 

5 

10 

15 

20 


Jan. 

0-45 
0-43 
0-43 
0-47 
0-45 

0-41 
0-41 


0-19 
0-20 
0-22 
0-26 
0-24 


0-06 
0'08 
0-14 
0-11 
0-09 


-0-01 
0-02 
0-02 
0-04 
0-71 


0-44 
0-36 
0-44 
0-54 
0-49 


0-54 
0-52 
0-74 
1-04 
0-94 


Oct. 

0-48 
0-26 
0-54 
0-79 
0-80 


25 
30 


6 

7 

8 

9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 


0-19 
0-19 

0-14 

0-16 
0-18 


0-09 
-0-03 

0-04 

0-09 
0-06 


0-34 
0-08 

0-04 

0-04 
-0-01 


0-42 
0-48 

1-54 

1-09 
1-52 


0-90 
1-24 

0-96 

0-84 
1-04 


0-76 
0-99 


Mean 


0-43 


0-71 


I 


Feb. 
0-39 

0-36 
0-35 

o-a3 

0-33 
0-36 

0*40 


Nov. 
1-07 


5 

10 
15 
20 
25 


0-34 
0-60 
0-48 
0-44 
0-51 


0-03 

0-07 

0-02 

-0-01 

-0-06 


-0-01 
0-04 
0-04 
0-24 
0-04 


1-49 
1-44 
1-42 
1-46 
1-42 


0-99 
0-77 
0-74 
0-84 
0-96 


0-77 
0-84 

1-23 
0-99 


28 


16 

17 

18 
19 
20 


0-45 

0-39 

0-.53 
0-57 
0-64 


-0-03 

-0-01 

-0-08 
-0-06 
-0-03 


0-02 

-0-01 

-0-01 
0-09 
0-12 


1-42 

1-44 

1-38 
1-32 
1-38 


1-28 

0-94 

0-94 
0-84 
0-89 


0-96 


Mean 


0-35 


1-00 


1 
5 


March 
0-.34 
0-36 

0-38 
0-46 
0-50 
0-34 
0-26 


Dec. 

0-94 
0-94 


10 
15 
20 
25 
30 


21 
22 
23 
24 
25 


0-46 
0-39 
0-30 
0-27 
0-24 


-0-06 
-0-09 
-0-14 
+0-04 
0-01 


0-40 
0-87 
0-48 

0-26 


1-46 
1-52 
1-62 
1-74 
1-.52 


0-82 
0-76 
0-62 
0-64 
0-91 


0*92 
0-89 
0-85 
0*81 
0'74 


Mean 


0-40 


26 

27 
28 
29 
30 

31 

MeHD 


0-19 

0-16 
0-14 
0-11 
0-07 


0-02 

-0-06 
-0-04 
-0-01 
-0-02 


0-24 

0-22 
0-22 
0-46 
0-54 


0-54 

0-94 
0-74 
0-70 

0-60 


0-66 

0-62 
0-.54 
0-54 
0-57 


0-87 


1 

5 

10 


April 
0-14 
0-13 
0-04 

-0-01 

0-19 

0-05 
0-13 






15 


0-04 


.. 


0-58 


• • 




20- 


0-30 


0-01 


0-19 


1-09 


0-82 




25 
30 














Mean 


0.07 





— 171 — 

Appendix L. {eotUintted). 
Tablb LV {oouHnned). —Gondokoro gauget. 



±303 



Date. 


Month. 


Dote. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


Date. 

1 

5 

10 
15 
20 

25 
30 

Mean 

1 

5 

10 
15 
20 
25 

30 

Mean 

1 
5 

10 
15 
20 
25 
30 

Mean 


Month. 


1 

5 

10 

15 

20 


Jan. 

0-74 
0-71 
0-66 
0-(;3 
0-63 

0-61 
0-63 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 


0-72 
0-70 
0-68 
0-68 
0-70 


1-15 
1-06 
1-06 
1-06 
1-00 


1-37 
1-38 
1-46 
1-43 
1-39 


1-55 
1-57 
1-65 
1-65 
1-72 


1-86 
1-82 
1-90 
2-54 
2-24 


Oct. 

2-18 
2-11 
2-12 
2-45 
2*06 


25 
30 


6 
7 

8 

9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 

17 

18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

20 

27 
28 
29 
30 

31 

Mean 


0-98 
0-92 

0-85 

0-89 
1-06 


1-10 
1-61 

1'36 

1-35 
1-10 


1-44 
1-46 

1*51 

1-49 
1-46 


1-61 
1-73 

2-16 

2-08 
2-03 


2-23 
2-71 

2-50 

2-33 
2-29 


2-20 
2-20 


Mean 


0-65 


2-16 


1 


Feb. 
0*62 

0-61 
0-63 
0-58 
0-59 
0-56 

0-53 


Nov. 
2-20 


5 

10 
15 
20 
25 


0-80 
1-42 
1-48 
0-85 
0-85 


1-07 
1-06 
1-09 
1-08 
1-06 


1-41 
1*45 
1-56 
1-49 
1-35 


2-50 
2-03 
2-07 
1-86 
2*12 


2-24 
2-16 
2-09 
2-07 
2-20 


2-13 
2-05 
1-92 
1-91 
1-90 


28 


0-89 

0-^6 

0-85 
0-85 
0-8G 


1-55 

1-47 

1-44 
1-40 
1-44 


1-40 

1-35 

1-40 
1*40 
1-40 


1-99 

1-90 

1-93 
1-8G 
1-85 


2-23 

2-37 

2-48 
2-57 
2-70 


1-77 


Mean 


0-59 


1-96 


1 
5 


March 
0-51 
0-51 

0-.51 
0-51 
0-52 
0-51 
0-50 

0-51 


Dec. 
1-77 

0-89 


10 
15 
20 
25 
30 


0-8() 
1-35 
1-52 
1-02 
1-00 


1-40 
1-52 
1-40 
1-40 
1-37 


1-41 
1-52 
1-61 
1-.52 
1-55 


1-90 
1-95 
1-86 
1-82 
1-83 


2-76 
2-76 
2-96 
2-96 
2-58 


0-86 
0-81 
0-79 
0-79 
0-76 


Meau 


0-97 

1-03 
1-00 
0-90 
0-89 


1-27 

1-30 
1-32 
1-43 

i-;i5 


1-56 

1-67 
1-61 
1-65 
1-63 


2-20 

2-16 
2-07 
1-82 
1-88 


2-45 

2-33 
2-23 
2-20 
2-18 


0-88 


-1 
5 

10 


April. 
0-50 
0-48 
0-48 

0-55 

0-57 

0-57 
0-64 




15 


0-91 


• • 


1-.52 


1-90 


• • 




20 


0-95 


1-27 


1-48 


1-91 


2-36 




25 
30 
















Mean 


0-53 





— 172 — 

Appendix L. (eorUinwd). 
Tablk LV. (continued). — Gondokoro gauges. 



±QO'& 



Date. 


Month. 


Date. 


May. 


June. 


Date. 


Month. 

March 
0-68 
0-70 

0-66 
0-66 
0-66 
0-84 
0-90 


Date. 


May. 


June. 


1 
5 


Jan. 
0-79 
0-78 
0-78 
0-76 
0-84 

0-84 
0-82 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 


0-68 
0-08 
0-70 
0-70 
0-70 


0-90 
0-90 
0-90 
0-90 
0-90 


1 
5 

10 
15 
20 
25 
30 

Mean. 


18 
19 

20 


0-78 
0-80 
0-80 


0'70 
0-74 
0-82 


10 
15 
20 


21 
22 
23 
24 
25 


0-84 
0-88 
0-88 
0-88 
1-00 


0-70 
0-70 
0-74 
0-78 
0-74 


25 
30 


6 
7 

8 

9 
10 


0-70 
0-68 

0-68 

0*68 
0-68 


0-88 
0-84 

0-80 

0-76 
0-7C 


Mean. 


0-80 


0-71 


26 

27 
28 
29 
30 


0-88 

0-84 
0-84 
0-84 
0-90 


0-88 


1 


Feb. 
0-82 

0-80 
0-74 
0-72 
0-70 
0-68 

0-74 


1 

5 

10 

15 

20 
25 
30 

Mean. 


April. 
0-74 
0-72 
0'72 

0-80 

0-84 
0-74 

• • 


0-78 
0-84 


5 
10 
15 


11 
12 
13 
14 
15 


0-78 
0-78 
0-84 
0-84 
0-80 


0-74 
0-72 
0-74 
0-72 
0-72 


0*82 
0-88 


31 


• • 


• • 


20 
25 


Moan. 


0-79 


0*79 


28 


16 
17 


0-80 
0-76 


0-70 
0-70 


• 






Mean. 


0-73 


0*77 





— 173 — 



Appendix L (continued). 
Table INL—Mongalla gauges. 

±Q03 



Date. 


Month. 


Date. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 

2-19 
2*50 
2-34 
2*30 

2-28 

2-21 
2-14 

2-12 

2-59 
2-63 


Sept. 


Date. 


Month, 


1 

5 
10 
15 

20 


January. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

6 
7 

8 

9 
10 




1-65 
1-47 
1*47 
1-51 
1*75 

1-96 
1-75 

1-91 

1-89 
1-89 

1-58 
1-58 
1'61 
1-61 
1-98 


1-93 
1-89 
1*79 
1-86 
1'91 

1-86 
1-82 

1'75 

1-84 
1^ 

1*82 
1-75 
1*75 
1-93 
1-86 

1-86 

1-89 

1-82 
1-96 
1'93 


2-52 
2-45 
2-58 
2-73 

2*85 


1 

5 
10 
15 
20 

25 
30 

Mean. 


October. 

2-83 
2-83 
2-81 
2*91 
2-80 


25 
30 




2-90 
3-02 

3-16 

3-14 

3-08 


2-80 

2'87 


Mean. 




2-83 


1 


February. 


1 

5 

10 
15 
20 
25 

30 

Mean. 


Nov. 

2*84 


5 
10 
15 
20 
25 


11 
12 
13 
14 
15 




2*73 
2*73 
2-68 
2-66 
2-63 


2'90 
2*84 
2-82 
2-82 
2-82 


2-81 
2-81 
2'79 
2-66 
2-35 


28 


16 

17 

18 
19 
20 


1-98 

2-10 

2-10 
2-10 
1-82 

1-95 
1'89 
1*8G 
1-82 
1*75 

1«72 

1*75 
1-68 
1-89 
1-93 

• • 


2-52 

2-56 

2'56 
2-63 
2 -(53 


2*84 

2-92 

3-06 
3*12 
3-18 


2*27 


Mean. 




2-64 


1 
5 


March. 


1 
5 

10 
15 
20 
25 
30 

Mean. 


Dec. 
2-26 
2-21 


10 
15 
20 
25 
30 


21 
22 
23 
24 
25 




2-00 
2*00 
2-05 
2-05 
2*07 


2-59 
2-65 
2-66 
2-63 
2*61 


3-.% 
3-40 
3-52 
3-54 
3-42 


2-17 
2-14 
2-10 
2-03 
2-02 


Mean. 




26 

27 
28 
29 
30 




2-07 

2*12 
2*13 
2-16 
2-21 


2-49 

2-52 
2-52 

• • 

• • 


3-32 

3-18 
3-05 
3-00 
2-92 


2-13 


1 

5 

10 
15 


April. 
0-83 
0-87 
0-90 
0-89 

0-96 

1-14 

0-99 






20 


31 




2-21 








25 


Mean. 




1*82 


1-96 


2*49 


2*97 




30 
















Mean. 


0*92 





— 174 — 



Appendix L (continued). 

Tablb LYI. (continued). — MongaUa gauges. 

±Q04 



Date. 


Month. 


Date. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


Sept. 


Date. 


Month. 


1 

5 

10 

15 

20 


January. 

2-03 
2-00 
1-98 
1-97 
1-96 

1-92 
1-91 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 


1-91 
1-89 
1-89 
1-89 
1-89 


2-17 
2-24 
2-17 
2-21 
2-17 










October. 


25 
30 


6 

7 

8 

9 
10 


1-96 
1-89 

1-89 

1-89 
1-89 


2-17 
2-14 

2-10 

2-07 
2-03 










Mean. 


1*97 




1 


February. 
1-91 

1'89 
1*86 
1-82 
1-82 
1-82 

1-82 




5 

10 
15 
20 
25 


11 
12 
13 
14 
15 


1-96 
2-03 
2-10 
2-03 
2-07 


2-00 
2-00 
2-00 
2-00 
2-00 










28 


16 

17 

18 
19 
20 


2-03 

2-03 

2-03 
2-03 
2-07 


1-96 

1-96 

1-96 
2*10 
2*03 








Mean. 


1-85 




1 
5 


March. 
1-82 
1*81 

1-79 
1-82 
1-77 
1-79 
1-96 




10 
15 
20 
25 
30 


21 
22 
23 
24 
25 


2-07 
2-17 
2-17 
2-17 
2-21 


2-00 
1-98 
1-98 
2-00 
2-07 










Mean. 


1*82 


26 

■ 27 
28 
29 
30 


2*21 

2-17 
2-14 
2-12 
2-10 


2-07 

2-10 
2-10 
2*07 
2*03 










1 
5 

10 
15 


April. 
1-93 
1-82 
1*82 
1-93 
2*07 
1-96 

1-89 




20 
25 


31 


2-21 












30 


Mean. 


2-03 


2-07 










Mean. 


1-91 















— 175 — 



Appendix L. {continued). 



Tablb LVII. — Sobat River gauges at Nasser. 



Tear. 


Dat«. 


• 


1 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

2-02 
1-92 
1'82 
1*60 

1-50 
1-36 

• • 

1-64 


i 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

1-26 
1-34 

1-40 
1-86 

2*14 

1-88 
2-00 

1'71 


i 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• ■ 

• • 

2-00 
2-00 
1-82 
1-90 

2-38 
2-38 
2-00 

2-07 


1 

1-96 
2-26 
2-88 
3'42 

4-10 


•-9 
.. 

4-59 
4-68 
4-82 
5-02 

• • 

• • 

• • 


i 


-3 


1 

•• 




1 

6-30 
6-30 
6-28 
6-24 


i 


1903 


1 
5 

10 
15 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 











20 
25 
30 


6.46 
6.29 

• • 


6-18 
6-14 

• • 

6-23 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 






Mean .. 




1904 


1 

5 

10 

15 


5-11 
4-99 
4-49 
3-88 

2-92 
2-24 
2-10 

3-43 






20 
25 
30 






Mean.. 





— 176 — 



Appendix L. (continued). 



Table LVIII. — Solnit River gauges at Dulaih HiUa. 



Tear. 


Date. 


• 

a 


1 

1-92 
1*65 
1-42 
1-24 


i 


• 

< 


• 

1 

0-00 
0-09 
0-28 
0-40 

0-62 
0-81 
1-00 

0-47 

0'81 
0-73 
0-86 
0-99 

1'21 
1-39 
1-49 

1-08 


1 

1-11 
1'22 
1-3(5 
1-53 

1-56 
1-65 
1-70 

1-46 

1-56 
1-65 
1*67 
1-72 

1-83 
1-90 
1-98 

1-76 


• 

1-71 
1-80 
1*87 
1-95 

2-08 
2-18 
2-28 

1*99 
2-00 

• • 

• • 

• • 

■ • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


■i 

2-30 
2-39 
2-45 
2-52 


1 

2-80 
2-86 
2'93 
3-05 


1 

3-26 
3-27 
3*36 
3-42 

3-44 
3-45 
3-47 

3-40 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


i 

o 
'A 

3-48 
3-48 
3-49 
3-49 

3-50 
3-50 
3-51 

3-49 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


• 


1903 


1 

5 

10 

15 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• ■ 

• • 

• • 

3-42 
3-36 
3-19 
3-04 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

0-93 
0-87 
0-88 
0-91 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

0.88 
0-88 
0-86 
0-78 

0-81 
0-90 
0-84 

0-85 


3-52 
3-52 
3-53 
3-54 




20 
25 
30 


2-57 
2-70 
2-74 

2-.54 

• • 

• • 

• ■ 


3-11 
3-16 
3 -20 

3-03 

• • 

• • 

• • 


3-53 
3-51 
3-45 




Mean .. 


3-51 


1904 


1 

5 

10 

15 


• • 

• • 

• • 




20 
25 
30 


2-74 
2-36 
2-01 

2-77 


1-12 
1-00 

1-30 


0-97 
1-00 
0-91 

0*92 


• • 

• • 

• • 




Mean.. 


• • 



— 177 — 



Appendix L. {cantintied). 



Table ItlX.^White Nile gauges at Tewjtkieh. 



Year. 


Date. 


4 


1 

• * 


• • 

• • 

• • 

0-97 
0-91 
0-92 
0-94 

1-00 
1-03 
0-97 

0-96 


1 

• • 

• • 

0-22 
0-24 
0-24 

• • 

0-91 
0-91 
0-89 
0-81 

0-84 
0'93 
0-84 

0-88 


1 

0-24 
0-24 
0-34 
0-53 

0-74 

. . 

0-84 
0-74 
0-86 
1-02 

1-25 
1-43 
1'53 

1-11 


i 

s 
•-» 

1-19 
1-30 
1-42 
1-51 

1-58 
1-61 
1-69 

1-48 

1-56 
1-67 
1-69 
1-74 

1-87 
1-94 
2-02 

1'79 


1-71 
1-78 
1-88 
1-89 

2-01 
2-09 
2-16 

1-94 


1 

2-11 
2-15 

. . 

• • 
« . 

• • 

• « 

2-79 

2-87 
2-92 
2-98 


1 

2-76 
2-86 
3-07 
3-20 

3-26 
3-37 
3-46 

3-15 

• • 

• • 


i 

3-47 
3-55 
3-39 
3-41 

3-46 
3-50 
3-52 

3-44 

• • 


i 
1 

3-53 
3-54 
3-54 
3-55 

3.56 
3-55 
3-56 


i 


1903 


1 

5 

10 
15 


3-56 
3'58 
3'58 
3-59 




20 
25 
30 


3-59 
3-58 
3-57 




Mean.. 


3-57 
3-54 
3-48 
3-36 


. • 

2*07 
1*76 
1-48 
1*25 


3-55 

• • 


3-58 


1904 


1 
5 

10 
15 


• • 

• a 




20 
25 
30 


3-10 
2-69 
2-23 

3-16 


1-09 
1-07 

. • 

1-37 


• • 


• • 


• • 




Mean.. 


. • 


• • 


•• 



— 178 — 



Appendix L. (continued). 
Tablb LX. — Ihiem gauges. 



Year. 


Date. 


r 
1 


1 

0-91 
0-90 
0-88 
0-85 

0-80 
0-75 
0-68 

0-82 

0-78 
0-74 
0-73 
0-66 

0-60 
0-tiO 
0-60 


1 

0-66 
0-6G 
0-60 
0-51 


t 

0-43 
0-40 
0-46 
0-27 


1 

0-61 
0-64 
0-62 
0-51 


» 

a 
a 

•-9 

0-59 
0-66 
0-77 
0.91 


"3 

1-5 

1-43 
1-44 
1-54 
1-78 

1-96 
1-98 
2-48 


i 

2-88 
3-18 
3-38 
3-80 

4-12 
4-12 
4-04 

3-65 

2-12 
2-20 
2-55 
2-82 


1 

1 


1 


2 
a 

2-40 
2-35 
2-33 
2-28 

2-30 
2-30 
2-14 


1 


1901 


1 

5 

10 

15 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

1-38 
1-24 
1-16 
1-07 

0-95 
0-90 
0-80 


4-10 
4-28 
4-16 
4-22 

4-08 
3-70 
3-46 

4'00 

3-52 
3-49 
3-62 
3-72 


3-40 
3-36 
2-90 
2-70 

2-85 
2-38 
2-42 

2-84 

3-50 
3-48 
3-36 
3-00 

2-68 
2-57 
2-45 

3-00 

4-18 
4-01 
3-82 
3-62 

3-36 
3-40 
3-41 

3-70 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• ■ 

• • 

• • 


2-12 
2-10 
2-00 
1-86 




20 
25 
30 


0-47 
0-45 
0-45 


0-.36 
0-46 
0-58 


0-52 
0-52 
0-51 

0-56 

0-56 
0.52 
0.49 
0.54 


1-08 
1-22 
1-32 


1-80 
1*64 
1*46 




Mean.. 


0-54 

0-60 
0-58 
0-.51 
0-54 

0-60 
0-66 
0-62 

0-59 

0-72 
0-71 
()-«;4 
0-55 


0-42 

0-;)9 
0-62 
0-58 
0-58 


0-94 

0-77 
0-81 
0-95 
1-04 

1-08 
1-14 
1-24 

1-(X» 

0-74 
0-82 
0-98 
1-07 

1-20 
1-28 
1-33 

1-06 

0-24 
0-30 
0-40 
0-41 

0-48 
0-49 
0-50 


1-80 

1-28 
1-40 
1-48 
1-60 

1-72 
1-89 
2-10 

1-64 

1-31 
1-34 
1-54 
1-74 

1-80 
2-03 
2-24 

1-70 

0-50 
0-51 
0-70 
0-95 

1-30 
1-55 
1-90 

1-06 


2-30 

2-36 
2-26 
2-20 
2-14 


1-85 


1902 


1 

5 

10 

15 


• • 

• • 

2-62 




20 
25 
30 


0-55 
0-61 
0-57 


0-59 
OMU) 
0-74 


2-91 
3-17 
3-52 

2-75 


3-72 
3-58 
3-51 

3-60 


2-11 

2-00 
2-00 


1-99 
2-01 
1-98 




Mean.. 


1-07 

1-90 
1-90 
1-75 
1-45 

1-39 
1-20 
1-06 


0-67 

1-04 
1-02 
0-99 
0-89 

0-88 
0-80 
0-77 


0-58 


0-58 


2-15 

3-13 
3-02 
2-82 
2-66 

2-5G 
2-42 
2-36 

2-70 

• • 

■ • 

• • 

• • 


• • 


1903 


1 
5 

10 
15 


0-41 
0-40 
0-42 
0-41 


0-38 
0-34 
0-33 
0-3{) 

0-41 
0-52 
0-61 

0-42 

0-19 
0-18 
0-16 
0-15 


1-27 
2-C2 
3-18 
3-70 


4-33 
4-30 
4-48 
4-38 


2-34 
2-16 
1-96 
1-92 




20 
25 
30 


0-48 
0-47 
0-42 

0-57 


o-;w 

0-37 
0-37 

0-40 


3-84 
4-12 
4-22 


4-18 
4-28 
4-22 


1-84 
1-76 
1-70 




Mean . . 


1-52 


0-90 


3-42 

2-00 
2-90 
3-40 
3-15 


4-30 

2-64 

2-80 
3-00 

• • 


1-95 


1904 


1 
5 

10 
15 


1-70 
1-66 
l-()2 
1-60 

1-54 
1-46 
1-40 


1-38 
1-32 
1-28 
1-20 

1-14 

1-(K) 
0-94 


0-88 
0-66 
0-50 
0-35 

0-30 
0-28 
0-2C 

0-46 


0-26 
0-30 
0-28 
0-25 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 




20 
25 
30 


0-22 
0-21 
0-19 

0-24 


0-14 
0-22 
0-24 


2-70 
2-45 
2-64 


• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 
■ • 

• • 




Mean.. 


1-57 


1.18 


0-18 


0-40 


2-75 


• • 


■ • 



— 179 — 



Appendix L. (continued. 



Table LXI. — Wad Medani gauges. 













i©o± 












Date. 


Month. 


Date. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


Sept. 


Date. 


Month. 


\ 


January.. 


• • 






• < 




• • 


.. 






1 
5 


October. 






• • 

• • 






• 
• 1 




• • 

• • 


• • 












• • 






• 




• • 


, , 






10 








• • 






• 




• • 


. . 






15 








• • 






• 




• • 


. • 






20 








• • 






• • 




• • 


, , 






25 






February. 


• • 
■ ■ 

• • 






• i 




• • 

• • 

• • 


. • 






30 
Mean. 






• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 




• • 






Novemb, 






• • 






, , 




• • 


, , 






1 


4-49 






• • 






, 




• • 


• • 






5 


4-19 






• • 






• < 




, , 


• • 






10 


3-85 






• • 






• < 




, , 


• • 






15 


3-53 






• • 






• 




• • 


• • 






20 


3-25 






• • 






• 




• • 


• • 






25 


3*07 




March .. 


• • 
■ • 






• 




• • 

• • 

• • 


. . 






30 
Mean. 


3-01 




• • 


• • 

• • 


. • 


3-58 






Decemb. 






• • 






• 




• • 


. . 






1 


2-89 






• • 






• 




• • 


. • 






5 


2-67 






• • 






• 




• • 


. . 






10 


2-47 






• • 






. 




, , 


. . 






15 


2-33 






• • 






• 




, , 


. • 






20 


2-19 






• • 






, 




, a 


a • 






25 


2-05 




April . . 


• • 

• • 






• 




• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 






30 
Mean. 


1-91 




• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 


• • 


2-33 









12 



— 180 — 



Appendix L (eontintted). 

TabIjB LXI (continaed). — Wad Medani gauges. 
±&OZ 



Date. 


Month. 


Date. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


Sept. 


Date. 


Month. 




January. 
















October. 


1 


1-89 


1 


0-39 


1-.59 


3-80 


7-56 


9-62 


1 


9-94 


5 


1-81 


2 


0-33 


2-11 


3-80 


7-86 


10-12 


5 


9-30 


10 


1-69 


3 


o-;« 


2-11 


3-70 


7-94 


10-42 


10 


•8-00 


15 


1-61 


4 


0-37 


2-07 


3-80 


8-32 


10-32 


15 


7-38 


20 


1-55 
1-49 


5 


0-39 


2-03 


4' 16 


8-42 


10-30 


20 
25 


7-08 


25 


6 


0-41 


1-97 


4-46 


8-56 


10-10 


6-68 


30 


1-.39 


7 

8 
9 


0-39 
0-39 
0-37 


1-91 
1-97 
2-25 


4-68 
4*64 
4-56 


8-76 
8'8() 
9-00 


10-40 
10-50 
10-40 


30 
Mean. 


6-14 


Mean. 


i-<;2 


7-65 




February. 




Nov. 


1 


1-37 
1-31 


10 


0-35 


2-15 


4-38 


9-10 


10-40 


1 

5 


5-90 


5 


11 


0-41 


2-00 


4-48 


9-14 


10-28 


5-66 


10 


1-21 


12 


0-48 


1-77 


4-28 


9*16 


10-60 


10 


5-24 


15 


1-13 


13 


0-51 


im;7 


4-56 


9-14 


10-70 


15 


4-94 


20 


1-07 


14 


0-61 


1-61 


4-70 


9*02 


10-48 


20 


4-74 


25 


1-03 
0-99 


15 


0-77 


l-«5 


4-86 


8-96 


10-28 


25 

30 

Mean. 


4-60 


28 


16 
17 
18 


0-89 
0-87 
1-01 


1-99 
2-57 
2-97 


4-80 
5*10 
5-20 


8-66 
8'66 
8-96 


10-32 
10-32 
10-00 


4-28 


Mean. 


1-15 


5-02 




March. 




Deo. 


1 


0-98 


19 


0-95 


3-27 


5-40 


9-48 


10-30 


1 


— 


5 


0-91 
0-79 


20 


0-93 


3-39 


5-48 


10-08 


10-26 


5 
10 


4-00 


10 


21 


0-71 


3-39 


5-42 


lO'OO 


10-00 


3-73 


15 


0-87 


22 


0'<)l 


3-19 


5*66 


9-66 


9-80 


15 


3-54 


20 


1M)1 


23 


O-Co 


3-04 


5'70 


9"4<; 


9-80 


20 


3-40 


25 


0-84 


24 


0-61 


2-94 


5-66 


9-52 


10-00 


25 


3-18 


30 


0-()7 


25 


0-57 


3-04 


5-76 


9-92 


10-10 


30 
Mean. 


2-94 


Moan. 


0-87 


26 
27 


0-61 
0-65 


3-89 
4-29 


5-74 
5-72 


10-26 
10-46 


9-90 
9-95 


3-51 


1 


April. 
0'()3 






5 


()'55 


28 


0-71 


4-24 


6-36 


10-52 


10-00 






10 


0-43 


29 


0*91 


4-24 


6-79 


10-32 


10-26 






15 


0-43 
0-51 
0-.57 
0-41 


30 


0-11 


4-28 


7-06 


10-02 


10-26 






20 


31 


0-21 




7*28 


9-72 






25 


Mean. 


0-56 


2-65 


5-09 


9-21 


10-20 




30 
















Mean. 


0-r>() 





181 — 



Appendix L (continued). 

Table LXI (continaed). — Wad Medani gauge*. 

±@03 



Date, 


Month. 


Date. 


May. 

0-96 
0-96 
0-94 
0-92 
0-90 


June. 


July. 


August. 


Sept. 


Date. 


Month. 


1 
5 

10 
15 
20 


January. 
2-88 
2*70 
2-56 
2-4G 
2-3G 

2-26 
2" 16 


1 
2 

3 
4 
5 


3-15 
3-25 
3-85 
4-05 
3-61 


4-71 
5-27 
5-61 
5-81 
5-85 


7-75 

9*11 

9-81 

10* 11 

10' 11 


11-02 
10-68 
10-44 
10-40 
10-50 


1 

5 
10 
15 
20 

25 
30 

Mean. 


October. 
9-48 
8-84 
8-42 
7-94 
8-84 


25 
30 


6 

7 

8 

9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 


0-88 
0-88 

0-90 

0-86 
0-82 


3-65 
3-49 

3-41 

3-63 
3*79 


6-10 
6-23 

6-45 

6-55 
6-67 


10-07 
10-21 

10-15 

9-99 
9-89 


10-64 
10-56 

10-50 

10-74 
10-52 


8-25 
7-33 


Mean. 


2-42 


8-41 


1 


February. 
2-12 

2-04 
2-00 
1-90 
1-84 
1-72 

1-70 


1 

5 

10 
15 
20 
25 

30 

Mean. 


Nov. 
7-19 


5 

10 
15 
20 
25 


0-84 
0-86 
0-88 
0-92 
0-98 


3-90 
4*20 
4-30 
4-42 
4-64 


6-81 
7-03 
7-13 
6-77 
6-74 


10-19 
10-59 
10-71 
10-57 
10-32 


10-46 

10-40 

10-06 

9-96 

9-92 

9-94 

9-92 

9-96 
10-12 
10-32 


6-68 
6-12 
5-70 
5-55 
5-14 


28 


16 

17 

18 
19 
20 


1-02 

1-06 

1-14 
1-26 
1-40 


4-82 

4-70 

4-62 
4-52 
4-32 


6 -.57 

6-91 

7 '05 
7-05 
7-39 


10-49 

10-41 

10-49 
10-49 
10-73 


4-96 


Mean. 


1*91 


5-83 


1 
5 


March. 
l-«8 
1-fiO 

1-52 
1-44 
1-34 
1-32 
1-30 


1 
5 

10 
15 
20 
25 
30 

Mean. 


Dec. 

4-92 
4-80 


10 
15 
20 
25 
30 


21 
22 
23 
24 
25 


1*06 
1-76 
1-92 
2-(H) 
2-20 


4-30 
4-28 
4-28 
4-25 
4-, 51 


8-01 
7-97 
7-81 
7-87 
7-75 


10-71 
10-71 
10-47 
10 -.39 
10-39 


10-42 
10-56 
10-52 
10-46 
10-32 


4-54 
4-40 
4-10 
3-84 
3-60 


Mean. 


1-44 


26 

27 
28 
29 
30 


2-74 

1-.51 
3-43 
3-39 
3-34 


4-.31 

4-21 
4-17 
4-13 
4-41 


7-77 

7-80 
7*73 
7*77 
7-67 


10-47 

10-41 
10-61 
10-67 
10-80 


10-18 

9-72 
9-42 
9-24 
9-22 


4-28 


1 

5 

10 


Ai.ril. 
1-24 
1-10 
I'lO 

1-08 

1-04 

0-98 
0*98 






15 


31 


3-25 


1 7-70 


10-92 






20 


Mean. 


1-r.o 


4-10 


6-92 


10-28 


10-23 




25 
30 
















Mean. 


1-06 





— 182 — 



Appendix L (continued). 
Tablb LXI (oonidnned). — Wad Medani geoigei. 



Date. 


Month. 


Date. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August 


Sept. 








January. 


















1 


3-64 


1 


I'-W 


2-36 


4-24 


9-60 


9-50 






5 


3-56 


2 


1-48 


2-50 


4-58 


10-30 


9-58 






10 


3-48 


3 


1-66 


2-88 


4-82 


10-10 


9-50 






15 


3-36 


4 


1-66 


3-32 


5-22 


9-90 


9-50 






20 


3-15 
3-08 


5 


1-64 


3-40 


5-52 


9-70 


9-40 






25 


6 


1-64 


3-28 


5-52 


9-60 


9-30 




30 


2-80 


7 
8 
9 


1-62 
1-64 
1'56 


3-24 
3-08 
2-98 


5-22 
4-92 

4-82 


9-40 
9-50 
9-50 


9-30 
9-20 
9-20 






Mtan. 


3-28 






February. 




1 


2-76 
2-58 


10 


l-()2 


3-00 


4-96 


9-40 


9-29 






5 


11 


1-66 


2-86 


5-80 


9-30 


9-30 




10 


2-46 


12 


1-76 


2-78 


6-18 


9-20 


9-30 






15 


2-22 


13 


1-80 


2-78 


6-10 


9-20 


9-40 






20 


2-06 


14 


2-00 


2-46 


6-48 


9-20 


9-44 






25 


1-86 
1*78 


15 


2-00 


2-34 


7-12 


9-00 








28 


16 

17 
18 


1*88 
1-88 
1-82 


2*32 
2-.30 
2-34 


6-92 
6-90 
6-80 


8-80 
8-80 
8-90 






Mean. 


2-23 






March. 




1 


1-72 


19 


1-64 


2-34 


6-70 


8-96 








5 


1-70 
1*C)4 


20 


1-70 


2-34 


6-80 


9-10 








10 


21 


1-72 


2-50 


7-10 


9-00 






15 


1-50 


22 


1-72 


2-42 


7-30 


9-10 








20 


1-44 


23 


iMMi 


2-48 


7-20 


9-20 








25 


1-70 


24 


1-76 


2-52 


7-40 


9-10 








30 


1-80 


25 


1-08 


2-54 


7-50 


9-30 








Mean. 


im;4 


26 
27 


2-46 

2-50 


2-68 
2-80 


8-04 
8-22 


9-72 
9-50 








April. 




1 


1-80 


28 


2-52 


2-94 


8-00 


9-30 








5 


1-7G 


29 


2-48 


— 


8-04 


9-20 








10 


1-04 
1-58 
1-50 
1'50 


30 


2-46 


3-98 


8-70 
9-20 


9-30 








15 


31 


2-36 




9-30 






20 


Mean. 


1-86 


2-76 


6-52 


9-34 






25 
















30 


1'50 


















Mean. 


1-60 









— 183 — 



Appendix L (continued). 
Table LXII. — Khartoum gauges. 



1874 


1877 


1878 


Date. 


1 


s 


►» 

^ 


to 


1 


o 
O 




a 


'3 

•-9 


1 




o 
O 




i 

•-3 




be 


1 


t 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 


•• 


vox 
ro6 

1-22 
1-44 


2-60 
2-50 
2-50 
2-59 
2-68 


5-60 
5^65 
5-78 
5-86 
6-01 


7-18 
7-18 
7-22 
7-27 
7-27 


6-66 
6-66 
6-55 
6-50 
6-41 




•97 
•97 
•97 
•97 
•97 


2-81 
2-77 
2-68 
2-54 
2^54 


5-20 
4-79 
4-79 
4*54 
4^43 


4-97 
4-97 
4 •84 
4-88 
4^88 


4^30 
4-30 
4^25 
4^21 
4^21 




•02 
•08 
•61 
•79 
M3 


2^63 
2-54 
2-50 
2-45 
2-45 


4^30 
4^41 
4-70 
5^11 
5^31 


6^46 
6^59 
6-64 
6^75 
6-82 


7^20 
7^11 
7^18 
7^00 
6^82 


6 
7 
8 
9 
10 


• • 

•07 
•14 

•50 


1-60 
1-60 
1-80 
1-98 
P98 


2^68 
2-75 
2^86 
2-99 
3-04 


6-14 
6-23 
6-32 
6-46 
6-65 


7-20 
7-13 
7-18 
7-18 
7-13 


6-30 
6-26 
6-19 
6-08 
6-92 


•02 


•92 

1^01 
•88 
•83 
•83 


2^68 
2-86 
2^95 
3-04 
3-22 


4^43 
4-66 

4-84 
4-84 
4^84 


4-88 
4-97 
4^97 
4-97 
4-97 


4^21 
412 
4-12 
3-98 
3^98 


•05 


1-42 
1-49 
!'!>;> 
P89 
1-62 


2^68 
2 77 
2^96 
2-97 
2-97 


5^38 
5^51 
5^51 
5^51 
5^51 


6-89 
6^98 
6^95 
7^04 
7-09 


6^73 
6-68 
6-64 
6-59 
6^55 


11 
12 
13 
14 
15 


•60 
•86 
•97 
•97 
•99 


1-76 
1-76 
1-76 
1-76 
1-80 


3^22 
3-31 
3-22 
3-49 
3^80 


6-68 
6-77 
6*84 
6-84 
6«91 


7-09 
7-13 
7-22 
7-18 
7-09 


5-78 
5-65 
5-65 
5-60 
5*51 


•02 
•02 
•02 
•02 
•02 


•88 
1-24 
1-37 
1^37 

reo 


3-35 
3-35 
3-22 
3-22 

3-58 


4^97 
5-06 
5-06 
5-06 
4-97 


4-97 
5-00 
5-06 
5^06 
511 


3^98 
3^98 
3-98 

3-87 
3-87 


•05 
•05 
•05 
•05 
•05 


1^62 
1-62 
P64 
1-73 
1^80 


3^04 
3-29 
3-44 
3-51 
3-51 


5^85 
5^94 
6^05 
6^05 
G^12 


7^16 
7^25 
7-25 
7^31 
7^31 


6^64 
6^35 
6^30 
5^26 
6-19 


16 
17 
18 
19 
20 


1^04 
I'lb 

r28 

1-36 
1-58 


1^8o 
1-91 
1-91 
1-91 
1-91 


4-03 
412 
4^25 
4-52 
4-61 


7-04 
7-13 
7-04 
7^00 
7-04 


7-0] 
7-04 
7-04 
6-93 
6*89 


5*44 
5*38 
6*31 
5*11 
4*97 


•02 
•02 
•02 
•02 
•02 


r73 

2^05 
1^96 
1-87 
1-87 


3-62 
3-67 
3-67 
3-89 
4*03 


4-97 
4^97 
4-97 
4^97 
4^97 


5-11 
5-06 
4^97 
4^97 
4-97 




•05 
•05 
•05 
•05 
•05 


P80 
1^78 
1-73 
r69 
1^71 


3^51 
3^51 
3^51 
3-76 
4-03 


6^21 
6^21 
6^14 
6-08 
6-01 


7^36 
7-40 
7-47 
7^47 
7^56 


6^12 
6^08 
6^03 
5-96 
5^92 


21 
22 
23 
24 
2& 


1-77 
1-60 
1-46 
1^33 
1-26 


1-96 
1-96 
2-00 
2-05 
2^09 


4-84 
4-88 
4-97 
5-11 
6-11 


6-91 
7-00 
6-93 
6-91 
6-98 


6-89 
6-82 
6-82 
6-86 
6-82 


4*84 
4-70 
4-61 
4*43 
4*30 


•11 
•34 

•38 
•68 
•90 


1-87 
1^96 
2-05 
2^27 
2-27 


4-12 
4-21 
4-30 
4-12 
4-12 


4-93 
4*93 
5-02 
5-02 
5-02 


4-97 
4-84 
4-.S4 
4-79 
4-75 




•05 
-•02 
0^0 
0^0 
•14 


P80 
1-76 
1^82 
2^05 
2^21 


4^07 
4-05 
4-10 
4-30 
4-30 


6-01 
5-78 
5 •67 
5*76 
5-92 


7^58 
7*58 
7-52 
7^43 
7^43 


5^78 
5^72 
5^65 
5^56 
5^46 


26 
27 
28 
29 
30 


1^19 
M9 
1-19 
1-08 
1-01 


2-18 
2-36 
2-41 
2-41 
2-41 


5^31 
5-42 
5-51 
5-61 
5-51 


7-00 
7-00 
7-00 
7-13 
7-09 


6-82 
6-73 
6-66 
6-66 
6-66 


4*21 
4-10 
4*10 
4*10 
4-10 


1-01 
1^19 
1^33 
P28 
1^19 


2-14 
2-14 
2^14 
2^41 
2-72 


4 12 

4-21 
4-43 
4-61 
4-70 


6-15 
6-15 
5-15 
5-24 
5-24 


4.70 
4.66 
4.57 
4.57 
4.39 




•11 
•05 
-•02 
•05 
•02 


2^25 
2-27 
2^41 
2-50 
2^61 


4-21 
4-21 
4^21 
4-23 
4-30 


5-92 
5^94 
6-14 
<)-14 
6-32 


7-43 
7-38 
7^38 
7-38 
7-27 


5^38 
5-49 
6^24 
5^20 


31 


l^Ol 


•• 


5-56 


7^13 


•• 


4-10 


1-06 


•• 


4.77 


6^06 


•• 


•• 


•02 


•• 


4^30 


6-44 


•• 


•• 


MeaD 


• • 


1-85 


3^98 


6-67 


701 


5-34 


•• 


1.64 


3-60 


4-95 


4-89 


•• 


.• 


P62 


3-49 


5-74 


6-87 


6^16 



184 — 



Appendix L. (continued). 
Table LXII. — Khartoum gauges, 

±QO± 



Date. 


Month. 


Date. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


Septem. 


Dat«. 


Month. 


1 

5 

10 

15 

20 


January. 
1-51 
1-44 
1-30 
1-17 
1-05 

0-93 
0*84 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 


0-45 
0*48 
0'46 
0*42 
0-42 

0-42 
0-40 

0-39 

0-37 
0-34 


0-47 
0-50 
0-60 
0-64 
0-81 


2.35 

2-58 
2-75 
2-70 
2-57 


4-90 
4-96 
5-00 
5-05 
5-05 


6-10 
6-10 
6-05 
6-08 
6-08 


1 

5 
10 
15 
20 

25 
30 

Mean. 


October. 
4-36 
4-04 
3*60 
3-44 
3-28 


25 
30 


6 
7 

8 

9 
10 


0-82 
0-85 

0*84 

0-80 
0-77 


2-60 
2-60 

2-70 

2-82 
2-90 


5'12 
5-28 

5-40 

5-47 
5-55 


5-94 
5-88 

5-91 

5-95 
5-98 


3-12 
2-91 


Mean. 


1-15 


3-48 


1 


February. 
0-84 

0-81 
0-73 
0-67 
0-60 
0-45 

0-44 


1 

5 

10 
15 
20 
25 

30 

Mean. 


No vera. 
2-83 


5 

10 
15 
20 
25 


11 
12 
13 
14 
15 


0-34 
0-32 
0-37 
0-25 
0-25 


0-98 
1-28 
1-39 
1-51 
1-70 


2-92 
2-97 
3-00 
3-08 
3-17 


5-45 
5-40 
5-56 
5-70 
5-85 


5-92 
5-98 
5-98 
6-00 
5-96 


2-67 
2-43 

2-28 
2-16 
2-00 


28 


16 

17 

18 
19 
20 


0-25 

0-19 

0-08 
0-08 
0-14 


1-60 

1-49 

1-47 
1-50 
1-55 


3-.30 

3-30 

3-38 
3-43 
3-50 


5-89 

5-96 

5-96 
5-96 
6*10 


5-93 

5*82 

5-74 
5-56 
5-40 


1-87 


Mean. 


0-66 


2-29 


1 

5 


March. 
0-43 
0-39 

0-28 
0-20 
0'15 
0*09 
0'08 


1 
5 

10 
15 
20 
25 
30 

Mean. 


Decern. 
1*K7 
1-83 


10 
15 
20 
25 
30 


21 
22 
23 
24 
25 


0-19 
0-22 
0-12 
0-15 
0-20 


1-63 
1-80 
2-05 
2-26 
2-20 


3-50 
3-57 
3-54 
3-54 
3-58 


6'05 
5-98 
6*01 
6-05 
5-97 

5-80 

5-68 
5-68 
5-85 
5-89 


5-18 
5-18 
5-10 
5-00 
4-89 


1-75 
1-.58 
1-50 
1-35 
1-16 


Mean. 


0*22 


26 

27 
28 
29 
30 


0'18 

0-25 
0'27 
0-34 
0-45 


2*00 

1-95 
1-98 
1-98 
2-10 


3-74 

4-10 

4-28 
4-65 
4-83 

4-85 


4-84 

4-78 
4-70 
4-58 
4*49 


1-56 


1 

5 

10 


April. 

0-06 

0-05 

-0-05 

-0-07 

0-11 

0-27 

• • 




15 


31 


0-45 


• • 


6-03 


• • 




20 


Mean. 


0';W 


1-38 


3-32 


5-63 


5-57 




25 
30 
















Mean. 


0-09 





^ 185 — 



Appendix L. (continued). 
Table LXII (continued).— J^r^owm gauges. 



Dnte. 


Month. 


Date. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


Sept. 


Date. 


Month. 


1 

5 

10 

15 

20 


January. 
1*13 
1-03 
0-84 
0-73 
0-63 

0*54 
0-50 


1 
2 
3 

4 
5 


0-05 
0-05 
0-04 
0-01 
0*02 


0-10 
0-23 
0-41 
0-55 
0-74 


1-80 
1*87 
1-79 
1-75 
1-70 


3-34 
3-52 
3-62 
3-71 
3-79 


5-20 
5-20 
5-23 
5*27 
5-27 


1 

5 

10 
15 
20 

25 
30 

Mean. 


October. 
5-14 
4-88 
4*45 
3-86 
3-63 


25 

30 


6 

7 

8 

9 
10 


-0-10 
-0-08 

-0-05 

-0-05 
-0-06 

-0-07 
-0-04 
-0-04 
-0-01 
0-01 


0-76 
0-78 

0*76 

0-75 

0-77 


1-76 
1-85 

2-03 

2-13 
2-16 


3-94 
4*00 

4-20 

4-30 
4-.38 


5-27 
5-28 

5-33 

5-40 
5-40 


3-35 
3-05 


Mean. 


0-75 


3-97 


1 


February. 
0-48 

0-45 
0-38 
0-33 
0-25 
0-19 

0-15 


1 

5 

10 
15 
20 
25 

30 

Mean. 


Novem. 
3-00 


5 
10 
15 
20 
25 


11 
12 
13 
14 

15 


0-84 
1-00 
0-84 
0-78 
0-75 


2-07 
2-09 
2*05 
2-14 
2-17 


4-40 
4-50 
4-48 
4-50 
4-50 


5-36 

5-a5 

5-38 
5-50 
5-42 


2-84 
2-60 
2-44 
2'24 
2-18 


28 


16 

17 

18 
19 
20 


0-04 

0-03 

0-08 
0-18 
0-14 


0'72 

0-69 

0-74 
0-84 
1-06 


2'24 

2-29 

2-33 
2-34 
2-36 


4-48 

4-45 

4-39 
4-50 
4-61 

4-87 
4-93 
4-93 
4-90 
4-90 


5-40 

5-40 

5-40 
5-30 
5-39 


2-08 


Mean. 


0-32 


2-46 


1 
5 


March. 
0-14 
0-10 

0-09 
0-07 
0-15 
0-19 
0-07 


1 
5 

10 
15 
20 
25 
30 

Mean. 


Decern. 
2-06 
1-94 


10 
15 
20 
25 
30 


21 
22 
23 
24 
25 


0-14 
0-16 
0*1« 
0-09 
0-10 


1-24 
1-36 
1*27 
1-29 
1-21 


2-52 
2-54 
2-56 
2-62 
2*64 


5-30 
5-24 
5-12 
5-10 
5-10 


1-83 
1-71 
1'62 
1-55 
1-43 


Mean. 


0-11 


26 

27 
28 
29 
30 


0-11 

0-16 
0-14 
0-09 
0-10 

0-11 


1-15 

1'.30 
1*59 
1-75 
1-73 


2-69 

2-69 
2-79 
2-94 
2-96 


5-00 

5-17 
5-.30 
5-34 
5-30 


5-10 

5-05 
5-03 
5-(»6 
5-16 


1-71 


1 

5 
10 


April. 
0-07 
-0-02 
0-01 

-0-07 

-0-01 

-0-04 
0-01 






15 


31 


• • . 


3-24 


5-30 


• • 




20 


Mean. 


0-05 


O-'K) 


2-30 


4-50 


5-26 




25 
30 










• 






Mean. 


-0-01 





— 188 — 

Appendix L. (continued). 
Table LXIIL— i2»t)w Atbara gauges at Kha$m el Girba. 



±eo3 



Date. 


S 

•-9 


1 

• • 


1 


• • 


1 


i 

3 

1*00 
0-93 
0-85 
0-85 
0-89 

0-89 
0-86 
0-97 
1-05 
1-11 

1-00 
0-97 
0-90 
0-90 
0-93 

0-98 
1*20 
1-50 
1-70 
1-98 

1-88 
1-70 
1-90 
1-84 
2-20 

1-93 
2-24 
2-20 
2-43 
2-20 

• • 


2-20 
2-18 
2-15 
2-74 
2-60 

2-30 
2-10 
2-10 
2-51 
2-35 

2-65 
2-31 
2-10 
2-10 
2-65 

2-28 
2-40 
2-37 
2-55 
2-74 


1 
1 


1 


1 


1 


i 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 


* * 


4-21 
4-00 
3-56 
3-25 
3-35 


4-52 
4-52 
4-60 
4-70 
4-55 


2-88 
2-78 
2-78 
2-90 
2-75 

2-67 
2-50 
2-50 
2-38 
2-30 




6 

7 

8 

9 

10 


3-27 
3-30 
3-07 
3-29 
3-72 

4'61 
4-37 
4-53 
4-60 
4-85 


4-66 
4-58 
4-50 
4'15 
4-30 

3-89 
3-95 
3-80 
3-84 
3-71 






11 
12 
13 
14 
15 


2-22 

2-17 
2-17 
2-08 
2-05 






16 
17 
18 
19 
20 


4-80 
4- IK) 
5-50 
5-50 
5-75 


3-88 
4-36 
4-20 
4-00 
4-12 

3-80 
3-45 
3-30 
3-25 
3*10 

2'89 
3-42 
3-10 
3-13 
3-05 

• • 


2-10 
2-10 

2'65 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• ■ 

• • 

• • 






21 
22 
23 
24 
25 


2-83 
2-70 
2-70 
3-00 
2-62 

2 '53 
2 MM) 
2-76 
2-80 
3-29 
3-54 


5*47 
5-12 
4-82 
4-54 
4-35 

4-20 
4-80 
4-55 
4*55 
4-75 
4*45 




26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 





Zero = 10*00 metres on the gauge* 



— 189 — 

Appendix L. {continued). 
Table LXIII (continued). — River Atbara gauges at Khasm el Oirba. 













±eO'& 












Date. 


1 


& 


1 


• • 

** 


1 


f-A 


'3 

1-57 
1-89 
1-80 
1-93 
2-04 


■3 

3-79 
3-85 
3-93 
3-90 
4-04 


2-70 
2-65 
2-55 
2-90 
3-50 

3-40 
3-30 
2-92 
2-86 
2-98 

2-60 
2*52 
2-85 
2-79 
2-09 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 
« • 

• • 

• • 


i 


4 
1 


1 


J 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 


-1-00 
-1-00 
-0-80 
-0-56 
-0-10 






6 
7 
8 
9 
10 






+0-19 
0-31 
0-50 
0-40 
0-38 


2*08 
2-45 
2-72 
2-83 
2-97 

2-88 
2-80 
2-80 
3-10 
3-03 

2-74 
2-91 
3-36 
3-30 
2-10 

3-12 
3*20 
3-50 
3-72 
3-13 


4-08 
4-00 
4-00 
3-80 
3-20 

3-93 
2-90 
2-71 
2-63 
2-70 

3-39 
3-39 
3-39 
3-28 
3-20 

3-20 
3-18 
2-80 
2-83 
2-90 

2-91 
2-96 
3-30 
3-50 
3-10 
3-08 




11 
12 
13 
14 
15 


0-35 
0-30 
0-30 
0-30 
0-29 




16 
17 
18 
19 
20 


0-28 
0-32 
0-55 
0-40 
0-80 




21 
22 
23 
24 
25 


0-80 
0-70 
0-85 
0-96 
0-95 




26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 


1'15 
1-30 
1-45 
1-51 
1-50 

• • 


3-05 
3-36 
3-76 
3-69 
4-15 
3-80 





Zero = 10-00 metres on the gauge. 



— liK) — 



Appendix L. {continwd). 
Table LXIV. — Berber gavget. 

±so± 



Date. 


Month. 


Date. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Augniit. 


Septem. 


Date. 


Month. 




January. 
















October. 


1 


2-43 


1 


0-96 


0-97 


2-92 


6*25 


7*80 


1 


5*93 


5 


2-35 


2 


0-98 


1-00 


2-89 


6-30 


7*79 


5 


5-45 


10 


2' 23 


3 


1-00 


1-03 


3-00 


6-40 


7-82 


10 


5-08 


15 


2-07 


4 


1-02 


1-05 


3-20 


6-48 


7-75 


15 


4-73 


20 


1-93 

1-82 


5 


1-04 


1*07 


3-40 


6-56 


7-70 


20 
25 


4-44 


25 


6 


1-06 


1-10 


3-55 


6-79 


7'70 


4-20 


30 


1-70 


7 
8 
9 


1-05 
1'05 
1-07 


1-18 
1-27 
1'36 


3-60 
3-65 
3-70 


6-67 
6-79 
6-88 


7'62 
7-64 
7-45 


30 
Mean. 


4-00 


Mean. 


2-06 


4-74 




February. 




Novem. 


1 


1-63 
1-62 


10 


1-10 


1-43 


3-75 


7-09 


7-50 


1 
5 


3-90 


5 


11 


1-09 


1-45 


3-75 


7-45 


7-63 


3" 75 


10 


1-54 


12 


1'07 


1-48 


3-78 


7-53 


7*67 


10 


3-53 


15 


1-47 


13 


1*06 


1-47 


4-00 


7-58 


7-57 


15 


3-38 


20 


1-38 


14 


1-05 


1-47 


4*14 


7-70 


7-55 


20 


3-12 


25 


1-34 
1*24 


15 


1-04 


1-53 


4-20 


7-76 


7-50 


25 

30 

Mean. 


2*97 


28 


16 
17 
18 


1-05 
1-04 
1-03 


1-70 
1-87 
2'(X) 


4-,35 
4-30 
4-27 


7-65 
7-68 
7-74 


7-41 
7-35 
7-25 


2-83 


Mean. 


1-47 


3-33 




March. 




Decern. 


1 


1-24 


19 


1-03 


2'15 


4-35 


7-65 


7-20 


1 


2-86 


5 


1-24 
1-08 


20 


1-00 


2-18 


4-55 


7-54 


7-05 


5 
10 


2-75 


10 


21 


1-00 


2-16 


4-59 


7-46 


6-90 


2-70 


15 


0-98 


22 


0*94 


2-14 


4-59 


7 '46 


6-80 


15 


2-52 


20 


0-94 


23 


0*86 


2*14 


4*62 


7-43 


6-70 


20 


2-51 


25 


0-84 


24 


0-87 


2-17 


4-62 


7-41 


6-62 


25 


2-30 


30 


0-86 


25 


0-88 


2-27 


4-65 


7-38 


6-51 


30 
Mean. 


2-13 


Mean. 


1-01 


26 
27 


0-91 

0-87 


2-50 
2-70 


4-95 
5-05 


7-50 
7-44 


6-41 
6-27 


2-52 




April. 






1 


0-83 


28 


0-85 


2-82 


5-16 


7-44 


6-18 






5 


0-86 


29 


0-87 


2-86 


5-58 


7-74 


6*13 






10 


0-82 
0-63 
0-72 
0-73 


;w 


0*93 


2-88 


5-74 


7-81 


6-08 






15 


31 


0-95 


• • 


6-15 


7-87 


• • 




20 


Mean. 


0-99 


1*78 


4-22 


7-27 


7-18 




25 
















30 


0-93 


















Mean. 


0*74 





— 191 - 



Appeadix L (continued). 

Table LXIV (continaed). — Berber gauges. 

±Q02 



IMe. 


Month. 


Date. 


M.y. 


Jane. 


July. 


August. 


Sept. 


I)Bte. 


Month. 


1 

5 

10 

15 

20 


January. 
2-04 
1-90 
1-74 
1-51 
1-47 

1-40 
1-30 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 


0-67 
0-67 
0-71 
0-71 
0-72 


0-86 
0-86 
0-86 
0-85 
0-85 


2-07 
2-27 
2-46 
2-52 
2-58 


4-32 
4-55 

4-78 
4-90 
5-06 


6-77 
6-75 
6-70 
6-72 
6-70 


1 

5 

10 
15 

20 

25 
30 

Mean. 


October. 
6'23 
6-14 
5-73 
5-14 
4-62 


25 
30 


6 

7 

8 

9 
10 


0-82 
0-78 

0*75 

0-70 
0-67 


0-91 
1-04 

1-18 

1-33 
1-41 


2-64 
2-62 

2-64 

2-65 
2-72 


5-17 
5-17 

5-27 

5-37 
5-45 


6-72 
6*77 

6-95 

6-91 
6-96 


4-28 
4*06 


Mean. 


1-59 


5-11 


1 


February. 
1-28 

1*21 
1*12 
1-07 
1-06 
0-96 

0-94 


1 

5 

10 
15 
20 
25 

30 

Mean. 


Novemb. 
3-96 


5 

10 
15 
20 
25 


11 
12 
13 
14 
15 


0-63 
0-63 
0-65 
0-65 
0-65 


1-44 
1*44 
1-48 
1*52 
1-57 


2-84 
2-95 
3-04 
3-10 
3-15 


5-49 
5-55 
5-67 
5-85 
5-85 


7*05 
6-97 
6-93 
6-91 
6-94 


3-65 
3-55 
3-30 
3*11 
3-07 


28 


16 

17 

18 
19 
20 


0-66 

0'67 

0-68 
0*69 
0-73 


1-65 

1-64 

1-58 
]-50 
1-49 


3-15 

3-22 

3'21 
3-36 
3-41 


5*85 

5-85 

5-87 
5-82 
5-89 


6-89 

6-84 

6-77 
6-75 
6-69 


2-95 


Mean. 


1-09 


3-34 


1 
5 


March. 
0-88 
0*82 

0-84 
0-83 
0-76 
0-76 
0-86 


1 
5 

10 
15 
20 
25 
30 

Mean. 


Decemb. 
2-94 

2-88 


10 
15 
20 
25 
30 


21 
22 
23 
24 
25 


0-76 
0-77 
0-82 
0-85 
0-86 


1-47 
1-47 
1'53 
1-70 
1-90 


3-48 
3-54 
3-54 
3-59 
3-72 


6-21 
6-37 
6-42 
6-55 
6-48 


6-67 
6'63 
6-55 
6-47 
6-37 


2-75 
2-68 
2-55 
2-53 
2-37 


Mean. 


0-81 


26 

27 
28 
29 
30 


0-86 

0-87 
0-87 
0-85 
0-86 


2-02 

2-06 
2-06 
2-10 
2-00 


3-82 
3-94 

3*88 
4'00 


6-50 

6-48 
6-45 
6-63 
6-80 


6-35 

6-38 
6-33 
6*29 
6-25 


2-66 


1 

5 

10 


April. 
0-83 
0-78 
0-64 

0-68 

0-64 

0-67 
0-61 






15 


31 


0-86 


• • 


4-21 


6-80 


• • 




20 


Mean. 


0*74 


1-46 


3-14 


5-80 


6*70 




25 
30 
















Mean. 


0-68 





— 192 — 



Appendix L (continued). 

Table LXIV (continued). — Berber gauges. 

±803 



Date. 


Mcnth. 


Sate. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


Sept. 


Date. 


Month. 


1 
5 

10 
15 
20 


January. 
2-36 
2'43 
2-24 
2*15 
2-09 

1-95 
1-80 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 


0-83 
0-84 
0-83 
0-82 
0-79 


1-27 
1-43 
1-63 
1-74 
1-80 


2-80 
2-82 
2-S2 
2-89 
2-93 


4-83 
4-89 
4-95 
5-65 

5*85 


7-73 
7-73 
7-72 
7-70 
7-72 


1 

5 

10 
15 
20 

25 
30 

Mean. 


October. 
7-00 
6-84 
6'58 
6-15 
5-73 


25 
30 


1 

6 
7 

8 

9 
10 


0-76 
0-75 

0-73 

0-72 
0-76 

0-79 
0-80 
0-80 
0-79 
0-77 


1-84 
1-85 

1-86 

1-96 
2-10 


2-98 
3-10 

3-25 

3-40 
3-47 


5-98 
6-18 

6-27 

6-37 
6-43 


7-77 
7-82 

7-74 

7-72 
7-72 


5-86 
5-33 


Mean. 


2-13 


6-16 


1 


February. 
1-70 

1-59 
1-51 
1*42 
1-38 
1*23 

1-20 


1 

5 
10 
15 
20 
25 

30 

Mean. 


Novemb. 
5-17 


5 
10 
15 
20 
25 


11 
12 
13 
14 
15 


2-16 
2*18 
2-16 
2-13 
2-15 


3*43 
3-46 
3-56 
3-74 
3-82 


6-47 
6-50 
6-87 
7-13 
7-20 


7-72 
7-53 
7-64 
7-52 
7-45 


4-96 
4-53 
4-12 
3-88 
3*75 


28 


16 

17 

18 
19 
20 


0-76 

0-76 

0*76 
0-77 
0-78 


2-21 

2-27 

2-37 
2-50 
2-60 


3-95 

4-00 

4-02 
4-00 
4-10 


7-40 

7-53 

7-53 
7-67 
7-75 


7-40 

7-40 

7-37 
7-35 
7-45 


• • 


Mean. 


1-44 


4*28 


1 
5 


March. 
1-20 
1*26 

1-16 
I'lO 
1-07 
1*01 
0-92 


1 
5 

10 
15 
20 
25 
30 

Mean. 


Decemb. 

3-52 
3-38 


10 
15 
20 
25 
30 


21 
22 
23 
24 

25 


0-80 
0-80 
0-81 
0-82 
0-83 


2-72 
2-76 
2-76 
2*70 
2-65 


4-10 
4-13 
4-23 
4-37 
4-50 


8-05 
8-10 
7-80 
7-57 
7 -60 


7-45 
7-45 
7-47 
7-47 
7-43 


3-28 
3-19 
3-10 
3'a5 
2-92 


Mean. 


1-10 


26 

27 
28 
29 
30 


0-86 

0-91 
0-96 
1-03 
1-09 


2-68 

2-70 
2-70 
2-70 
2-74 

• • 


4-67 

4-73 
4-83 
4-85 
4-80 


7-52 

7-62 
7-G7 
7-56 
7-72 


7-43 

7-40 
7-;» 
7-14 

• • 


3-22 


1 

5 

10 


April. 
0*92 
0-95 
0-90 

0-85 

0-82 

0-80 
0-81 






15 


31 


1'17 


4-79 


7-74 




20 


Mean. 


0-82 


2-24 


3-82 


6-91 


7-52 




25 
30 












Mean. 


0-8(; 





- 193 



Appendix L. (eontinued). 
Tablb LXIV. (continned). — Berber gavget. 



Date. 



1 
5 

10 
15 
20 

25 
30 

Mean. 



5 

10 
15 
20 
25 

29 

Mean. 

1 
5 

10 
15 
20 
25 
30 

Mean. 

1 

5 

10 

15 

20 

25 
30 

Mean. 



Month. 



Jannarr. 
2-90 
2-86 
2-75 
2-68 
2-59 

2-52 
2-46 



•66 



February. 
2-50 

2-35 
2-34 
2-14 
2-00 
1-94 

1-74 



2-14 



March. 
1'67 
1-65 

1*52 
1'37 
1-29 
1-22 
1-17 

1*39 

April. 
1*25 
1-15 
1*17 

1-11 

1-05 

1-12 
1-10 

1-14 



Date. 



1 
2 
3 
4 



6 

7 



9 
10 



11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



16 

17 

18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 

27 
28 
29 
30 

31 

Mean. 



May. 



1-11 
1-09 
1-07 
1-07 
1-07 



1-06 
1-07 

1-07 

1-09 
I'll 



1-15 
1-10 
1-00 
1-00 
0-94 



0-96 

0-96 

0-98 
0-98 
1-02 

1*09 
1*15 
1-17 
1-15 

1-09 

1-08 

1-08 
1-10 
1-13 
1'19 

1-28 

1'08 



June. 



33 
42 
47 
47 
45 



1-45 
1-45 

1*46 

1-52 
1-75 



1-88 
1-97 
2-00 
2-00 
1-97 



1-97 

1-98 

2*00 
2-00 
2'00 

2-00 
1-90 
1-85 
1-88 
1-89 

1-90 



91 
92 
93 
93 



1-79 



July. 



1-95 
1-98 
2-14 
2-32 
2-43 



2-59 
2-80 

3-07 

3-40 
3-70 



81 
00 
96 
94 
94 



4' 15 

4-35 

4-60 
4*78 
4-84 

5-03 
5*12 

5-00 
5-00 
5-08 

5-41 

5-65 
5-60 
5-57 
5-78 

6'00 

4-13 



August. 



6*22 
6-28 
6-34 
6-59 
6-90 



6-93 
6-97 

6-87 

6-87 
6-77 



70 
68 
65 
64 
66 



6-60 

6-54 

6-52 
6-60 
6-47 



46 
50 
45 
50 
57 



6-48 

6-48 
6-45 
6-69 
6-83 

6-79 

6-61 



Sept. 



6-75 
6-67 
6*67 
6-68 
6-69 



6-93 
6-98 

6-85 

6-89 
6-83 



73 

68 
68 
68 
67 



Date. 



Month. 



— 194 — 



Appendix L. {continued). 
Tablb LXY. — Mean gcatget of SO yeart at Attudn. 

±873 - 1Q02 





1 

2-64 


















iJ 


i 


i 


Date. 


1 
1-95 


1 

1-31 


1 

0-68 


1 

0-24 


i 

0.10 


1-04 


•< 
4-87 


1 

7-80 


1 


f 

5-00 




1 


7-19 


3-42 


2 


2-61 


1-93 


1-29 


0-65 


0-24 


0-11 


1-08 


5-01 


7-82 


7-10; 4-90 


3-39 


3 


2-59 


1-91 


1'27 


0-64 


0-22 


0-12 


1-16 


5-15 


7-81 


7-05:4-84 


3-37 


4 


2-57 


1-89 


1-25 


0-63 


0-21 


0-12 


1'21 


5-25 


7-82 


6-96 


4-79 


3-32 


5 


2-55 


1-87 


1-23 


0-61 


0-20 


0-10 


1*28 


5-51 


7-84 


6-91 


4-72 


3-30 


6 


2-53 


1-84 


1-21 


0-58 


0-18 


0-12 


1-34 


5*71 


7-82 


6-85 


4*66 


3' 26 


7 


2-51 


1*82 


1*18 


0-56 


0-17 


0-13 


1-41 


5-94 


7-82 


6-77 


4-54 


3*24 


8 


2-47 


1-81 


1-17 


0-56 


0-16 


0-15 


1-49 


6-15 


7-81 


6-71 


4*47 


3-20 


9 


2-46 


1-78 


1-15 


0-54 


0-14 


0-17 


1-57 


6-38 


7*81 


6-66 


4-37 


3-19 


10 


2-44 


1-76 


1-13 


0-52 


0-13 


0'19 


1-65 


6'52 


7-80 


6-59 


4*35 


3-16 


11 


2*41 


1-73 


1-11 


0-51 


0-13 


0*19 


1-74 


6-62 


7-80 


6-53 


4-28 


3-13 


12 


2-39 


1-71 


1-08 


0-49 


0-13 


0-22 


1-81 


6-70 


7-8;^ 


6-47 


4-22 


3-10 


13 


2-37 


1-69 


1-07 


0-47 


0'13 


0-24 


1-90 


6-78 


7-77 


6*40 


4-17 


3-07 


14 


2'M 


1'66 


1-05 


0-46 


0-13 


0-27 


1-97 


6-92 


7*76 


6-33 


4-10 


3-03 


15 


2-32 


1-G3 


1-02 


0-45 


0-13 


0-29 


2* 10 


6*96 


7*76 


6*25 


4-05 


3-01 


16 


2-30 


1-61 


1-00 


0-44 


0-12 


0-32 


2*23 


7-04 


7-74 


6-17 


4*00 


2-99 


17 


2-28 


1-59 


0-98 


0-42 


0-12 


0-34 


2-36 


7-11 


7-71 


6*07 


3-96 


2-95 


18 


2-25 


1-5C 


0-96 


0-41 


0-12 


0-37 


2-52 


7-17 


7-68 


6-02 


3-91 


2-94 


19 


2-22 


1-54 


0-93 


0-40 


0-11 


0-39 


2-65 


7-27 


7-69 


5-98 


3-86 


2-91 


20 


2-21 


1-52 


0-92 


0-39 


0-11 


0-41 


2-79 


7-31 


T61 


5-90 


3-82 


2-88 


21 


2-18 


1-50 


0*90 


0-38 


0-10 


0-43 


2-95 


7-32 


7-67 


5-84 


3-81 


2-85 


22 


2-16 


1-47 


0-88 


o-;w 


0-10 


0-47 


3-11 


7-a5 


7-63 


5-78 


3-75 


2-82 


23 


2-13 


1-45 


0-86 


0-35 


0-08 


0-50 


3-29 


7-48 


7-60 


5-08 


3-70 


2-79 


24 


2-13 


1-45 


0-83 


0-M 


0-08 


0-56 


3-46 


7-55 


7-56 


5-61 


3-63 


2-77 


25 


2-10 


1-42 


0-82 


O-JW 


0-08 


0-67 


3-58 


7-58 


7-52 


5-53 


3-64 


2-76 


26 


2-08 


1-39 


0-79 


0-31 


0-08 


0-71 


3-73 


7-CO 


7-53 


5-45 


3-61 


2-73 


27 


2 '05 


1-38 


0-77 


0'29 


0-()8 


0-79 


3-94 


7-66 


7-43 


5-37 


3-57 


2-68 


28 


2-04 


i-;t5 


0-75 


0-27 


0-08 


0-83 


4-16 


7-66 


7-37 


5-30 


3-54 


2-65 


29 


2-02 




0-73 


0-20 


0-08 


0-98 


4 -SO 


7-69 


7-31 


5-22 


3-49 


2-62 


30 


1-99 




0-71 


0-24 


0-08 


0-97 


4-58 


7-74 


7-25 


5-15 


3-42 


2-60 


31 


1-96 




0-69 




0-(»9 




4-73 


7-78 




5-07 




2-58 



Zero IB R.L. 85-00 metres. 



— 195 — 

Appendix L. {continued). 
Tablb LXY. (continued). — Assudn Chnffes. 











±874 










D«te. 


Month. 


Date. 


May. 


Jane. 


July. 


Angust. 


Sept 


Date. 


Month. 


1 

5 

10 
15 
20 


Jannarr. 
2-06 
1-95 
1-75 
1-57 
1-41 

1-23 
1-00 


1 
2 
3 
i 
5 


-0-41 
-0-37 
-0-37 
-0-37 
-0-39 


-0-32 

-0-10 

0-10 

0-26 

0-31 


1-50 
1-57 
1-61 
1-68 
1-72 


6-49 
6-65 
6*74 
6-81 
6-88 


8-70 
8-72 
8-83 
8-90 
8-95 


1 

5 

10 
15 
20 

25 
30 

Mean. 


October. 
8.11 
7-89 
7-64 
7-21 
6*61 


25 
30 


6 

7 

8 

9 
10 


-0-44 
-0-48 

-0-50 

-0-50 
-0-53 


0-46 
0-58 

0-71 

0-82 
0-87 


1-81 
1-93 

1-99 

2-08 
2-15 


6-97 
6-97 

6-97 

7-06 
7-35 


8-97 
8-95 

8-92 

8-88 
8-83 

8-81 
8-77 
8-74 
8-74 
8-74 


6-16 
5-68 


Mean. 


1-53 


7-04 


1 


Febuary. 
0'94 

0-80 
0-(57 
0-58 
0-44 
0-35 

0-31 


1 

5 

10 
15 
20 
25 

30 

Mean. 


Nov. 
5*48 


5 

10 
15 
20 
25 


11 
12 
13 
14 
15 


-0-53 
-0-53 
-0-53 
-0-55 
-0.55 


0-87 
0-84 
0-82 
0-78 
0.71 


2-24 

2-m 

2-49 
2-52 
2-71 


7-75 
8-16 
8-36 
8-45 
8-47 


5*19 
4-87 
4-58 
4-31 
4* 17 


28 


16 

17 

18 
19 

20 


-0-57 

-0-57 

-0-57 
-0-59 
-0-59 

-0-61 
-0-64 
-0-64 
-0-64 
-0-G4 


0-67 

0-67 

0-64 
0-64 
0-64 


2-83 

2-98 

3-16 
3-25 
3-37 


8-43 

8-36 

8-43 
8-50 
8-36 


8-70 

8-63 

8-56 
8-47 
8-43 


4-00 


Mean. 


0*58 


4-65 


1 
5 


March. 
0*28 
0-26 

0-19 

0-13 

0*04 

-0-01 

-0-08 


1 
5 

10 
15 
20 
25 
30 

Mean. 


Dec. 
3-95 
3*73 


10 
15 
20 
25 
30 


21 
22 
23 
24 
25 


0-67 
0-73 
0-82 
0-94 
1-12 


3-43 
3-66 
4-02 
4-47 
4-87 


8-61 
8-68 
8-63 
8-65 
8-68 


8-41 
8-45 
8-45 
8-43 
8-38 


3-57 
3-41 
3-28 
3-16 
3-03 


Mean. 


0-11 


26 

27 
28 
29 
30 


-0-66 

-0-66 
-0-66 
-0-66 
-0-61 


1-30 

1-41 
1-45 
1-47 
1-47 


5-21 

5-46 
5-77 
6-07 
6-20 


8-74 

8-77 
8-74 
8-74 
8-70 


8-34 

8-32 
8-27 
8-20 
8-16 


3*45 


1 

5 

10 


April. 
-0-12 
-0*26 
-0-30 

-0-32 

-0-39 

-0-46 
-0-46 






15 


31 


-0-50 


• • 


6-31 


8-68 


• • 




20 


Mean. 


-0-54 


0-74 


3-27 


8-00 


8-62 




25 
30 
















Mean. 


-0-34 





Zero is R.L. 85*00 metres. 



13 



— 196 — 

Appendix L. (eonlmued). 
Tablb XLV (oontinaed). — Astudn gauges. 

±e'7'7 



Date. 


Month. 


Sate. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


Sept 


Date. 


Month. 


1 

5 

10 

15 

20 


January. 
2*62 
2-54 
2'42 
2-26 
2-13 

1-99 
1-81 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 


0-35 
0-37 
0-37 
0-35 
0-35 


0-19 
0-22 
0-24 
0-26 
0-28 


1-30 
1-48 
1-63 
1-75 
1-81 


4-72 
4-74 
4-74 
4-74 

4-88 


6-18 
6-20 
6-25 
6-27 
6-27 


1 

5 
10 
15 
20 

25 
30 

Mean. 


October. 
6-04 
5-64 
5-21 
4-92 
4-63 


25 
30 


6 

7 

8 

9 
10 


0-33 
0-33 

o-a-) 

0-40 
0-42 


0-31 
0-31 

0-33 

0-37 
0-46 


1-86 
1-90 

1-97 

2-04 
2-13 


4-85 
5-03 

5-26 

5-39 
5-35 


6-27 
6-22 

6-18 

6-11 
6-09 


4-53 
4-09 


Mean. 


2-25 


5-01 


1 


February. 
1-77 

1-70 
1-57 
1-39 
1-25 
1-17 

1-17 


1 

5 
10 
15 
20 
25 

30 

Mean. 


Novemb. 
3-88 


5 
10 
15 
20 
25 


11 
12 
13 
14 
15 


0-42 
0-40 
0-37 
O'Xi 
0-28 


0-55 
0-69 
0-80 
0-87 
0-91 


2-26 
2-44 
2-71 
3-01 
3-23 


5-37 
5-37 
5-41 
5-55 
5-75 


6-13 
6-16 
6-13 
6-07 
6-02 


3-73 
3-61 
3-41 
3-23 
2-94 


28 


16 

17 

18 
19 
20 


0-26 

0-24 

0*22 
0-17 
0-17 


0-96 

1-03 

1-07 
1-09 
1-09 


3-32 

3-32 

3-28 
3-21 
3-23 


6-07 

6-18 

6-22 
6-34 
6-40 


6-00 

6-02 

6-04 
6-00 
5-95 


2-67 


Mean. 


1-43 


3-35 


I 


Maroh. 
1-14 
1-09 

0'96 
0-78 
0-69 
0-58 
0-49 


1 
5 

10 
15 
20 
25 
30 

Mean. 


Decemb. 
2-60 
2'51 


10 
15 
20 
25 
30 


21 
22 
23 
24 
25 


0-15 
0-15 
0-15 
0-15 
0-13 


1-09 
1-07 
1-07 
1-07 
1-07 


3-32 
3-46 
3-57 
3-64 
3-70 


6-29 
6-18 
6-13 
6-13 
6-13 


6-02 
6-11 
6-25 
6-27 
6-27 


2-40 
2-22 
2-13 
1-95 
1-97 


Mean. 


0-82 


26 

27 
28 
29 
30 


0-10 

0-10 
0-13 
0-15 
0-17 


1-05 

1-05 
1-07 
1-09 
1-16 


3-72 

3-99 
4-21 
4-54 
4-65 


6-11 

6-13 
6-18 
6' 18 
6-18 


6-20 

6-11 
6-11 
6-13 
6-09 


2-25 


1 

5 

10 


April. 
0-46 
0*40 
0-33 

0-31 

0*42 

0*51 
0-35 






15 


31 


0-19 


• • 


4-67 


6-16 


• • 




20 


Mean. 


(:-26 


0-74 


2*94 


5-68 


6-13 




25 
30 
















Mean. 


0*40 





Zero iB B.L. 85*00 metres. 



— 197 — 

Appendiz L. (fldnttmied). 

Tablb LXY (continaed). — Atsitdn gaugei. 

±87© 



Date. 


Month. 


Date. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


Sept 


Date. 


Month. 


1 
5 

10 
15 
20 


January. 
1-97 
1-88 
1-75 
1-61 
1-48 

1-39 
1-23 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 


-0'41 
-0-44 
-0-46 
-0-48 
-0-48 


-0-66 
-0-66 
-0*66 
-0-66 
-0-68 


0-67 
0-71 
0-78 
0-87 
0-91 


5-39 
5-46 
5-48 
5*55 
5*62 


7-60 
7*73 

7-89 
8-02 
8-14 


1 

5 
10 
15 
20 

25 
30 

Mean. 


October. 
9-15 
8-92 
8*47 
7-91 
7*60 


25 
30 


6 

7 

8 

9 
10 


-0-46 
-0-46 

-0-48 

-0-50 
-0-50 


-0-68 
-0*71 

-0-71 

-0-71 
-0-68 


0*96 
1-00 

1-03 

1-03 
1-05 


5-62 
5-53 

5*41 

5-68 
6*25 


8-23 
8-32 

8-38 

8-47 
8*52 


7*42 
6'83 


Mean. 


1-62 


8-05 


1 


February. 
1*21 

1-07 
0-91 
0-80 
0-67 
0-51 

0-46 


1 

5 

10 
15 
20 
25 

30 

Mean. 


Novem. 
6'72 


5 
10 
15 
20 
25 


11 
12 
13 
14 
15 


-0-50 
-0-50 
-0-48 
-0-48 
-0-50 


-0*66 
-0*66 
-0*66 
-0-66 
-0-66 


1*07 
1-12 
1*18 
1-27 
1*44 


6-31 
6'72 
6-88 
7-06 
7'17 


8-56 
8-70 
8-81 
8-86 
8-90 


6*34 
5-86 
5-50 
5-17 
4-92 


28 


16 

17 

18 
19 
20 


-0*50 

-0-50 

-0-53 
-0-55 
-0-57 


-0-64 

-0-61 

-0-59 
-0-59 
-0-59 


1-70 

1-97 

2-17 
2-33 
2.47 


7-17 

7-10 

7*12 
7-26 
7-48 


8-86 

8-83 

8-83 
8-81 
8-86 


4*69 


Mean. 


0-80 


5-60 


1 
5 


March. 
0-44 
0-33 

0-24 

0-17 

0-08 

-0-03 

-0-05 


1 
5 

10 
15 
20 
25 
30 

Mean. 


Decern. 
4*67 
4-57 


10 
15 
20 
25 
30 


21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 

27 
28 
29 
30 


-0-57 
-0-57 
-0-59 
-0-61 
-0'64 


-0-61 
-0-61 
-0-59 
-0*50 
-0-32 


2-76 
2'98 
3-33 
3-48 
3-82 


7-73 
7-89 
7-96 
8-02 
8-07 


8-86 
8-81 
8-86 
8-92 
8-99 

8-97 

8-92 
9-01 
9*08 
9-13 


4-38 
4*20 
4-09 
3-93 
3*77 


Mean. 


0-17 


-0-64 

-0-64 
-0-66 
-0-68 
-0-68 

-0-68 


-0-05 

0-19 
0-40 
0-58 
0-64 


4-22 

4-45 
4-63 

4*78 
4-96 


8-09 

7-91 
7-69 
7-57 
7-53 


4*23 


1 

5 
10 


April. 
-0-10 
-0-12 
-0-19 

-0-26 

-0*26 

-0-37 
-0-41 






15 


31 


• • 


5-21 


7-55 


• • 

i'63 




20 


Mean. 


-0-56 


-0*47 


2*27 


6-85 




25 
30 
















Mean. 


-0*25 





Zero is R.L. 86*00 metres. 



— 198 — 

ApfMUdiz L (eontimud). 

Tablb LXV (oontinned). — Auudn gcuiget. 

±0O± 



Date. 


Konth. 


Date. 


May. 


Jane. 


Jaly. 


August 


Sept 


Date. 


Month. 


1 

5 

10 

15 

20 


Jannary. 
1-97 
1-93 
1-79 
1-66 
1-57 

1-48 
1-25 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

6 
7 

8 

9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 


-0-37 
-0-39 
-0-41 
-0-44 
-0-44 


-0-08 
-0-08 
-0-10 
-0-10 
-0-10 


0-37 
0-49 
0-67 
0-82 
0-96 


3-89 
3-95 
4*02 
4-13 
4-32 


7-42 

7-38 
7-44 
7-62 
7-76 


1 

5 
10 
15 
20 

25 
30 

Mean. 


October. 
6-56 
6-09 
5-59 
5-06 
4-67 


25 
30 


-0-46 
-0-46 

-0-46 

-0-46 
-0-46 


-0-12 
-0-12 

-0-14 

-0-19 
-0-21 


1-05 
1-09 

1-15 

1-23 
1-39 


4-G7 
5-28 

5-82 

6-09 
6-23 


7-82 
7-82 

7-76 

7-73 
7*71 


4-31 
4-15 


Mean. 


1-66 


5-20 


1 


February. 
1-21 

■ 1-07 
0-96 
0*87 
0-71 
0.67 

0-58 


1 

5 
10 
15 
20 
25 

30 

Mean. 


Nov. 
3-95 


5 

10 
15 
20 
25 


-0-44 
-0-44 
-0-41 
-0-39 
-0-35 


-0-21 
-0-23 
-0-26 
-0-26 
-0-26 


1-57 
1-70 
1-81 
1-90 
1-95 


6-36 
6-52 
6-61 
6-68 
6*77 


7-69 
7-69 
7-67 
7-64 
7-55 


3-75 
3-55 
3-32 
3-07 

2-89 


28 


16 

17 

18 
19 
20 


-0-30 

-0-26 

-0-23 
-0-21 
-0-19 


-0-26 

-0-23 

-0-21 
-0-19 
-0-17 


2-05 

2-24 

2-56 
2-67 
2-78 


6*97 

7*31 

7-58 
7-69 
7*80 


7-48 

7-55 

7-60 
7-62 
7-55 


2-67 


Mean. 


0-87 


3-31 


1 
5 


March. 
0-55 
0-49 

0-40 
0-27 
0-17 
0-08 
-0-03 


1 
5 

10 
15 
20 
25 
30 

Mean. 


Dec. 
2-65 
2-51 


10 
15 
20 
25 
30 


21 
22 
23 
24 
25 


-0-14 
-0-12 
-0-12 
-0*10 
-0-08 


-0-14 
-0-10 
-0-05 
-0*03 
-O'Ol 


2-83 
2-89 
3-01 
3-07 
3-26 


7-80 
7*78 
7*75 
7*73 
7-62 


7*51 
7-46 
7 "37 
7-25 

7-22 


2-35 
2-26 
2-17 
2-08 
1-90 


Mean. 


0-27 


26 

27 
28 
29 
30 

31 


-0-08 

-0-05 
-0-03 
-0*01 
-0-03 


0-06 

0-10 
0-22 
0-31 
0-.35 


3-48 

3-61 
3-66 
3-68 
3-73 


7-53 

7-49 
7-44 
7-39 
7-35 


7-10 

6-99 
6*63 
6-70 
6*61 


2-27 


1 

5 

10 


April. 
-0-07 
-0-10 
-0*17 

-0-24 

-0-26 

-0-28 
-0-32 






15 


-0-08 


• • 


3-80 


7-42 


• • 




20 


Mean. 


-C-27 


-0-09 


2-18 


6-51 


7-44 




25 
30 
















Mean. 


-0-20 





Zero is B.L. 86*00 metres. 



— 1» — 

Appendis I*, (contimud). 
Tablb LXY. (oontinnecl. — Astxidn gaugei. 
±@02 



Drte. 


Month. 


Date. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Augart. 


Sept 


IM«. 


Month. 


1 

5 

10 
15 
20 


Jannarr. 
1-86 
1-79 
1-61 
1-41 
1-21 

0-98 
0-85 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 


-0-39 
-0-39 
-0-39 
-0-37 
-0*39 


-0-46 
-0-48 
-0-50 
-0-53 
-0-55 


0-42 
0*49 
0-49 
0-49 
0-49 


2-56 
2-65 
2-69 
2-76 
2-83 


6-16 
6-13 
6-09 
6-09 
6-20 


1 

5 

10 
15 
20 

25 
30 

Mean. 


October. 
6-20 
6-00 
5-89 
5*64 
5'30 


25 
30 


6 

7 

8 

9 
10 


-0-41 
-0-41 

-0-43 

-0-46 
-0-46 


-0-57 
-0-52 

-0-52 

-0-50 
-0-46 


0-46 
0-46 

0-49 

0-56 
0-65 


2*92 
3-03 

3-10 

3-16 
3-25 


6-38 
6-45 

6-45 

6-40 
6-36 


4*67 
4'09 


Mean. 


1-38 


5*40 


1 


February. 
0-78 

0-67 
0*62 
0-49 
0-42 
0-33 

0*26 


1 

5 

10 
15 
20 
25 

30 

Mean. 


Nov. 
3-97 


5 

10 
15 
20 
25 


11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 

17 

18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 


-0-46 
-0-48 
-0-48 
-0-48 
-0-46 


-0-37 
-0-35 
-0-30 
-0*30 
-0-26 


0-83 
0-87 
0-94 
0-96 
1-01 


3-41 
3-66 
4-00 
4-29 
4-42 


6-31 
6-36 
6-37 
6-47 
6-58 


3-77 
3-37 
3-10 
2-85 
2-60 


28 


-0-43 

-0-41 

-0-39 
-0-39 
-0-39 


-0-30 

-0-23 

-0-21 
-0-28 
-0-30 


1-07 

1*23 

1-39 
1-54 
1-61 


4*56 

4-67 

4-78 
4-87 
4-94 


6-65 

6-72 

6-72 
6-65 
6-58 


2*30 


Mean. 


0-51 


3-15 


1 
5 


MarcL 
0-22 
0-15 

0-10 

0*01 

-O'OS 

-0-17 

-0-21 


1 

5 

10 
15 
20 
25 
30 

Mean. 


Dec. 
2-33 
2-31 


10 
15 
20 
25 
30 


-0-41 
-0-39 
-0-37 
-0-39 
-0-39 


-0-32 
-0-32 
-0-30 
-0-23 
-0-16 


1-66 
1-70 
1-77 
1-87 
1-97 


5-08 
5-28 
5-39 
5-42 
5-37 


6-58 
6-61 
6-58 
6-52 
6-47 


2*15 
2-04 
1-81 
1-79 
1-55 


Mean. 


0-00 


26 

27 
28 
29 
30 


-0-39 

-0*41 
-0-43 
-0-43 
-0-46 


-0-05 

0*11 
0-20 
0-24 
0-33 


2-08 

2-20 
2-29 
2-38 
2-45 


5-32 

5-32 
5-44 
5-71 
5-96 


6-43 

6-36 
6-31 
6-27 
6-23 


2'00 


1 

5 

10 


April. 
-0-21 
-0-23 
-0-30 

-0-26 

-0-23 

-0-30 
-0-39 






15 


31 


-0-46 


• • 


2-54 


6-11 


• • 




20 


Mean. 


-0-42 


-0-28 


1-27 


4-29 


6*41 




25 
30 
















Mean. 


-0-27 





Zero is B.L. 86*00 metres. 



— 200 — 

Appendix L. (amtinued). 
Tabls LXY (oontinaed).— ^<*u<in gauget. 
±QOS 



Date. 


Month. 


Date. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


Sept. 


Date. 


Month. 




Jannary. 
















October. 


1 


1-52 


1 


-0*62 


-0-19 


1*07 


3*14 


7-37 


1 


7-30 


5 


1-66 


2 


-0-64 


-0-19 


1-16 


3-21 


7-39 


5 


7-06 


10 


1-34 


3 


-0-62 


-0-19 


1-27 


3-32 


7-35 


10 


6-58 


15 


1-36 


4 


-0-59 


+0-01 


1-39 


3*52 


7*39 


15 


6'40 


20 


1-32 
1-07 


5 


-0*52 


-0-05 


1-48 


3*77 


7-53 


20 
25 


6-07 


25 


6 


-0-52 


-0-03 


1-52 


3-95 


7-58 


5*55 


30 


1-07 


7 
8 
9 


-0-50 
-0-57 
-0-57 


+0-01 

0-01 

-0-03 


1'.52 
1-52 
1*52 


4-11 
4-13 
4' 11 


7-56 
7-62 
7'62 


30 
Mean. 


5*30 


Mean. 


1-33 


6-32 




February. 




Novemb. 


1 


0*85 
0'82 


10 


-0-57 


-0-01 


1*55 


4-09 


7-62 


1 
5 


5-46 


5 


11 


-0-59 


0-01 


1*57 


4-13 


7-68 


5*15 


10 


0-73 


12 


-0-59 


0-01 


1-59 


4-34 


7-75 


10 


4-67 


15 


0*51 


13 


-0-59 


0-06 


1*59 


4-90 


7-75 


15 


4*25 


20 


0*40 


14 


-0*64 


0-08 


1*66 


5-44 


7-73 


20 


4-06 


25 


0-28 
0-06 


15 


-0-55 


0-13 


1-68 


5-73 


7-66 


25 

30 

Mean. 


3-52 


28 


16 
17 
18 


-0-55 
-0-55 
-0-57 


0-20 
0-20 
0-74 


1-72 
1*75 
1*82 


5*91 
6-04 
6-13 


7'64 
7-62 
7-58 


3-21 


Mean. 


0-52 


4-33 




March. 




Decemb. 


1 


0-06 


19 


-0-57 


0*94 


1-91 


6-34 


7-55 


1 


3*16 


5 


0-10 
0-10 


20 


-0-55 


1-10 


2-02 


6-65 


7*48 


5 
10 


3-03 


10 


21 


-0-48 


1*12 


2-18 


7-01 


7*42 


2*71 


15 


-0-03 


22 


-0-28 


1-23 


2-3.3 


7-21 


7*35 


15 


2-51 


20 


-0-05 


23 


-0-28 


1*34 


2-44 


7*39 


7-35 


20 


2-33 


25 


-0-26 


24 


-0-21 


1*14 


2-47 


7*49 


7-28 


25 


2-31 


30 


-0-28 


25 


-0-35 


1-12 


•2-56 


7-66 


7-33 


30 
Mean. 


2*15 


Mean. 


-0*05 


26 
27 


-0-35 
-0-37 


1-27 
1-30 


2-69 
2-85 


7-82 
7-93 


7-35 
7-.35 


2*60 




April. 






1 


-0-28 


28 


-0'37 


0-92 


2-96 


7-84 


7-33 






5 


-0-23 


29 


-0-34 


0-92 


3-03 


7-66 


7-35 






10 


-0-39 
-0-48 
-0-39 
-0*59 


30 


-0*28 


0-98 


3-07 


7-53 


7 -.33 






15 


31 


-0-14 


• • 


3-12 
1-97 


7*46 


• • 




20 


Mean. 


-0'48 


0-47 


5-68 


7*50 




25 
















30 


-0-62 


















Mean. 


-0'43 





Zero IB R.L. 86*00 metrea. 



— 201 — 

Appendix L. (eontinued). 
Tablb LXV. (continued). — Asttidn gaugei. 

±eo4 



Ditte. 


Month. 


Date. 


May. 


Jane. 


July. 


August. 


Sept. 


Dote. 


Month. 




January. 
















October. 


1 


2*11 


1 


-0-08 


0-26 


0-94 


4-45 


6-34 


1 


• • 


5 


2-13 


2 


-0*12 


0-28 


0-89 


4-49 


6-34 


5 


, , 


10 


1-95 


3 


-0-14 


0-28 


0-87 


4-60 


6-27 


10 


• • 


15 


1-86 


4 


-0-21 


0-28 


0-87 


4-87 


6-27 


15 


• • 


20 


1-79 
1-68 


5 


-0-21 


0-28 


0-85 


5-10 


6-47 


20 
25 


• • 


25 


6 


-0-19 


0-33 


0-83 


5-28 


6'61 


• • 


30 


1*57 


7 
8 
9 


-0-19 
-0-17 
-0-14 


0-60 
0-65 
0-67 


0-83 
0-83 
0-80 


5-50 
5-84 
6-11 


6-63 
6-58 
6-52 


30 
Mean. 


• • 


Mean. 


1-87 


• • 




February. 




Novem. 


1 


1-57 
1-52 


10 


-0-14 


0-69 


0-78 


6-38 


6-47 


1 
5 


• • 


5 


11 


-0-05 


0-71 


0-78 


6-63 


6-52 


• • 


10 


1-43 


12 


+0*14 


0-85 


0-78 


6-85 


6-58 


10 


• • 


15 


1-36 


13 


0-04 


0-89 


0-78 


6-97 


6*74 


15 


• • 


20 


1-29 


14 


O'Ol 


0-94 


0-80 


6-92 


6-88 


20 


, , 


25 


1-27 
1-17 


15 
16 
17 
18 


-0-05 
-0-05 
-0-05 
-0-05 


0-92 


0-83 


6-85 


6-83 


25 

30 

Mean. 




28 


0-96 
1-05 
1'14 


0-87 
0-94 
1-03 


6-74 
6-65 
6-61 


• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 


Mean. 


1-37 


• • 




March. 




Decern. 


1 


1-03 


19 


-0-05 


1-18 


1-28 


6-56 


• • 


1 


• • 


5 


0-74 . 
0*71 


20 


-0-05 


1-23 


1-61 


6-54 


• • 


5 
10 




10 


21 


0-15 


1-21 


2-15 


6-54 




• • 


15 


0-69 


22 


0-10 


1*21 


2*62 


6.49 


^ , 


15 


, , 


20 


0-46 


23 


0-13 


1-18 


2-92 


6-47 


• • 


20 


• • 


25 


0-42 


24 


0-13 


1-21 


3-08 


6-43 


, , 


25 


, , 


30 


0-20 


25 


0*15 


1'16 


3-16 


6-40 


• • 


30 
Mean. 


• • 


Mean. 


0*60 


26 
27 


0-13 
0-10 


1-14 
1*16 


3-23 
3-43 


6-43 
6-36 


• • 

• • 


• • 




April. 






1 


0-13 


28 


0-10 


1'21 


3*70 


6-34 


• • 






5 


-0-10 


29 


0-06 


1*12 


4-02 


6-27 


• • 






10 


-0-12 
0-04 
0-06 
0-04 


30 


0-06 


1-07 


4-27 


6-25 


• • 






15 


31 


0-04 


• • 


4'42 


6*29 


• • 




20 


Mean. 


-0-02 


0-86 


1*78 


6' 14 


• • 




25 
















30 


-0-03 


















Mean. 


0-00 





Zero is B.L. 85*00 metres. 



— aot — 



Appendix L. (eontinued). 
Table LXVI.— ^*ju4n Reservoir gauges. 

R. L. OF ZeBO 86.00 METRES. 



Tear. 


Date. 


Jan. 


Febr. 


Uarch 


April. 

• • 

• • 

• ■ 

• • 


May 


June 


July 

• • 

• • 

• ■ 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Not. 


Doc. 


4902 


1 
5 

10 
15 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


12-80 
13-72 
14-91 
15-73 


17-77 
18-16 
18-59 
19-02 




20 
25 
30 

Kean 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

20-30 
20-38 
20-41 
20-61 

20-67 
20-86 
20-96 

20-60 

16-29 
16-80 
17-37 
17-81 

18-26 
18-66 
19-13 

17-76 


• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 


9-90 
10-98 
12-50 


16-58 
17-18 
17-67 


19-39 
19-77 
20-25 




• • 


• • 


•• 

20-67 
20-55 
20-34 
20-19 

19-99 
19-89 
19-72 


• • 


• • 


• • 

• ■ 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

■ • 

• • 

• • 

■ • 

• • 

■ 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


15-51 


19-00 


4903 


1 

5 
10 
15 

20 
25 
30 

Mean 

1 

5 

10 
15 

20 
25 
30 

MeMi 


21-00 
21-13 
21-06 
21-03 


21-05 
21-09 
21-00 
20-92 


19-76 
19-63 
19-39 
19-18 

18-98 
18-48 
17-97 


17-63 
16-85 
15-69 
14-41 

12-42 
9-43 
7-07 

13-47 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

10-63 
10-53 


10-56 
10-53 
12-10 
13-33 




21-06 
21-00 
21-03 

21-04 

19-18 
19-42 
19-70 
20-00 

20-28 
20-37 
20-41 

19-91 


20-79 
20-75 
20-68 


6-90 
10-59 
10-57 


14-49 
15-18 
16-14 




20-90 


20-19 


19-05 

20-94 
20-99 
21-09 
20-91 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 


13-19 


4904 


20-44 
20-72 
21-01 
20-96 


20-91 
21-00 
21-15 
21-25 


19-66 
19-06 
17-97 
16-22 


• • 

• • 

• ■ 


• • 

• ■ 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 
■ • 




21-01 
20-94 
20-90 


21-16 
21-06 
20-96 


20-73 
20-33 
19-83 

20-69 


13-84 

10-26 

6-56 


• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 




20-85 


21-07 


14-80 


.. 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 



Zero Ib B.L. 85*00 metree. 



— M8-. 



Appendiz L. (eantinued). 

Table LXVII. — Cairo gauges, (Roda island). 

XCeaua. of ao 7ears ±8^73*1882. 



T«M. 


Ditte. 


1 


1 


1 


t 

1-5 
1-4 
1-3 
1-3 
1-2 
1-2 


1 

1-1 
1-1 
1-1 
1-1 
1-0 
1-0 


i 


1 


1 


1 




1 


1 




5 
10 
15 
20 
25 
End. 


2-8 
2-7 
2-6 
2-5 
2-4 
2-3 


2-2 
2*2 
2-1 
2-0 
1-9 
1-9 


1-8 
1-8 
1-7 
1-6 
1-6 
1-5 

1-5 
1-4 
1*4 


0-9 
0-9 
0-9 
0-9 
1-0 
1-1 


1-1 
1-3 
1-5 
1-8 
2-2 
2-9 


4-1 
4-9 
5-7 
5-9 
6-2 
6-4 


6-5 
6-7 
6-8 
6-9 
7-0 
7-1 

5*2 
5-3 
5-2 


6-9 
6-9 
6*8 
6-8 
6-7 
6'2 

5*2 
5-0 
4-9 


5-6 
5-1 
4-7 
4-3 
4-0 
3*8 


3-6 
3-4 
3-3 
3-2 
3-0 
2'9 


1877 


5 
10 
15 


2-7 
2*7 
2'6 


2-2 
2-1 
1-9 


1-3 
1-3 
1-2 

1-1 
1-1 

1-0 

1-2 

0-6 
0-6 
0-5 

0-5 
0-4 
0-3 

0-5 

2-5 
2-5 
2-5 


I'l 
1-0 
I'O 


0-7 
0-7 
0-7 


1-2 
1-2 
1-4 


3-6 
4-0 
4-7 


3-9 
3'6 
3-7 


2*9 
2-7 
2-6 




20 

25 

End. 


2*6 
2-5 
2*3 


1-8 
1*7 
1*7 


1-3 
1-4 
1-4 

1-4 


1-0 
1-0 
1-9 

1-0 


0-8 
1-0 
1-3 


1-6 
2-4 

2-8 


4-6 
5-3 
5-3 


5-2 
5-1 
5-3 

5-2 

6-5 
6-8 
7-2 

7-6 
7-9 
8-2 


4-6 
4-4 
4-2 


3'7 
3-5 
3-1 


2-5 
2-4 
2'3 




Mean. 


2-6 


1-9 


0-9 


1-8 


4-6 


4-7 


3-6 


2-6 


1878 


5 

10 
15 


2-2 
2*1 
2-1 


1-6 
1*5 
1-3 


1-0 
0-9 
0-9 

1-0 
0-8 
0-8 


0-3 
0-2 
0-2 


0-0 
0-0 
0-0 


-0-2 
0-4 
0-8 


4-1 
4-9 
5-4 

6-0 
6-3 
6-6 


8-4 
8*7 
8-4 


7-5 
7-4 
6-9 


4-9 
4-7 
4-5 




20 

25 

End. 


1-9 
1-8 
1*7 


1-2 
1-1 
1-1 


0-2 
0-1 
0-0 

0-2 

2*2 
2-2 
2-2 


-0-2 
-0-2 
-0-2 


1-0 
1-4 
2-6 


8-1 

7'9 
7.7 

8-2 

7-9 
7-5 

7-6 

7-4 
7-3 
6-6 


6*2 
5*5 
5*5 


4*4 
4-2 
4-0 




Mean. 


1*9 


1-3 

3-2 
3-0 

2-9 


0-9 

2-7 
2-7 
2-6 


-0-1 


1-0 


5-5 

5-1 
5-9 
6-5 


7-4 

7-1 
7-0 

7-2 


6-5 


4-4 


1879 


5 

10 
15 


3*7 
3-6 
3-5 


2-0 
2-1 
2-3 


2-1 
2'1 
2-6 


5-9 
5-4 
5*0 


4-4 

4-0 
3-8 




20 

25 

End. 


3-4 
3-3 
3*2 


2-9 

2-8 
2-8 

2-9 


2-6 
2-5 
2-5 

2-6 


2-4 
2-3 
2*3 

2-4 


2-1 
2-1 

2-0 


2-2 
2-2 
2-1 


3-5 
3-9 
4-9 


6*9 
7*0 
7-1 


7-7 
8-0 
8-1 


4*7 
4*5 
4*3 


3-7 
3-5 
3-5 




Mean. 


3-5 


2-1 


2-1 


3-2 


6-4 


7*5 


7-4 


5*0 


3*8 



Referred to zero as B. L. 12-25. 



^204 — 



Appendix L. (continued). 

Tablb LXVII (continued). — Cairo gauget (Roda itland). 

±Q02 



Date. 


Month. 


Date. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


Sept. 


Date. 


Month. 


1 
5 

10 
15 
20 


Jannarv. 
2-78 
2-74 
2-68 
2-49 
2'25 

2-16 
2-27 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 


2-08 
2-07 
2-02 
2-00 
2-00 


1*73 
1-75 
1-75 
1-78 
1-80 


1-79 
1-78 
1*76 
1*75 
1'75 


3*66 
3-61 
3-64 
3-64 
3-66 


4*87 
4-92 
5-01 
5*14 
5*23 


1 

5 

10 
15 
20 

25 
30 

Mean. 


October. 
5-68 
5-60 
5-51 
5-57 
5-66 


25 
30 


6 
7 

8 

9 
10 


2-00 
2-00 

1-98 

1-99 
1-99 


1-80 
1-80 

1-82 

1-83 
1*82 


1*76 
1-79 

1-88 

1-98 
2*07 


3-66 
3-68 

3*72 

3-77 
3-80 


5-28 
5-30 

5-30 

5'35 
5-41 


5*50 
5-22 


Mean. 


2*45 


5'53 


1 


February. 
2-27 

2'25 
2-20 
2'2<) 
2-27 
2'22 

2*37 


1 

5 
10 
15 
20 
25 

30 

Mean. 


Nov. 
5-11 


5 
10 
15 
20 
25 


11 
12 
13 
14 
15 


1-98 
1*98 
1-96 
1-96 
1-94 


1*80 
1-80 
1*81 
1-80 
1-80 


2-16 
2-25 
2*32 
2-38 
2-41 


3-81 
3-84 
3-86 
3-88 
3-90 


5-49 
5-54 
5-55 
5-53 
5-52 


4*96 
4*65 
4-44 
4-38 
3-95 


28 


16 

17 

18 
19 
20 


1-94 

1-91 

1'86 
1*86 
1-86 


1-79 

1-78 

1*76 
1-71 
1-68 


2-47 

2-50 

2-52 
2-56 
2-58 


3-93 

3-95 

3-97 
4-02 
4 '13 


5-53 

5-55 

5 -.56 
5-58 
5-64 


3-91 


Mean. 


2-25 


4-49 


1 
5 


March. 
2-37 
2-32 

2-30 
2-34 
2-30 
2-29 
2-29 


1 
5 

10 
15 
20 
25 
30 

Mean. 


Dec. 
3-93 
3-70 


10 
15 
20 
25 
30 


21 
22 
23 
24 
25 


1-86 
1*84 
1-82 
1*82 
1*80 


1-66 
1-64 
1-66 
1-69 
1*71 

1-76 

1-78 
1*80 
1-80 
1*80 


2-64 
2*70 
2-82 
2-94 
3-05 


4-26 
4 -.33 
4-40 
4'47 
4-51 


5-67 
5-74 
5-77 
5-77 
5-77 


3-29 
3-05 
3-05 
2-95 

2-78 


Mean. 


2-32 


26 

27 
28 
29 
30 


1-80 

1-78 
1-78 
1*77 
1*75 


3-13 

3-23 
3-35 
3-50 
3-54 


4-58 

4-65 
4'72 
4*79 
4-83 


5-71 

5-70 
5-69 
5-69 
5-68 


3-25 


1 

5 

10 


April. 
2-29 
2-27 
2-09 

2*12 

2-12 

2-07 
2-08 






15 


31 


1-74 


• • 


3-57 


4'85 


• • 




20 


Mean. 


1-92 


1*76 


2*45 


4-07 


5*44 




25 
30 
















Mean. 


2'15 





Zero ia B.L. 12*25 metros. 



— 205 — 



(Appendix L. (eontinued). 
ll/LBLB LXYII (oontinaed). — Ccdro Gauget (Roda i$land). 

±@03 



Date. 


Month. 


Date. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


Sept. 


Date. 


Month. 




January. 
















October. 


1 


2-78 


1 


2-03 


1-87 


3-25 


3-73 


6-18 


1 


6*19 


5 


2-69 


2 


2-02 


1-93 


3-48 


3*76 


6-11 


5 


6-34 


10 


2'64 


3 


2-00 


1-96 


3-55 


3-76 


6-11 


10 


6-63 


15 


2*67 


4 


2-00 


1-98 


3-.54 


3-78 


6-09 


15 


6-61 


20 


2-51 
2-43 


5 


1-96 


1-98 


3-59 


3-80 


6-06 


20 


6'72 


25 


6 


1-93 


1-98 


3-57 


3-84 


6-04 


25 


6-90 


30 


2'36 


7 
8 
9 


1-89 
1-84 
1'81 


1-98 
1-99 

2'00 


3-54 
3-57 
3-54 


3-89 
3-89 
3-91 


6-02 
6-05 
6-07 


30 
Mean. 


5*91 


Mean. 


2*56 
February. 


6-47 






Nov. 


1 


• • 

2-47 


10 


1-79 


2-03 


3-55 


3-92 


6-14 


1 
5 


6-18 


5 


11 


1-77 


2-06 


3-57 


3-94 


6-18 


6-15 


10 


2-43 


12 


1'79 


2-06 


3-57 


4-02 


6-21 


10 


5-90 


15 


2-38 


13 


1-79 


2-07 


3-57 


4-06 


6-25 


15 


5-23 


20 


2-38 


14 


1-77 


2-08 


3-59 


4-19 


5-27 


20 


4*67 


25 


2-33 
2'30 


15 


1-75 


2-10 


3-60 


4-24 


6-29 


25 

30 

Mean. 


4-50 


28 


16 
17 
18 


1-79 
1*79 

• • 


2-16 
2-20 
2-20 


3-62 
3-64 
3-66 


4-33 
4*40 
4*49 


6-33 
6-36 
6-39 


4-26 


Mean. 


2-38 


5-27 




March. 




Dec. 


1 


2-29 


19 


• • 


2-25 


3-64 


4-69 


6-41 


1 


4-22 


5 


2'24 
2-36 


20 


1-75 


2*32 


3-68 


4-89 


6-41 


5 
10 


4-08 


10 


21 


1'75 


2*36 


3-64 


5-03 


6-39 


3-99 


15 


2-32 


22 


1-76 


2-39 


3-66 


5-15 


6-36 


15 


3-50 


20 


2-;J3 


23 


1-77 


• • 


3-66 


• • 


6-33 


20 


3-33 


25 


2-41 


24 


1-75 


2*45 


3-66 


5-40 


6-28 


25 


3-01 


30 


2-42 


25 


1-78 


2-48 


3-69 


5-55 


6-25 


30 
Mean. 


2-86 


Mean. 


2-34 


26 
27 


• • 

1-80 


2-50 
2 -.54 


3-68 
3-69 


5-72 
5-84 


6-20 
6-15 


3-57 




April. 






1 


2-40 


28 


1*83 


2-61 


3-69 


5-93 


6-11 






5 


2-38 


29 


1'85 


2-82 


3-66 


6-05 


6-10 






10 


2-25 
2*22 
2-40 
2-20 


30 


1-83 


3-01 


3-70 


6-15 


6-15 






15 


31 


1-83 


• • 


3-72 


6-18 


• • 




20 


Mean. 


1-84 


2-25 


3-58 


4-61 


6-22 




25 
















30 


2*04 


















Mean. 


2'27 





Zero is B.L. 12*25 metres. 



— ao6 



Appendix L (oontituud). 
Tablb LXYII (oontinued). — Cairo gauges (Boda Island). 



D«te. 


Month. 


Date. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August 


Sept. 


Date. 


Month. 




Januarj. 
















October. 


1 


2-82 


1 


2-58 


2-60 


3-59 


3-88 


5-68 


1 


• • 


5 


2-69 


2 


2-58 


2-65 


3-59 


3-93 


5-66 


5 


• • 


10 


2-12 


3 


2-56 


3-05 


3-57 


4'04 


5-64 


10 


• • 


15 


2-54 


4 


2-56 


2-90 


3-56 


4*15 


5-62 


15 


• • 


20 


2-47 
2-41 


5 


2-57 


2-75 


3-59 


4-26 


5-65 


20 
25 


• • 


25 


6 


2-57 


2-80 


3-59 


4-38 


5-65 


• • 


30 


2-44 


7 
8 
9 


2-54 
2-56 
2-54 


2-84 
2-86 
2-88 


3-59 
3-57 
3-57 


4*47 
4-56 
4-65 


5-66 
5-67 
5-69 


30 
Mean. 


• • 


Mean. 


2-50 


• • 




February. 




Novem. 


1 


2-50 
2-62 


10 


2-54 


2*92 


3-54 


4-76 


5-75 


1 
5 


• • 


5 


11 


2-52 


2-97 


3-54 


4-84 


5-79 


• • 


10 


2-74 


12 


2-52 


3-01 


3-54 


5-14 


5-83 


10 


• • 


15 


2-70 


13 


2-54 


— 


3-55 


5-40 


5-84 


15 


• • 


20 


2-66 


14 


2-56 


3-08 


3*54 


5-62 


5-82 


20 


• • 


25 


2-83 
2-83 


15 


2-54 


3-09 


3' 57 


5-80 


5-80 


25 

30 

Mean. 


• • 


28 


16 
17 
18 


2-52 
2-50 
2-54 


3-07 
3-10 
3-15 


3-54 
3-54 
3-54 


5-94 
5-95 
5-97 


5-83 
5-85 
5-89 


• • 


Mean. 


2-70 


• • 




March. 




Decern. 


1 


2-73 


19 


2-54 


3-23 


3-54 


5-97 


5-93 


1 


• • 


5 


2-79 
2-75 


20 


2-52 


3-35 


3*52 


5-93 


5-92 


5 

10 


• • 


10 


21 


2-52 


3-50 


3-52 


5-91 


5-92 


• • 


15 


2-70 


22 


2-52 


3-57 


3-54 


5-86 


5-89 


15 


• • 


20 


2-70 


23 


2-52 


3-59 


3-54 


5-82 


5-86 


20 


• • 


25 


2-66 


24 


2-51 


3-60 


3-54 


5-77 


5-80 


25 


• • 


30 


2-60 


25 


2-52 


3-55 


3-57 


5-75 


• • 


30 
Mean. 


• • 


Mean. 


2-70 


26 
27 


2-56 
2-57 


3-55 
3-57 


3-57 
3-57 


5-74 
5-73 


• • 


• • 




April. 






1 


2-61 


28 


2-58 


3-57 


3-57 


5-70 


• • 






5 


2-61 


29 


2-56 


3-58 


3-59 


5*69 


• • 






10 


2*56 
2-60 
2-38 
2*11 


30 


2-54 


3-58 


3-73 


5-68 


. • 






15 


31 


2'56 


• • 


3-88 


5-68 


• • 




20 


Mean. 


2-55 


3-12 


3-14 


5-15 


• • 




25 
















30 


2-52 


















Mean. 


2-48 





Zero IB B.L. 12*26 xnetreB. 



— wt — 



Appendix L {continued)' 
Table LXVIII. — Gauges downstream of the JRosetta Weir. 



i 


1 

1 
5 

10 
15 

20 
25 
30 


3-57 
3-53 
3-40 
3-12 

2-75 
2-58 
2-24 


1 

2-12 
1-95 
1-77 
1-54 

1*37 
1-15 
0-93 


1 


1 


1 


•? 


t 


-3 


1 

4-30 
4-83 
5-04 
5-16 


1 

5-36 
5-24 
5-08 
5-12 


1 
1 

4-54 
4*27 
3-85 
3-50 


1 


1902 


1-00 
0-87 
0-67 
0-31 


0-00 
-0-48 
-0-45 
-0*48 


-0-50 
-0-50 
-0-50 
-0-50 


-0-50 

-0-50 

-0-12 

0-00 


0-00 
0-00 
0'05 
0-03 


1-10 
1-94 
2-00 
2-26 


4-10 
3-63 
3-90 
3-95 




0-60 

0-33 

-0-29 


-0-47 
-0-50 
-0-50 


-0-50 
-0-50 
-0-50 


-0-02 
0-00 
0-00 


0-08 
0-16 
0-94 


2-87 
3-77 
4-22 

2-60 

1-92 
2-75 
3-45 
4-05 

4-26 
5-24 
6-03 

3'96 

1-50 
2-80 
3-96 
5-45 

5-63 
5-30 
5*19 

4*26 


5-28 
5-40 
5-36 

5-05 

6-12 
5-98 
6-00 
6-12 

6-22 
6-07 
5-95 


5-32 
5-08 
4-71 

5-11 


3-38 
3-10 
3-98 

3-80 


3-99 
3-84 
3-58 




3-03 


1-55 

2-56 
2-22 
1-94 

1-88 


0-36 


-0-41 


-0-50 


-0-16 


0-18 


3-89 


1903 


1 

5 

10 

15 

20 
25 
30 

Mean 

1 
5 

10 
15 

20 
25 
30 

Mean 


3-52 
3-48 
3-39 
3-44 

3-24 
3-03 
2-80 

3-27 

2-98 
2-80 
2*71 
2-66 

2-57 
2-54 
2-44 


1-44 
1-25 
0-67 
0-50 


-0-35 
-0-38 
-0-38 
-0*40 


-0-40 
-0-42 
-0-44 
-0*45 


-0-46 
-0-46 
-0-46 
-0-46 


-0-43 
-0-30 
-0-20 
-0-12 


6-00 
6-11 
6-33 
6-33 

6*43 
6-59 
6-26 


6-07 
6-00 
5-86 
5'24 

4*48 
3-95 
3-42 

5-00 

t • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


3-20 
2-90 
3-18 
3.11 




1-79 
1-62 
1-50 

1-93 

2-56 
3-06 
2-90 
2-75 

2'57 
2-38 
2*28 


0-38 

0-01 

-0-32 


-0-40 
-0-40 
-0-40 


-0-46 
-0-46 
-0-46 


-0-46 
-0-46 
-0-46 


-0-76 
-0-70 
-1-50 


3-00 
3-09 
3-00 




0-56 

2-28 
1-25 
0-50 
0-00 


-0-39 

0.00 
-0-20 
-0-40 
-0-25 


-0-44 


-0-46 

-0-35 
-0-35 
-0-31 
-0-32 


-0-27 


6-07 


6*29 


3'07 


1904 


-0-33 
-0-32 
-0-32 
-0-32 


-0-24 
-0-24 
-0*24 
-0-24 


5-19 
5-11 
5-23 
5-31 

5-45 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 
■ • 

• • 

• • 


• • 




0-00 
0-00 
0-00 


-0-40 
-0-32 
-0-34 


-0-32 
-0-32 
-0-35 


-0-32 
-0-10 
-0-24 

-0-28 


-0-24 

-0-24 

0-20 


•• 




2-67 


2-50 


0-58 


-0*27 


-0-33 


0-23 


• • 



Zero is R.L. 10*00 metres. 



Appendix L (continued). 





Tablb LXIX.— 


■Gaugei 


downstream of the Danuetta Weir, 






1 


1 


i 

0-44 
0-44 
0-41 
0-36 

0-34 
0-32 
0-50 

0-40 

0-42 
0-35 
0-33 
0-33 

0-33 
0-33 
0-30 

0-34 


1 

0-50 
0-55 
0-65 
0-75 

0-50 
0-75 
0-75 

0*64 

0-30 
0-30 
0-30 
0-30 

0-30 
0-30 
0-30 

0*30 

2-94 
1-88 
0*77 
0-75 

0-68 
0-66 
0*72 

1-20 


1 


t 
< 


i 

S 


1 


'3 

•-3 


4 

1-18 
1-20 
2-23 
2-73 

3-40 
3-98 
4-2C 


1 

4*34 

4-80 
5-00 
5-12 


1 

5*26 
5-14 
5-02 
5-06 


1 
1 

4-54 
4-29 
4-01 
3-80 

3-75 
3-52 
2-77 

3*81 

6-15 
6-09 
5-95 
5-46 

4-95 

4-87 
4-85 


1 


1902 


1 

5 

10 

15 


0-75 
0-75 
0-75 
0*75 

0-27 
0-17 
0-14 

0-51 

0-29 
0-77 
0-95 
0-68 

0-63 
0-60 
0-67 

0-66 

0-72 
2-53 
3-06 
2-65 

2-:)8 
1-96 
1*82 

2'16 


0-14 
0-06 
0-0(> 
0-00 


-0-01 
-0-01 
-0-01 
-0-01 


0-27 

0-27 

-0-01 

-0-03 


-0'04 

-0-04 

-0-04 

0-21 


2-62 
2-02 
1-25 
0-85 




20 
25 
30 


-0-01 
-0-01 
-0-01 

0-02 


0-07 
0-10 
0-21 


-0-04 
-0-04 
-0-04 


0-35 
0-38 
1-20 


5-20 
5-30 
5-26 


5-26 
5-02 
4-66 

5-06 

6-09 
6-22 
6-48 
6-46 

6-57 
6-75 
6-35 


0-60 
0-45 
0-42 




Mean. 


0-05 


0-05 


0-29 


2-71 


5-00 


1-17 


1903 


1 

5 

10 

15 


0-52 

0-14 

0-00 

-0*02 


-0-12 
-0-12 
-0-14 
-0-14 


-0-15 
-0-15 
-0-15 
-0-15 


-0-13 
0-1)7 
0-33 
1-20 


1-00 
0-80 
0-50 
2-30 

4-32 
5-2<> 
5-98 

2-88 

3-08 
3-64 
4-22 
5-54 

5-69 
5'32 
5-20 

4' 67 


6-06 
6-08 
6-10 
6-19 

6-30 
6-14 
6-06 

G-13 

5-20 
5-11 
5-23 
5-31 

5-47 

• • 

• • 

• • 


4-77 
4-76 
4-00 
3-54 




20 
25 
30 


-0-08 
-0-10 
-0-12 


-0-15 
-0-15 
-0-15 


-0-15 
-0-15 
-0-15 


1-00 
1-20 
I'lO 


3-44 
3-68 
3-62 




Mean. 


0-05 


-0-14 


-0-15 


0-77 


6-41 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


5-46 

• • 

■ • 

■ • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


3-97 


1904 


1 

5 

10 

15 


3-60 
3-51 
3-4G 
3-41 

3-35 
3-32 
3-24 

3*41 


1'55 
1'37 
1-00 
0'45 


0-11 
0-41 
0-46 
0-24 


-0-05 
-0-08 
-0-09 
-0*09 


2-02 
1-75 
1-16 
0-50 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 




20 
25 
30 


1-52 
1*16 
0-15 


0-02 

0-35 

-0-02 


-0-09 
1'06 
1-97 


-0-03 

-0-05 

2-00 

1*05 


• • 

• • 

• • 




Mean. 


1-03 


0-22 


0-38 


• • 


• • 



Zero is B.L. 10*00 metres. 



— 209 — 



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"'^ £^J5o»i^o»oo totototot^t>- h-r^oooOoooo ososososo 



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•»I«TS 



^^o^co^^^ ^«>^S;::jS SSSSJ^S SSS^gJ 



— 211 — 



Appendix N. 



Table LXXII. — Table for Converting Cubic Metres per Day into Cubic Metres 

per Second. 



CuIho metres 


Cnbio metres 


Cubic metres 


Cubic metres 


Cubic metres 


Cubic metres 


per day. 


per second. 


per day. 


per second. 


per day 


per second. 


10,000 


0-1157 


750,000 


8-6805 


5,000^000 


67-8704 


20,000 


0-2315 


800,000 


9-2593 


5,250,000 


60-7639 


30,000 


0-3472 


850,000 


9-8380 


5,500,000 


63-6574 


40,000 


0-4630 


900,000 


10-4167 


5,750,000 


66-5509 


50,000 


0-5787 


950,000 


10-9954 


6,000,000 


69-4444 


60,000 


0-6944 


1,000,000 


11-5741 


6,250,0(X) 


72-3380 


70,000 


0-8102 


1,250,000 


14-4676 


6,500,000 


75-2315 


80,000 


0-9259 


1,500,000 


17-3611 


6,750,000 


78-1250 


90,000 


1-0417 


1,750,000 


20-2546 


7,000,000 


81-0185 


100,000 


1-1574 


2,000,000 


23-1481 


7,250,000 


83-9120 


150,000 


1-7361 


2,250,000 


26-0417 


7,500,000 


86-8055 


200,000 


2-3148 


2,500,000 


28-9352 


7,750,000 


89-6991 


250,000 


2-8935 


2,750,000 


31-8287 


8,000,000 


92-5926 


300,000 


3-4722 


3,000,000 


34-7222 


8,250,000 


95-4861 


350,000 


. 4-0509 


3,250,000 


37-6157 


8,500,000 


98-3796 


400,000 


4-6296 


3,500,000 


40-5092 


8,750,000 


101-2731 


450,000 


5-2083 


3,750,000 


43-4028 


9,000,000 


104-1667 


500,000 


6-7870 


4,000,000 


46-2963 


9,250,000 


107-0602 


550,000 


6*3657 


4,250,000 


49-1898 


9,500,000 


109-9537 


600,000 


6-9444 


4,500,000 


52-0833 


9,750,000 


112-8472 


650,000 


7-5231 


4,750,000 


54-9768 


10,000,000 


115-7407 


700,000 


8-1018 











Rough Working Approximations. 



Cubic metres 
per day. 


Cubic metres 
per second. 


Cubic metres 
per day. 


Cubic metres 
per second. 


Cubic metres 
per day. 


Cubic metres 
per second. 


125,000 
250,000 
500,000 
750,000 
1,000,000 


1-5 
3 
6 
9 
12 


2,000,000 
3,000,000 
4,000,000 
5,000,000 
6,000,000 


24 

36 
48 
60 
72 


7,000,000 

8,000,000 

9,000,000 

10,000,000 


84 

96 

108 

120 



u 



— 212 — 



Appendix N (continued). 

Table LXXIII. — Table for converting Cubic Metres per Second into Cubic 

Metres per Day, 



Cubic 
metres 

per 
Becond. 


Cubic metres 
per day. 


Cubic 
metres 

per 
second. 


Cubic metres 
per day. 


Cubic 
metres 

per 
second. 


Cubic metres 
per day. 


Cubic 
metres 

per 
second. 


Cubic metres 
per day. 


1 


86,400 


26 


2,246,400 


51 


4,406,400 


76 


6,566,400 


2 


172,800 


27 


2,332,800 


52 


4,492,800 


77 


6,652,800 


3 


259,200 


28 


2,419,200 


.53 


4,579,200 


78 


6,739,200 


4 


345,600 


29 


2,.50.5,600 


.54 


4,665,600 


79 


6,825,600 


5 


432,000 


30 


2,.5y2,000 


55 


4,7.52,000 


80 


6,912,000 


6 


518,400 


31 


2,678,400 


56 


4,838,400 


81 


6,998,400 


7 


604,800 


32 


2,764,800 


57 


4,924,800 


82 


7,084,800 


8 


691,200 


33 


2,851 ,2(K) 


58 


5,011,200 


83 


7,171,200 


9 


777,600 


34 


2,937^600 


59 


5,097,600 


84 


7,257,600 


10 


864,000 


.35 


.3,( ►24,000 


(K) 


5,184,000 


85 . 


7,344,000 


11 


950,400 


36 


3,110,400 


61 


5,270,400 


m 


7,430,400 


12 


1,036,800 


37 


3,196,8W) 


62 


5,.356,800 


.87 


7,516,800 


13 


1,12.3,200 


38 


3,283,2(K) 


63 


5,443,200 


■88 


7,603,200 


14 


1^»,()00 


39 


3,369,(k)0 


64 


5,529,600 


89 


7,689,600 


15 


1,29(5,000 


40 


3,45(),000 


(55 


5,616,000 


90 


7,776,000 


16 


1,382,400 


41 


3,.542,400 


66 


5,702,400 


91 


7,862,400 


17 


1,468,800 


42 


3,628,8(K) 


67 


5,788,800 


92 


7,94)J,80O 


18 


1,.5,>'),200 


43 


3,71,'),2(H) 


68 


.5,87.5,200 


93 


8,035,200 


19 


1,641,600 


44 


3,801,(;(H) 


69 


5,961,600 


94 


8,121,600 


20 


1,728,000 


45 


3,8S8,(HK) 


70 


6,048,(K)0 


95 


8,208,(K)0 


21 


1,814,400 


46 


.3,974,400 


71 


6,i;34,400 


96 


8,294,400 


22 


l,iMK),800 


47 


4,060,8(H) 


72 


6,220,800 


97 


8,380,800 


23 


1,987,200 


48 


4,147,200 


73 


6,307,200 


98 


8,467,200 


24 


2,073..500 


49 


4,2.3,3,()(H» 


74 


(),393,(')(K) 


99 


8,.553,600 


25 


2,l(;o,(HX) 


.W 


4,320,(HK» 


75 


6,480,(H)f> 


1(X» 


8,640,000 



— 213 — 



Appendix P. 

Tablb LXXIV. — Bombay rainfall compared with th£ Assudn gauges. 





Bombay Rainfall 
in hillimxtbeb 


AssuIn Gauok 
in hetbbb 


yewr. 


Jaiie. 


July. 


August. 


Sept. 


Total 

4 

Months. 


Vailatlon 

from 
normal. 


August. 


Sept. 


Variation 
from normal. 




Aug. 


Sept. 


1874 


474 


1046 


282 


279 


2081 


+267 


7-96 


8-59 


+ 1-20 


+0-91 


1875 
1876 


618 
328 


389 
602 


310 
220 


806 
119 


2123 
1269 


+309 
-545 


7-32 
7-19 


8-06 
8-38 


+0*56 
+0-43 


+0-38 
+0-70 


1877 


904 


281 


216 


226 


1627 


-187 


5-67 


6-11 


-1-09 


-1-57 


1878 


505 


1227 

285 
465 
747 
683 
1011 
C55 
554 
907 


518 


417 


2667 


+853 


6-84 


8-62 


+0-08 


+0-94 


1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 


420 
544 
387 
099 
346 
335 
130 
1103 


567 
104 
483 
85 
318 
386 
645 
272 


142 
579 
116 
255 
312 
432 
305 
166 


1414 
1692 
1733 
1722 
1987 
1808 
1{]U 
2448 


-400 
-122 

- 81 

- 92 
+173 

- 6 
-180 
+6:^4 


7-39 
6-96 
5-96 
6-00 
7-20 
6-06 
7-39 
6*38 


8-13 

7-4;i 

8-07 
7 -.33 
7-91 
7-04 
7-61 
7-65 


+0-63 
+0-20 
-0-80 
-0-76 
+0-44 
-0-70 
+0-63 
-0-38 


+0-45 
-0-25 
+0-39 
-0-35 
+0-23 
-0-64 
-0-07 
-0*03 


1887 


610 


785 


445 


463 
124 


2303 


+489 


7-95 


8-62 


+1-19 


+0-94 


1888 


401 


573 


289 


1387 


-427 


5-99 


6-61 


-0-77 


-1-07 


1889 
1890 
1891 


505 

mi 

•MS 


775 
554 
830 


260 
275 
170 


63 

168 
575 


1603 
1604 
1923 


-211 

-210 
+ 109 


6-88 
7-47 
6-79 


7-91 
8-14 
7*83 


+0-12 
+0-71 
+0-03 


+0-23 
+0-46 
+0-15 


1892 


338 


600 


838 


569 


2345 


+531 


7-14 


8-67 


+0-38 


+0-99 


1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 


544 
426 
452 
703 
351 
648 


399 
662 
455 
923 
780 
564 


343 
218 
402 
536 

134 


197 
305 
307 
41 
520 
513 


1483 
1611 
1616 
2203 
m)2 
1859 


-203 
-198 
+389 
+ 188 
+ 45 


6-97 
7-27 
8-07 
6-73 
6-23 
7-07 


7-43 
8-37 
8-10 
8-21 
7-53 
8-11 


+0*21 
+0-51 
+ 1-31 
-0-03 
-0-53 
+0-31 


-0-25 
+0-69 
+0-42 
+0-53 
-0-15 
+0-43 


1899 


527 


121 

508 
844 
369 
615 


IXi 


88 


8(;9 


-945 


4-28 


6-16 


-2-48 


-1-52 


1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 


442 

627 
248 
472 

• • 


603 
3(54 
468 
47(; 

• • 


203 

47 

701 

229 

• • 


1756 
1882 
1786 
1792 

• • 


- 58 
+ 68 

- 28 

- 22 

• • 


6-90 
6-48 
4-25 
5-68 

• • 


7-13 
7-45 
6-40 
7-30 

• • 


+0-14 
-0-28 
-2-51 
-1-08 

• • 


-0-55 

-o-2a 

-1-28 
-0-38 

t • 



— 214 — 



Appendix Q. 

Tablb LXXY. —Aation Addis Ababa. 

±903 



(Meteorological data). 





Barometer 


Thebmombteb 




WlBD 


RAIVVALL 
IN MILMMRUB 


Month. 


Mean. 


Tarlatton 

from 
Doniul. 


Mean 
max. 

24-3 
22-0 
24-4 
22-3 
22-7 
25-2 
25-0 
24-8 
24-8 
25-9 
26-4 
25-6 


Mean 
min. 


Mean 


S 
» 


Direction. 


Velocity 


Fall. 


Tartetlon 

from 
DormaL 


January . . 
February .. 
March.. . . 
April . . . . 
Mly .. .. 
June .. ., 
July .. .. 
August 
September. . 
Octolwr . . 
Noveinl)er.. 
December . . 










6-6 

9-3 

10-2 

11-1 

10-3 

9-9 

10-2 

10-0 

9-8 

6-9 

5-5 

4-5 

8-7 


15-4 
15-6 
17-3 
16-7 
16-5 
17-5 
17-6 
17-4 
17-3 
16-4 
15-9 
15-0 

16-5 




» 


s 

S22E 
824E 
S45E 
S45E 
S45E 
S45E 
S45B 
S45E 
S88E 
S86E 
E 








65 

37 

111 

61 
142 
205 
167 
129 

16 
9 

39 






Mean . . . . 










24-4 


S47E 


• 




981 







January 
February 
March. . 
Aj)ril •• 
May . . 
June •• 
July . . 
August 
Sei)tember 
October 
November 
December 

Mean . • 



±©os 



January . . 










26-0 


8-7 


17-4 






S51E 






32 






February .. 










28-2 


8-3 


18-2 






S42E 






25 






March . 










26-7 


10-5 


18-6 






S45E 






94 






Aj>ril . . 
May . . 










27-8 


10-0 


18-9 






S45E 






88 














25-7 


12-2 


18-9 






S45E 






117 






June .. 










24-4 


10-0 


17-2 






S45E 






191 






July .. 










22-4 


10-0 


16-2 






S45E 






276 






August 










21-6 


10-5 


16-0 






S29E 






248 






September . 










22-5 


9-7 


16-1 






S 






222 






October 










24-5 


7-3 


15'9 






S80E 






28 






November.. 










24-4 


5*0 


14-7 






E 













December . . 










23-6 


6-5 
9-1 


15'0 
17-4 




— 


N88E 






18 






Mean . . . . 










24-8 


S53E 






1339 







25 
25 
2.) -2 
26-6 
27-4 



±Q04 

4-6 
8-4 
9-2 
9-9 
10-1 



E 
S59E 
S50E 
N80E 
N84E 





20 

126 

31 

41 






— 215 — 



Appendix Q. (eontinued), 
Tablb LXXVI. — Station Wad Medani {Meteorological data). 

±eo2 







Thesmohbtkb 


^ 


Wind 


RAINyALL 
IN MILLimCTRKB. 


Month. 




TulaUoD 


Mean 


Mean 










TirUtton 




Mean. 


from 
Domua. 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean 




Direction. 


Velocity 


Fall. 


from 
DomuU. 


January • • 


• • 






. . 


. . 




February .. 


• • 




• • 


• * 


. . 


. . 


• • 






. , 




March • • • 


756-2 




40-2 


20-9 


30-6 


18 


NIOW 











April • • 
May .. .. 


756-6 




41-9 


28-5 


a5-2 


13 


N 











757-2 




44-1 


26-2 


35-2 


30 


S 72 W 






6 




June •• .. 


757-5 




43-1 


24-4 


33-8 


41 


S 36 W 






53 




July •• •• 


758-9 




38-7 


23-8 


31-2 


59 


S 34W 






i;« 




August. • . 


758-1 




39-7 


21-2 


30-4 


64 


S 5 W 






78 




September.. 


758-4 




40-4 


23-4 


31-9 


60 


S 9 E 






76 




October . . 


758-2 




43-2 


26-0 


34-6 


38 


N53 E 






2 




Noyember . . 


758-3 




40-8 


22-9 


31-8 


27 


N 5W 











December . • 


759-9 




36-7 


19-1 


27-9 


33 

• • 


N34 W 











Mean • • • . 






• • 






350 













±Q03 



Jannarj . . 


760-3 


February .. 


760-8 


March . . . 


758-4 


April . . . . 
Mky .. .. 


755-2 


756-6 


June .. .. 


757-3 


July .. .. 


757-8 


August. . . 


757-6 


September . 


758-2 


October . . 


757-4 


November . . 


758-0 


December . . 


758-2 


Mean . . . . 


758-0 



±&0'^ 







33-4 


16-8 


25-1 


30 


N33W 













33-6 


13-5 


23-6 


28 


N 6W 













39-1 


16-8 


28-0 


13 


N 8 W 













45-3 


23-4 


34-4 


17 


N24 E 













44-9 


25-4 


35-2 


40 


S 6 W 




1 








43-2 


24-6 


:«-9 


46 


S 4 W 




44 








40-5 


23-6 


32-0 


52 


S 9W 




124 








38-8 


26-4 


30-6 


67 


S 13W 




92 








39-3 


25-9 


32-6 


66 


S 21 W 




52 








41-4 


21-8 


31-6 


50 


S 63 E 













40-4 


20-8 


30-6 


39 


NIOE 













38-5 


16-5 
21-3 


27-5 
30-4 


48 
41 


N21 E 













39-4 


N 4 E 




313 





January . . 


758-2 


• . 


.37-4 


17-9 


27-6 


73 


N18 E 










February .. 


758-2 


• • 


.36-3 


15-8 


26-1 


40 


N IW 










March . . . 


756-3 


-1-0 


40-4 


17-7 


24-6 


22 


NIO E 










April . . . . 
May .. .. 


756-8 


+0-9 


41-9 


20-6 


28-4 


12 


N 3W 










756-6 


-0-3 


42-5 


24-3 


31-7 


27 


S 




40 


+36 


June .. .. 


757-9 


+0-5 


42-1 


12-3 


27-2 


41 


s 







■ -49 


July .. .. 


757-7 


-0-4 


39-5 


14-3 


26-9 


43 


s 




.70. 


,-40 


August. .. 


758-2 


+0-2 


40-9 


22-4 


31-6 


61 


s 




67 


-12 


September . 


• • 




. • 


• . 


. . 


, , 






• • 




October . . 


• • 




. • 


. . 


. . 


^ ^ 






.-. 




November . . 


• • 




. • 


• . 


^ ^ 


^ ^ 






• • 




December . . 


. • 




. • 




. . 








•• • 




Mean . . . . 


• • 




• • 






>•«• 


" 



— 216 — 



Appendix Q. (continued). 
Table LXXVII. — Station Khartoum (Meteorological data). 

±eo2 





BAROMETfiB 


TUBBMOMETBIt 


1 

26 
18 
14 
13 
19 
27 
47 
46 
41 
30 
2<) 
28 

28 


Wind 


BAinrAIX 
IX MIUJHmiB) 


Month. 


Mean. 


Taiiatton 

from 
normal. 


Mean 
max. 

28-7 
34-7 
38-0 
39-9 
43-0 
41-5 
39-0 
39-1 
39-5 
38-1 
29-1 
29-3 

36-7 


Mean 
mill. 

14-2 
19-1 
21-3 
23-6 
27-2 
26-5 
23-4 
24-7 
24-8 
22-7 
18-7 
13-7 


Mean 

20-0 
26-1 
28-0 
31-0 
34-1 
33-1 
30-1 
31-2 
30-0 
29-7 
25-8 
21-0 


Direction. 


Velocity 


Fall. 


Tulation 
from 
narmal. 


January . . 
February .. 
March . .. 
April .. •• 
May .• .. 
June .. .. 
July .. .. 
August. .. 
September.. 
October 
November . . 
December . . 


759-4 
758-3 
750-1 
75()-0 
754-8 
75G-0 
757-1 
75G-2 
75G-8 
757-4 
758-1 
759-() 



-0-2 
-1-4 
+ 1-2 
+0-3 
+0-9 
+0-8 
-0-1 
+ 1-2 
+0-5 
+0-2 
+0-9 


N 4E 

N17E 

N12E 

N18E 

N63W 

S12W 

S 4W 

S 12 W 

S 23 W 

N13E 

N30E 

N24E 


28 
21 
? 
? 

21 
24 
27 
20 
23 
22 
21 
22 








116 

5 
2 









Mean . . • • 


757-1 


+0-4 


21-7 


28-3 


N33E 


23 


123 







±©03 



Janaary 
February 
March . 
April .. 
May . . 
June .. 
July . . 
August. 
September 
October 
Noveml)er 
December 



Mean 



760-6 
761-5 
760-5 
757-0 



757 

757 

758 

758 

758 

758-6 

759-9 

760-0 



+ 1-2 
+3-0 
+3-0 
+2-2 
+3-2 
+2-3 
+ 1-8 
+ 1-8 
+3-3 
+ 1-7 
+2-0 
+ 1-3 



759-0] +2-4 



26-9 
28-2 
32-6 
39-9 
40-9 
41-4 
38-7 
37-5 
38-0 
38-7 
;^6-9 

;«-9 



11-6 
12-6 
15-1 
20-8 
24-7 
25-8 
25-1 
24-3 
20-9 
22-8 
20-9 
18-0 



36-2 20-2 27-8 



18' 
19' 
23' 

;^o• 

32' 

m- 

31' 
31' 

»)• 

:)«)• 

28' 
25. 



31 
32 
18 
18 
28 
28 
36 
44 
40 
32 
32 
34 



31 



N 8E 


23 


N 8W 


23 


N 15 W 


20 


N37E 


19 


S43E 


16 


S 7W 


21 


S IW 


15 


S 30 VV 


18 


S12W 


15 


N 2W 


15 


N 15 E 


13 


N22E 


13 


N18E 


18 








24 


18 

12 

14 





_0_ 

68 



±Q04 



January . . 


760-2 


+0-8 


31-7 


16-3 


22-8 


iW 


N15E 


13 





• • 


February .. 


760-4 


+ 1-9 


31-9 


16-6 


23-4 


26 


N 6E 










March • 


758-0 


+0-5 


36-(> 


18-4 


26-6 


18 


N 15 E 










April • • 
May . . . . 


758-0 


+3-2 


38-8 


20-2 


29-4 


16 


N IE 










757-8 


+3-3 


41-6 


23-2 


32-6 


20 


N 9W 







— 


June .. 


758-5 


+3-4 


42-6 


25-6 


33-3 


25 


S 2W 







- 5 


July .. .. 


757-6 


+ 1-3 


39-3 


24-9 


32-1 


52 


S 44 W 


, , 


35 


-20 


August 


758-3 


+ 1-6 


39-9 


25-8 


32-8 


50 


S 28 W 


, , 


76 


+ 15 


September . . 


. • 


. . 


, , 


, , 


, , 


a a 


. , 


, , 


• a 


a a 


October 


. . 


a . 


, , 


, ^ 


a a 


a a 


a a 


a a 


. . 


• a 


November . . 


, , 


. a 


, , 


, , 


a a 


, , 


, , 


a a 


. a 


• a 


December . . 




a a 


. . 


a a 


a a 


-*-^ 


a a 


a a 


a a 


a a 


• a 


Mean . • • • 




. . 


• a 


a a 


. . 








-—-=-«» 



217 — 



Appendix Q. (eontinueef). 

Table LXXVIII. — Station Berber. {Meteorological data). 

±Q02 





Babometeb 


Thebmometeb 


a 

s 
K 

2(5 

14 

13 

1(5 

32 

28 

31 

40 

34. 

40 

• • 


Wind 


RAUVFALL 

CC lOLLUCBTRKH 


Month. 


Mean. 


Variation 

from 
normal. 


Mean 
Max. 

a a 

39-0 
39-4 
45-5 
44-8 
42-2 
43-2 
48-3 
39-3 
.35-3 

3;vo 

• • 


Mean 
Min. 

• a 

2()-0 
20-5 
25-9 
2(5-7 
25-3 
29-2 
20-9 
23-4 
19-0 
14-7 

• a 


Mean 

• a 

21) -5 
30-0 
35-7 
35-8 

a3-8 

3G-2 
37 -(5 
31-4 
27-2 
23-8 

• ■ 


Direction. 


Velocity 


Fall. 


Variation 

from 
nonnal. 


January . . 
February .. 
March . . . 
April . . . . 
M!ay •. .. 
June .. .. 
July .• .. 
August 
September . 
October . . 
November.. 
December . . 


. a 

75(5-3 
755-9 
755 -(5 
755-(5 
757-1 

. • 
• a 
a a 
a a 






a • 

N '5 E 
N 5 E 

N14E 
N20 E 
S 82W 
N43W 
S 23W 
N39 E 
N 5W 
N15W 






a a 
a a 











a a 






Mean • . • . 


•• 






• • 


• 












±eo3 



January . . 


— 


February .. 


701-6 


March . . . 


751)-2 


April . . . . 
May .. .. 


750-2 


750-4 


June .. .. 


755-6 


July a. 


750-0 


August 


755-0 


September a 


757-1 


October . . 


757-0 


November a a 


758-9 


December . a 


758-9 


Mean • • 


757-6 





28-4 




29-4 




.34-3 




41-7 




43-1 




45-2 




42-9 




43-7 




42-3 




40-7 




3(5-5 


• ■ 


33-7 
38-5 


-' 



12-3 


20-4 


40 


N20W 


13-0 


21-2 


.34 


N23W 


11-0 


22'la 


22 


N 16 W 


15-7 


28-7 


27 


N 5W 


20-4 


31-8 


35 


N (53 E 


21-0 


;«-i 


58 


N20W 


21-0 


.32-0 


57 


N56W 


19-0 


.31-4 


58 


iN 76 W 


19-0 


.30- (5 


58 


NlOW 


17-0 


28-8 


49 


N15 E 


14-1 


25-2 


64 


N 7 E 


10-6 
16-2 


22-2 
27-3 


.54 
46 


N 2E 


NlOW 


















January • • 
February .. 
March • 
April .. 

May a. a. 

June . a 

July a a 

August 
September a 
October 
November a a 
December . . 


759-1 
758-1 
755-7 
750-4 
750-3 
750-2 
755-8 
750-4 

a a 
a . 


. . 

-2-1 

+0-4 
+0-3 
+0-6 
-0-6 
-0-3 

a a 
a a 
a a 
a a 


34-7 
;35-0 

;^-3 

41-8 
43-2 
42-1 
42-1 

a a 

a a 
a a 

• • 


±i 

13-3 
16-4 
19-7 
24-9 
26-0 
27-0 
26-1 

• a 


20-9 
24-2 
25-7 
29-0 

;»-4 

34-6 
.34-6 
34-1 

• • 


55 
48 
.35 
19 
25 
18 
.33 
26 

a a 

a a 
a a 

• • 


N 

N 
N 2W 
N 3 E 
N 9 E 
N20W 
S 16 W 
S 77 W 

• a 

a a 
a a 






— 


Mean .a 


• • 


• • 


• • 









— 218 



Appendix Q (continued). 
Tablb LXXIX. — St<aion Attudn {Meteorohgieal data). 

±eo2 





Barombtbb 


Thebmombtbb 


is 


Wind 


lUIilVAU. 
lie MILUllCTBB 


Month. 




Tarlatlon 


Mean 


Mean 










YarUtloii 




Mean. 


from 
norma). 


Max. 
22'6 


Hin. 
8-5 


Mean 
14-8 


50 


Direction. 


Velocity 


Fall. 


from 
DomMl. 


January . , 


765-6 




N 


17 









February ., 


, 764-4 






30-G 


11-4 


20-1 


23 


N 


17. 









March . . . 


761-3 






31-7 


13-4 


22-0 


25 


N 8W 


18 









April • . . . 
M!ay . . . 


760-2 






35-5 


18-2 


26*6 


23 


N15W 


17 









759-7 






41-G 


23' 9 


32-6 


IG 


N 5W 


21 









June .. . 


. 757-7 






41-7 


23'3 


32-4 


20 


N 6W 


19 









July .. • 


. 757-6 






41-3 


24-0 


32*5 


20 


N50W 


17 









August 


. 757-2 






41-4 


23-9 


32-5 


20 


N15W 


18 









September. 


. 758-9 






41-2 


23-9 


31*0 


32 


N18W 


18 









October . 


. 761-9 




• 


37 •» 


21-1 


28-5 


41 


N IW 


18 









November . 


. 764-0 






29-Q 


14-2 


20-8 


43 


N 


20 









December • 


. 766-6 






23-8 
34*8 


9*2 
17-9 


14-3 
25-7 


52 
30 


N 2W 


19. 









Mean •• . 


. 761-3 




• . . 


NlOW 


18 











±©OJ 


3 








January . 


.) 767-7 






22-0 


1 8-5 


13-6 


56 


N 


17 









February . 


. 768-3 






23-7 


9-1 


15-1 


44 


N 


19 









March . . 


. 764-6 






28-1 


12*7 


19-0 


38 


N 


21 









April .. . 
May .. . 


. 760-1 






37-3 


18-8 


26-3 


32 


N 


22 









. 768-9 






40-9 


22-9 


28-6 


35 


H 4E 


17 









June •. • 


. 757-5 






41-3 


24-2 


31-6 


23 


N IE 


22 









J uly • • 


. 756-8 






41-5 


24-3 


31-9 


22 


N IW 


19 









August. . 


. 756-2 






43-5 


25-4 


31-7 


25 


N 


21 









September. 


. 757-5 






41-4 


22-3 


28-8 


30 


N 


19 









October . 


, 758-6 






39-5 


19-5 


26-4 


34 


N 


19 









November . 


761-1 






34-6 


14-9 


21-2 


38 


N 


17 









December . . 


761-5 






30-0 
35-3 


11-6 
17-8 


17-8 
24-3 


46 
35 


N 


17 









Mean • • 


761-6 






N 


19 











±©o- 


^ 








January . , 


762-3 






24-7 


8-1 


14'7 


48 


N . 


18 









February . 


. 762-5 






27-1 


10-1 


16-8 


43 


N 


17 









March . 


. 759-9 






31-1 


13-1 


20-4 


31 


■ N 


22 









April .. . 
May .. . 


. 758-8 






34-1 


17-1 


24-3 


28 


N 5W 


19 


,0 






. 758-6 






36-5 


19-9 


27-3 


26 


N 5E 


23 









June .. • 


. 757-8 






40-2 


23-0 


31-2 


23 


N22W 


19 









July .. . 


. 755-9 






40-4 


24-4 


32-4 


27 


N 


• . 









August. 


. 755-8 






36-1 


23-7 


29-9 


U 


N 


. . 









September. 


» • . 






, , 


. • 


. . 


. • 


, , 


, , 








October . 


1 • • 






. . 


. . 


• . 


a • 




. . 








November . 


1 • • 








• • 


. • 




,. 


.. 








December . 


• • • 






• • 

• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 
. « 


. • 


. . 








Mean . • ^ i 


» . . 






. . 


• • 









— 219 — 



- \^ 



Appendix Q. (continued). 
Tablb LXXX. — Station Cairo (Meteorological data). 

±eo2 







Babombtsb 


Thkkmomktbb 


1 


WniD 


BAnVALL 

nf MUUMRan 


Month. 


Mean. 


YMiatlon 

from 

normal. 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean 


Direction. 


Velocity 


Fall. 


Tulstion 

trom 
nanmil 


January . 
February . 
March.. , 
April . . . 
May .. . 
June .. 
July • • 
August 
September 
October , 
November, 
December , 




765-5 
764-9 
761-8 
760-4 
761-6 
759-6 
758-0 
758-2 
760-3 
762-9 
763-0 
765-5 


+0-8 
+1-0 
-0-5 
-0-4 
+1-2 
-0-2 
+0-6 
+0-3 
-0-4 
+0-5 
-1-3 
+0-8 


17-2 
22-8 
24-2 
28-8 
33-4 
35-1 
36-1 
35-6 
33-0 
31-0 
24-0 
18-6 

28-3 


7-2 

8-8 
10-1 
13-4 
16-3 
18-6 
20-1 
20-4 
19-2 
17-0 
13-6 

8-5 

14-4 


11-3' 77 
14- 7i 69 
16-0, 62 
20-0, 56 
23-9 47 
25-8 50 
27-0, 55 
26-8 62 
24-9 70 
22-8 71 
17-9, 67 
12-6; 69 

20-3 63 


N06W 

N28W 

N48W 
NlOW 
N 8W 
N20W 
N18 W 
N12E 
N27 E 
N15E 
S 59 W 
8 35W 


6-5 

6-1 

8-6 

10-9 

14-9 

11-4 

4*3 

5*0 

3-7 

5-6 

3-1 

3-7 


5 
6 
1 







• 


1 


-2 

+3 

-4 

-2 

-2 









-1 

-6 

-5 


Mean • • < 




761-8 


+0-2 


N24W 


7-0 


13 


-19 



±903 



January • 
February . 
March.. • 
April •• • 
M!ay • • . 
June • • • 
July .. . 
August 
September. 
October . 
November. 
December . 



Mean. 



767-2 


+2-5 


17-7 


767-6 


+3-7 


18-7 


7C)4-2 


+ 1-9 


22-3 


760-4 


-0-4 


29-6 


761-7 


+1-3 


34-0 


759-4 


-0-4 


34-8 


758-4 


+1-0 


:^4-6 


757-8 


-0-1 


34-7 


761-4 


+0-7 


30-7 


763-7 


+ 1-3 


28-0 


7(54-9 


+0-6 


23-1 


764-3 


-0-4 


20-1 
27-4 


762-6 


+1-0 



6 

6 

9 
13 
15 
18 
19-7 
20 
18 
15 
10 

7 



lo- 
ll- 
14- 
20- 
22- 
26- 



7 
3 
7 
3 
6 
1 

26-1 
26-6 
23-4 
20-5 
16-0 
12-8 



13-4 19-3 



±eo4 



80 


N36W 


5-1 


2 


-5 


72 


S 68W 


5-6 


2 


-1 


69 


N20W 


7-7 


8 


+3 


57 


N 3E 


9-3 


1 


-1 


47 


N22E 


12-0 





-2 


49 


N21 E 


12-0 





. 


60 


N 7W 


10-0 








62 


N14W 


6-0 








72 


N 4W 


6-0 








74 


NIOE 


6-4 





-1 


68 


N12E 


6-1 





-6 


76 


N72 E 


4-4 


10 


+4 


65 


N 2W 


7-5 


23 


.-9 



January . 


. 763-8 


-0-9 


19-3 


6-9 


11-3 


73 


N39E 


18-5 


9 


+ 2 


February , 


. 763-7 


-0-2 


23-2 


7-6 


13-7 


74 


S 26W 


16-6 


19 


+ 16 


March. . . 


. 7(W)-7 


-1-6 


23-8 


9-6 


15-2 


73 


N51W 


16-6 





- 5 


April . . . 
May .. . 


. 760-4 


-0-4 


27-6 


12-0 


18-5 


72 


N34E 


17-1 


16 


+ 14 


. 760-4 





31-7 


15-4 


22-2 


65 


N29W 


14-8 


1 





Jane .. . 


. 759-2 


-0-6 


34-2 


17-9 


25-0 


59 


N30W 


12-4 








July .. . 


. 756-6 


-0-6 


34-9 


19-5 


27-2 


68 


N 8W 


. • 







August 


. 758-2 


-0-6 


34-6 


19-5 


27-0 


77 


N14W 


* • 







September. 






. . 


• « 


. . 




. • 


• . 


• . 




October . 






. • 


• • 


• • 




. • 


• • 


• . 




November. 






• • 


• . 


. • 




• • 


• • 


. • 




December . 






• • 




• • 




. • 


. . 


• . 




Mean . . . 






• . . • 







— 220 — 



Appendix Q. {continued). {Meteorologieal data). 

Tablb IjX.XX.l.-Statum Alexandria. 

±G02 





Babometeb 


Thebmometsb 


i- 

» 

70 
69 
68 
71 
64 
72 
73 
73 
70 
74 
72 
74 

71 


WlHD 


lURtrALL 
a MUUIORUR 


Moath. 


Mean. 


VarlaUon 

from 

normal. 


Mean 
Max. 

18-3 
22-3 
20-6 
22-8 
26-8 
27-1 
30-4 
31-8 
32-4 
27-9 
23-4 
18-1 

25-2 


Mean 

MiD. 

10-3 
12-6 
13-0 
14-9 
18-2 
18-6 
21-7 
23-3 
22-5 
20-7 
15-2 
10-8 

16-9 


Mean 

13-3 
15-9 
15-8 
17-8 
20-9 
22-1 
24-2 
25-1 
24-6 
23-0 
18-0 
13-5 

19-5 


Direction. 


Velocity 


Fall. 


Tuiatloa 

from 
nomnl. 


January . . 
February .. 
March • 
April .. 
May .. .. 
June . . 
July .. .. 
August 
September . 
October . . 
November.. 
December . . 


7fi4-5 
7()4-4 
761-3 
7(50-4 
762-0 
751)-!^ 
758-1 
758-5 
760-4 
763-0 
762-2 
764-3 


+0-8 
+ 1-4 
-0-5 
-1-1 
+ 1-5 
-0-6 
+0-1 
-0-1 
-0-5 
+0-4 
-1-8 
+0-4 


N52W 

N45E 
N15W 
N 8E 
N20E 
N 5W 
N28W 
N 7W 
N 6E 
N40E 
N60W 
8 71W 


22 
18 
19 
18 
16 
17 
18 
18 
18 
16 
17 
23 


104 
8 
4 

5 





5 

36 
92 


+50 

-14 

-13 

+ 3 

-13 







- 1 

- 4 

- 3 
+ 12 


Mean • . . . 


761-6 





NllW 


19 


254 


+27 



±Q03 



January . . 


766-6 


+2-9 


16-7 


9-8 


12-7 


78 


N 6E 


18 


90 


February .. 


767-0 


+4-0 


17-8 


10-3 


13-2 


72 


N52W 


18 


34 


March . . . 


7C>3-8 


+2-0 


19-5 


11-8 


14-8 


72 


N 4E 


21 


14 


April . . . . 
May .. .. 


760-5 


-1-0 


24-2 


13-7 


17-1 


72 


N30E 


21 


1 


762-2 


+ 1-7 


25-9 


16-8 


20-6 


70 


N25E 


18 





June .. .. 


759-8 


-0-7 


27-8 


18-5 


22-0 


74 


N 


22 





July .. .. 


758-5 


+0-5 


29-1 


20-1 


23-7 


74 


N22W 


26 





August 


757-7 


-0-9 


30-8 


20-6 


24-4 


78 


N17 W 


21 





September . 


761-4 


+0-5 


30-0 


18-9 


23-3 


68 


N 2W 


22 





October . . 


763-6 


+ 1-0 


27-2 


17-1 


21-0 


70 


N17E 


21 





November.. 


764-5 


+0-5 


23.6 


13-1 


17-1 


72 


N 2E 


25 


10 


December . . 


763-7 


-0-2 


21-3 
24-5 


11-4 
16-0 


15-2 
18-6 


76 
73 


N62 W 


18 


24 


Mean . . . . 


762-4 


+0-8 


N 5W 


21 


173 



±&04. 



+36 
+ 12 

- 3 

- 2 
-13 





- 1 

- 9 
-28 
-57 

-65 



January . . 


763-0 


+0-2 


18-5 


9-1 


12-4 


76 


N 3E 


23 


63 


+ 9 


February .. 


763-i> 


+0-9 


21-0 


10-2 


13-8 


79 


N 13 W 


21 


13 


-10 


March . 


760-8 


-1-0 


21-2 


11-4 


14-5 


77 


N 8E 


29 


1 


-16 


April . . . . 
May . . . . 


761-6 


-0-1 


23-1 


13-4 


16-2 


82 


N 12 W 


28 


2 





761-5 


+ 1-0 


26-2 


16-3 


18-8 


85 


N 3W 


24 


— 


-13 


June • • 


7(K)-4 


-0-1 


28-5 


19-2 


21-9 


83 


N12 W 


28 








July .. .. 


756-5 


+0-4 


;j()-2 


21-0 


25-6 


73 


N 40 W 


25 








August 


758-2 


+0-5 


.■50-7 


21-4 


26-0 


72 


N 12 W 


25 


1 


+ 1 


September . 


• . 


• • 


, , 


. • 


• • 


a a 


a a 




a a 


a a 


October . . 


. • 






• • 


• a 




a a 




a h 


a . 


November, * 


• . 


• • 






• . 




a a 




a a 


a a 


December . . 


. . 




• • 




• a 

a . 


a a 


aa 




a « 


aa 


Mean • • • . 


. a 


a a 




. a 


• • 



XXTIDSZC 



Abai river, 13 

Abu Zeid ford, 42 

Abydofl spring level, 67 

Abyssinia, IS, 19, 43 

Adamui, 45 

Addis Ababa, IH, 20, 44, 214 

Aird, Sir John, 75 

Akobo, 37 

Albert Lake, 11, 12, 14, 15, 18, 29, 30, 31 

reservoir, 81, 82, 87, 90 

tributaries, 31 

Albert Nile in 1841, 38 

catchment basin, 17, 119 

description, 31-36 

observed discharges, 129-134 

discharges, 22, 5«, 81, 82,93 

discharge table, 144, 145 

gauges, 168-174 

projects, 58, 81, 89-92 

slopes, 14, 120 

tributaries, 31, 32, 31 

velocities, 16, 121 

Alexandria, 20, 220 

Ambatch, 31, 92 

Amenemhat, 47, 66, 79 

Analysis of water and soil, 62, 100-101 

Anderson, Mr. Lang, 64 

Appendices, 117 

Arab, Bahr el, 36 

Assiout Weir, 49, 150 

Aftua River, 32 

Ansudn gauge compared to Bombay rainfall, 213 

— dam, 48, 61, 75, 76, 77, 87, 89 

— distances from and to, 124, 125 

— discharge^ 25. 58,-60, 139-142 

— discharge table, 150 

— gauges, 48, 52, 94, 97, 98, 15,% 158, 164-166, 

194-202, 209 

— meteorological data, 20, 218 
Atem river, 32, 33, 90 

Atbara river, catchment basin, 17, 19, 119 

— — description, 13, 45, 69 

discharges, 24, 47, 58, 60, 138-140 

discharge table, 149 

gauges at Kashm el Girba, 188, 189 

tributaries, 45 



B 



Bahabia Oasis, 109 

Baker, Sir Benjamin, 75 

Baker, Sir Samuel, 11, 34, 39, 40 

Barometric readings, 215-220 

Barois, M. J., 61, 62 

Barrages, The, 50, 53, 54, 74, 82, 99, 123, 124, 

151, 152, 207, 203 
Basalt, 22, 114 
Basin irrigation, 59, 65, 66, 67, 68, 79, 93, 94, 99, 

100, 159-166 

in the Sudan, 102 

Beadnell, Mr. H. G. F., 107 
Beresford, Mr. J. S., 89 
Berkeley, Fort, 31 
Berber, 46, 217 

— gauges, 190-193 

Blue Nile, catchment basin, 17, 119 

description, 12, 13, 18, 21, 41, 43, 61 

observed discharges, 129, 136, 137 

discharges, 24, 40, .57, 60, 139-141 

discharge table, 147, 148 

distances along, 128 

gauges, 179-182, 183-187 

projects, 43, 44. 103 

— — slope, 15 

tributaries, 44 

velocities, 44 

Bombay, 20, 213 
Bor, 32, 89, 99 

Brown, Sir Hanbury, 66, 77, 79, 89, 99 

C 

Caibo, 16, 20, 22, 24, 25, 60, 62, 68, 69, 94, 97, 98, 
142, 160, 168, 164-166, 219 

— gauges, 203-206, 210 
Gassel, Sir Ernest, 75 
CataraclH, 14, 46, 47, 48, 88, 102, 103 
Oatchmeat basins, 16, 18, 119 
Chapters, 11, 26, 56, 73, 107. 
Chavanne, Joseph, 12 

Ohelu Bey, 5 

Ghoga, Lake, 15, 28, 30, 121, 122 

Clifton, Mr. C, 77 

Climate of the Nile Valley, 18, 27, 102, 214-220 

Congo forest, 29 



— 222 



Oonyenion tablet for pics and metres, 211, 212 

CJorv6e, 70 

Cotton, 82, 88, 102, 103, 104 

Course of the Nile, 12 J 

Cretaceous, 111 

Cromer, Lord, 100 

Cultivatec^ area of Egypt, 73 

D 

Dakhla Oasts, 107 

Darner, El, 13, 46 

Damietta branch, 14, 15, 53, 64, 60, 61, 70, 85, 123, 

139, 140 

discharge table, 152 

gauges, 208 

Darfur, 17 

D*Arnaud, 38 

De Oottberg, 47 

De la Motte, 74 

Didessa, 44 

Binder river, 17, 21, 44, 101 

Diodorus Stculus, 78 

Discharges obsenred, 129-138 

Discharge table for Assuan, Assiout k Cairo, 150 

Damietta branch, 152 

Duem, 146 

Gondokoro, 144 

Kashm el Girba, 149 

Khartoum, 148 

Mongalla, 145 

Ripon Falls, 143 

Rosetta branch, 161 

Sobat river, 145 

Tewfikia, 146 

Wadelai, 144 

Wady Haifa, 161 

Distances of places along the Damietta and 

Rosetta branches, 123 
Distance Barrage to Assuan, 124 

— Assu&n to Khartoum, 125 

— Khartoum to Gondokoro, 126 

— Gondokoro to the Ripon Falls, 127 

— Khartoum to Rosaires, 128 

Discharges, 18, 22, 56-CO, 81-84, 90, 95, 139,-142, 
159-163 

— Victoria Nile, 27 

— Seraliki river, 29 

— Lake Albert, 29 

— Albert Nile, 32-34 

— Gazelle riverj 35 
«— Zeraf river, 36 

— Sobat river, 37 

— White Nile, 41 

— Blue Nile, 43-44 

— Atbara, 45 



Discharges Nile at Khartoum, 46 

— AssuAn, 49 

Cairo, 62 

Rosetta and Damietta branches, 65 

Dongola, 47 

Drainage, 69 

Drury, Lt, B.N., 41 

Duem, 42, 43, 46, 67, 135, 141, 146, 178 

Dueru, Lake, 29 

Dufile, 13, 31, 90 

Duhub Hilla, 37, 134, 145, 176 

Dupuis, Mr. C, 5, 43, 44, 101, 103 

E 

Eads, Mr., 86 

Edku, Lake, 64 

Edward, Lake Albert, 12, 29 

tributaries, 29 

Egypt, 25, 73, 85, 87, 88, 93, 99, 100 

Emim Pasha, 40 

Electrical development possible, 28, 29, 31, 103 

Elephantine Island, 48 

Eocene, 112 

Esna shales, 112, 

Evaporation, 27, 30, 41, 43, 44, 96 



Fabafra, no 
Fayoum, The, 66, 79, 81 
Fitzmaurice, Mr. Maurice, 76 
Floods, 70, 71, 72, 86, 87, 88, 98 
Foaden, Mr. G. P., 61, 63, 103 
Fola Rapids, 14, 31 
Fowera, 14, 28 
Fuller, Mr. J. B., 69 

G 

Gaash river, 21, 45, 46, 101, 103 

Gage's channel, 34 

Garak depression, 81 

Garstin, Sir W. E., 5, 11, 12, 26, 29, 32^ 41,75. 

82, 83, 86, 88, 89, 91, 92, 99, 101 
Gauges, 48, 60, 61, 52, 53, 117, 153 

— Assuan, 194-201, 209 

— Assuan Reservoir, 202 

— Berber, 190-193 

— Cairo, 203-206 

— Damietta branch, 208 

— Duem, 178 

— Dulaib Hilla, 176 

— Gondokoro, 169-172 

— Jinja, 166 

— Khartoum, 183-187 



— 223 — 



Gftuges Kashm el Girba, 188-189 

— MoDgalla 173-174 

— Kaaser, 176 

— Rosetta branch, 207 

— Tewfikia, 177 

— Wad Medani, 179-182 

— Wadelai, 168 

GasBclle river, 15, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 23, 36, 40, 

66, 83, 129, 133 

discharges, 139, 140 

tributaries, 36 

Gebel, Bahr-el-, 12 

Gebelain, 42 

Geology, 21, 110 

Gessi Pasha, 40 

Gezireh, 100, 102, 103 

Ghaba Shambe, 32, 37, 41 

Gold, 114 

Gondokoro, 23, 32, 66, 90, 91, 119, 122, 126, 127, 

199, 140, 141 

— gauges, 169-172 

— discharge table, 144 
Gordon, 40 
Gosrejeb, 46 

Green water, 61 
Granites, 21, 111 



Hahbabd, If r^ 6 
Herodotus, 78, 80 
Hewat, lAr. Marshal, 77 
HUlet Nuer, 38, 34, 40, 83, 84 
Hughes, Mr. Frank, 64, 100 



IBBA.HIM Effendi Fehmy, 105 

Igneous rocks. 111 

Infiltration, 53, 59, 60, 81, 84, 90 

Introduction, 11 

Irrigation, 66, 66, 68, 69, 93, 96, 97, 99, 102, 105, 

106, 108, 109, 110, 159-163. 
Ismail Pasha Ayub, 40 



Jinja gauge, 167 



K 



Kafb Zatat, 54 
Kagera river, 12, 26, 
Kalabsha, 74 
Kamlin, 21, 24, 46 
Kankar, 21 
Karanain, 54 



Kas8ah^ 46 
Kharga oasis, 109 

Khartoum 13, 14, 15, 20, 21, 24, 43, 44, 46, 57, 
60, 100, 136-142, 216 

— distances to and from, 125, 126, 128 

— discharge table, 148 
—gauges, 183-187 
Kashm el Glrba, 45, 138 

— discharge table, 149 

— gauges 188, 189 
Kit river, 32 

Kom Ombos, 22. 113 
Kordofon, 17 
Kushesha, 78 



Lado, 40 
Lepeius, 47 
Letheby, 61, 62 
Ltnant Pasha, 42, 55 
Limestone, 22, 114 

— Nodular, 21 
Lolle, 35, 84 

Lombardini, Elia, 5, 11, 12, 88, GO 

Lvxor, 22 

Lyons, Gapt. H.G., 5, 11, 18, 21, 26, 27, 33, 44, 84 

M 

Mackenzie, Dr., 62 

Manures, 63, 69 

Manio, Signer, 40, 84 

Martyr, Col., 41 

Mean low water levels, 94, 158 

Megahid channel, 35 

Mehemet Ali, Viceroy^ 38, 54, 68, 73, 74 

Menes, 79 

Meteorological data, 214-220 

Miocene, 113 

Mississippi river, 33 

Mceris Lake, 66, 74, 76, 78, 81 

Mongalla, 132 

— discharge table, 145 

— gauges, 173, 174 

N 
Napoleon, 48 
Nasser, 37 

— gauge, 175 
Navigation, 14, 28, 32, 44 
Nero, 38 

Nile, The, 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 21, 46, 47, 49, 56, 58-61, 
67, 93, 99, 164-166 

— discharge tables, 150, 158 

— distances along, 124, 186 



— 224 



Nile, The, gauges, 190-206 

— Blopeas, 120 

— velocities, 1 21-122 
Nitrates, 22, 69, 115 

No, Lake, 14, 34, 36, 82, 83, 84 
Nomenclature, 12 







Oases, 107 
Omdurman, 43 



Faptbus, 31, 32, 42 

Payen, Champion and Gastinel, 63 

Peake, Major, B. A., 41 

Feat, 21 

Percolation, see Infiltration. 

Perennial irrigation, 59, 68, 69, 8a 93 

Phosphates, 22, 115 

Pibor river, 37 

Pics converted to metres, 98, 209, 210 

Plates, List of, 9 

Pliocene, 113 

Porphyry, 114 

Projects, 44, 58, 73, 84 

— Raising Assuftn dam, 75 

— Wady Rayan Reservoir, 76 

^ Lake Albert Reservoir and river training, 81 

— Flood protection for Egypt, 85 

— Complete for the Nile, 87 

— Sir William Oarstin's projects, 89 

— Conversion of basin to perennial irrigation, 98 

— Development of the Sudan, 100 
Prompt, M., 74 

R 

Rahad river, 17, 21, 44, 101 
Rainfall, 17-21, 27, 30, 41, 43, 45, 56. 59, 103, 213. 
-. tables, 214-220 
Rameses, 48, 86 
Red water, 61, 75 
Reservoirs, 30, 73, 75, 76, 77 
Ripon Falls, 12, 27, 28, 127, 139-141, 143, 166 
Roda gauge, 50 
^gauges, 203-206 
Rohl river, 36 
Rosaires, 13, 14, 44, 128 

Rosetta branch, 14, 15, 33, 53, 60, 61, 85, 86, 87, 
89, 139, 140 

— — discharge table, 151 
distances, 123 

— — gauges, 207 

velocitieii, 121 

Ross, Col. Justin, 77 
Rudolf, Lake, 16 

Ruensori, Mountain, 10, 21, 29 



S 



Salaam A river, 13, 45 

Sandstone, Nubian, 24, 112, 114 

Sayce, Rev,, Professor, 79 

Schweinfurth, Dr., 36, 39, 85 

Scott-Moncrieff, Sir Colin, 3, 74 

Scour and deposit of silt, 44, 92, 95, 99 

Semliki river, 12, 29 

Sennaar, 14, 44 

Semna Cataract, 47 

Sesostris, 66 

Settit river, 13, 45 

SHsila, 21, 74, 112 

Slopes, 14, 47, 48, 49, 63, 120, 167 

Sobat River, 12, 13, 16, 23, 35, 36, 37, 56, 61, 82, 

84, 119, 129, 134, 139-141 

discharge table, 145 

gauges, 175, 176 

slopes, 120 

— — velocities, 121 

tributaries, 37 

Soil analysis, 45, 61, 63, 64, 100, 101 

Bparkes, Col., 40 

Speke and Grant, 11 

Strabo, 78 

Storage, see Projects 

Suakin-Khartoum railway, 100 

Subject matter, 7, 8 

Subsoil water, 63, 67 

Sudan, 88, 100, 102, 103, 105, 106 

Sudd region, 13, 16, 33, 34, 35, 37, 88, 39, 41, 

56, 57, 58, 82, 83 



TemperATUBBS, 19, 20, 21, 214-220 
Tewfikieh, 41, 134, 139, 140, 141 

— discharge table, 146 

— gauge, 177 
Thebes, 67 

Tributaries of Lake Albert, 31 
the Albert Nile, 31, 32, 34 

— — — Atbara, 45 

Blue Nile, 44 

Lake Edward, 29 

— Gaselle river, 86 

. -. Bobat river, 36 

— Lake Victoria, 28 

Victoria Nile, 29 

Trough of the Nile, cubic contents, 166 
Tsana I^ke, 13, 15, 43, 45, 88, 103, 129 
Tumat river, 44 



225 — 



U 



Uganda, 29, 130 



Vblooities, 14, 33, 46, 49, 121 
Victoria, Lake, 11, 12, 14, 17, 18, 26 

discharge table, 143 

gauges, 167 

— ^tributams, 28 

Victoria Nile, 12, 14, 15, 22, 28, 130, 139, 140, 141 

discharge table, 143 

gauges, 167 

distances, 127 

slopes, 120 

tributaries, 29 

velocities, 121 

Voelcker, Dr., 64 

w 

Wadelai, 16, 31, 90, 139-141 

— discharge table, 144 

— gauges, 168 

Wad Medani, 20, 44, 136, 137, 216 

discharge table, 147 

gauges, 179-182 

Wady Haifa, 14, 15, 48, 139-141 



Wadi Haifa discharge table, 161 
Wady Na*ran, 116 
• Wady Rayan, 74, 76, 77, 80, 81, 86, 87, 88 
Water, Analysis of, 62, 63, 67 
Watersheds, 16 
Webb, Mr. A., 89 
Weeds, 29 
Wells, 108 
Weme, M., 38 

Western, Lt.-Col. J. H., 74, 77 
White Nile, 12, 13, 16, 16, 18, 19, 23, 32, 36, 38, 41, 
43, 46, 56,60, 61, 84, 119, 129, 134, 135, 139-141 

distances on 126 

^ — discharge tables, 146 

gauges, 177, 178 

slope, 120 

velocities, 121 

Whitehouse, Commander, 26 
Whitehouse, Mr. Cope, 74 
Winds, 19, 20, 27, 214-220 



Yei river, ^ 



Zeraf river, 13, 33, 34, 36-40, 84, 92, 94, 129, 133 
— discharges, 36, 133